Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Magnaporthe salvinii
(stem rot)

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Datasheet

Magnaporthe salvinii (stem rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Magnaporthe salvinii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • stem rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Stem rot caused by M. salvinii.
TitleLesion on rice stem
CaptionStem rot caused by M. salvinii.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Stem rot caused by M. salvinii.
Lesion on rice stemStem rot caused by M. salvinii.Chin Khoon Min
Stem rot of rice caused by M. salvinii. Sclerotia of H. sigmoideum var. irregulare. Sclerotia spherical or nearly so, black at maturity, surface nearly smooth, at times covered with cottony weft of white mycelium; 180-280 µm, mostly 230-270 µm. Sclerotia found in the infected tissues are diagnostic.
TitleSclerotia
CaptionStem rot of rice caused by M. salvinii. Sclerotia of H. sigmoideum var. irregulare. Sclerotia spherical or nearly so, black at maturity, surface nearly smooth, at times covered with cottony weft of white mycelium; 180-280 µm, mostly 230-270 µm. Sclerotia found in the infected tissues are diagnostic.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Stem rot of rice caused by M. salvinii. Sclerotia of H. sigmoideum var. irregulare. Sclerotia spherical or nearly so, black at maturity, surface nearly smooth, at times covered with cottony weft of white mycelium; 180-280 µm, mostly 230-270 µm. Sclerotia found in the infected tissues are diagnostic.
SclerotiaStem rot of rice caused by M. salvinii. Sclerotia of H. sigmoideum var. irregulare. Sclerotia spherical or nearly so, black at maturity, surface nearly smooth, at times covered with cottony weft of white mycelium; 180-280 µm, mostly 230-270 µm. Sclerotia found in the infected tissues are diagnostic. Chin Khoon Min

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Magnaporthe salvinii (Catt.) R.A. Krause & R.K.Webster (1972)

Preferred Common Name

  • stem rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Curvularia sigmoidea (Cav.) Hara 1959
  • Helminthosporium sigmoideum Cavara 1889
  • Leptosphaeria salvinii Catt. 1879
  • Nakataea sigmoidea Hara (1939)
  • Sclerotium oryzae Catt. (1876)
  • Vakrabeeja sigmoidea (Cav.) Subram. 1956

International Common Names

  • Spanish: pudrición irregular del tallo

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Sklerotienkrankheit: Reis; Stengelfäule: Reis

EPPO code

  • MAGNSA (Magnaporthe salvinii)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Family: Magnaporthaceae
  •                             Genus: Magnaporthe
  •                                 Species: Magnaporthe salvinii

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Côte d'IvoirePresentUK, CAB International (1996)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
EswatiniPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1996)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
SomaliaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)

Asia

BangladeshPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1996)
BhutanPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
ChinaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1996)
-AnhuiPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-FujianPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-GuangdongPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-GuangxiPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-HunanPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-JiangsuPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-JiangxiPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-JilinPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-SichuanPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-YunnanPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-ZhejiangPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AssamPresentAhuja and Srivastava (1990)
-BiharPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-DelhiPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-HaryanaPresentAhuja et al. (1986); UK, CAB International (1996)
-Himachal PradeshPresentAhuja and Srivastava (1990)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-LakshadweepPresentAhuja and Srivastava (1990)
-OdishaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-PunjabPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-RajasthanPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-Tamil NaduPresentAhuja and Srivastava (1990)
-Uttar PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
IndonesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-Irian JayaPresentSutarjo and Suprihatno (1993)
IranPresentJavan-Nikkhah et al. (1998)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1996); CABI (Undated)
KazakhstanPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
LaosPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1996)
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1996)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-SabahPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-SarawakPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
MyanmarPresentOu (1985); UK, CAB International (1996)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
PhilippinesPresentMisra et al. (1994); UK, CAB International (1996); CABI (Undated)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); CABI (Undated)
TaiwanPresentLo and Hsieh (1964); UK, CAB International (1996)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
VietnamPresentUK, CAB International (1996); CABI (Undated)

Europe

BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1996)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)PresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-Russian Far EastPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1996)

North America

BelizePresentUK, CAB International (1996)
CanadaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1996)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); CABI (Undated)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedUSA, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station (1930); UK, CAB International (1996)
-ArkansasPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-IdahoPresentBowden and Eschen (1986)
-LouisianaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-MinnesotaPresentKernkamp et al. (1976); UK, CAB International (1996)
-North CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1996)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedPhillips et al. (1992)
-QueenslandPresentPhillips et al. (1992)
-Western AustraliaPresentShivas (1989)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1996)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
GuyanaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1996)
VenezuelaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Rodriguez & Nass, 1990

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / lesions on glumes
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / rot
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Seeds / rot
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / mycelium present

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus awamori Antagonist
Aspergillus fumigatus Antagonist
Aspergillus niger Antagonist
Gliocladium virens Antagonist
Paecilomyces lilacinus Mycoparasite Pakistan
Penicillium oxalicum Pathogen
Penicillium piceum Pathogen
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist Pakistan

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; sclerotia; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; sclerotia; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; sclerotia; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Ahuja SC, Srivastava MP, 1990. Stem rot of paddy, a review. Agric. Rev. 11(2):61-78.

Ahuja SC, Sunder S, Singh D, 1986. Association of Homicola sp. with stem rot (SR) complex in Haryana. International Rice Research Newsletter, 11:(6)15-16.

Anju Puri, Aggarwal A, Mehrotra RS, 1998. Biocontrol of stem rot of paddy (Oryza sativa) using Trichoderma and Gliocladium species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India. Section B, Biological Sciences, 68(1):57-60; 11 ref.

Anon, 1930. Plant Pathology Bulletin, Arkansas Agricultural Expt. Station No. 257 Annual Report No. 42:72-85.

Bowden RL, Eschen DJ, 1986. First report of wild rice diseases in Idaho. Plant Disease, 70(8):800

Butler EJ, 1918. Fungi and diseases in plant. Calcutta and Simla: Thacker Spink & Co, 230-232.

Cartwright RD, Parsons CE, Ross WJ, Lee FN, Templeton GE, 1998. Rice disease monitoring and on-farm rice cultivar evaluation in Arkansas. Research Series - Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 460:117-127; 5 ref.

Cartwright RD, Webster RK, Wick CM, 1997. Ascochyta mycoparasitica sp. nov., a novel mycoparasite of Sclerotium oryzae in California rice fields. Mycologia, 89(1):163-172; 15 ref.

Chand H, Ram Singh, Panwar DVS, 1985. Search for multiple disease resistance in rice. Indian Phytopathology, 38(3):452-455

Chauhan AS, Verma SC, Bajpai GK, 1968. Assessment of losses due to stem rot of rice caused by Sclerotium oryzae. Plant Disease Reporter, 52:963-965.

Cother E, 1998. Stem rot - a threat to Australian rice. Rice Special Farmers' Newsletter Large Area, No.152:48-49.

Elangovan C, Gnanamanickam SS, 1992. Incidence of Pseudomonas fluorescens in rhizosphere of rice and their antagonism toward Sclerotium oryzae. Indian Phytopathology, 45(3):358-361

Ellis MB, Holliday P, 1972. Leptospaeria salvinii. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 344. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Figoni RA, Rutger JN, Webster RK, 1983. Evaluation of wild Oryza species for stem rot (Sclerotium oryzae) resistance. Plant Disease, 67(9):998-1000

Gangopadhyay S, Das KM, 1983. Reaction of rice to eight isolates of Sclerotium oryzae in India. Indian Phytopathology, 36(2):219-222

Gnanamanickam SS, Mew TW, 1991. Interactions between Sarocladium oryzae and stem attacking fungal pathogens of rice. Plant and Soil, 138(2):213-219

Goto K, Fukatsu R, 1954. Studies on stem rot of rice plant. I Varietal resistance and seasonal development. Bull. Div. Plant Breeding Cult. Tokai Kinki Nat. Agric. Expt. Sta., 1:27-39.

Haroon-Usmani SM, Ghaffar A, Hussain S, 1985. Polyethylene mulching to control sheath rot (SR). International Rice Research Newsletter, 10(1):10.

Hsieh SPY, 1966. Stem rot of rice in the Philippines, MSc Thesis. Los Banos, Philippines: University of the Philippines College of Agriculture.

Hsieh S-P-Y, Liang W-J, 1975. Dissimilarity of Zizania latifolia stem rot fungus and rice stem rot fungi. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 17(4):372-383

Hussain C, Haroon SM, Ghaffar A, 1987. Effect of Azolla bipinnata soil amendment on reduction in viability of sclerotia of rice stem rot (SR) fungi. International Rice Research Newsletter, 12(4):32.

Hussain S, Ghaffar A, 1991. Effect of some leguminous crops on number and viability of Sclerotium oryzae sclerotia. International Rice Research Newsletter, 16(1):21

IMI, 1996. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. No. 448. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

International Seed Testing Association, 1985. .

Jackson LF, Webster RK, Wick CM, Bolstad J, Wilkerson JA, 1977. Chemical control of stem rot of rice in California. Phytopathology, 67(9):1155-1158

Javan-Nikkhah M, Hedjaroude GA, Sharifi-Tehrani A, Elahinia SA, 1998. Rice stem rot in Gilan, Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 34(1/2):76-83 (Pe), 19-21 (En); 11 ref.

Kernkamp MF, Kroll R, Woodruff WC, 1976. Diseases of cultivated wild rice in Minnesota. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(9):771-775

Konishi K, Kuragano T, 1989. Fungicidal activity of aromatic ketone pyrimidinylhydrazones. Journal of Pesticide Science, 14(2):211-221

Krause RA, Webster RK, 1973. Stem rot of rice in California. Phytopathology, 63(4):518-523

Lo TC, Hsieh SPY, 1964. Studies on the stem rot of rice plant. I. Distribution and economic significance of the disease. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 6:121-135.

Martínez de la Parte, E., Abreu Fundora, J., García, D., 2014. Presence of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis and Magnaporthe salvinii in rice varieties grown in Cuba., 18(3), 163-168. http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=209143451004

McGawley EC, Rush MC, Hollis JP, 1984. Occurrence of Aphelenchoides besseyi in Louisiana rice seed and its interaction with Sclerotium oryzae in selected cultivars. Journal of Nematology, 16(1):65-68

Misra AK, Dharam Vir, 1990. Efficacy of fungicides-XLVI: effect of fungicidal seed treatment against heavy inoculum pressure of certain fungi causing discolouration of paddy seeds. Indian Phytopathology, 43(2):175-178; 6 ref.

Misra JK, Gergon E, Mew TW, 1994. Occurrence, distribution and phenology of seedborne fungi of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in certain provinces of the Philippines. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 3(4):224-229

Oster JJ, 1992. Reaction of a resistant breeding line and susceptible California rice cultivars to Sclerotium oryzae. Plant Disease, 76(7):740-744

Ou SH, 1985. Rice diseases. Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 380 pp.

Phillips D, Chandrashekar M, McLean G, 1992. Evaluation of potential disease and pest risks associated with paddy as a contaminant of milled rice imported into Australia. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 40(1-2):4-20.

Punter D, Reid J, Hopkin AA, 1984. Notes on sclerotium-forming fungi from Zizania aquatica (wildrice) and other hosts. Mycologia, 76(4):722-732

Ram Singh, Hari Chand, Dodan DS, Sunder S, 1988. Chemical control of stem rot of paddy. Oryza, 25(4):392-395

Reyes G, 1956. Control of the rice stem rot in the Philippines. In: Two and half decades of public service to Philippine Agriculture. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Plant Industry, 279-288.

Sakthivel N, Gnanamanickam SS, 1987. Evaluation of Pseudomonas fluorescens for suppression of sheath rot disease and for enhancement of grain yields in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 53(9):2056-2059

Shahjahan AKM, 1987. Epidemiology and control of stem rot of rice. In: Kannaiyan S, ed. Advances in Rice Pathology. India: Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, 149-184.

Shahjahan AKM, Hossain MA, Akanda SI, Miah SA, 1986. Sources of resistance to stem rot of rice in Bangladesh. SABRAO Journal, 18(1):9-17

Shahjahan AKM, Rush MC, Lindberg GD, 1976. Evaluation of fungicide for stem rot control. In: Proceeding Sixteenth Rice Technical Working Group.

Sharma SK, Mehrotra RS, 1985. Analysis of yield losses due to stem rot disease of rice. Indian Phytopathology, 38(4):767-769

Shigemoto R, Okuno T, Matsuura K, 1989. Effect of validamycin A on the activity of trehalase of Rhizoctonia solani and several sclerotial fungi. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 55(2):238-241

Shivas RG, 1989. Fungal and bacterial disease of plants in Western Australia, J.R. Soc. Western Australia, 72:1-62.

Singh R, Chand H, 1986. Reaction of rice genotypes to stem rot (SR) fungi and bacterial blight (BB) pathogen. International Rice Research Newsletter, 11(4):15

Singh R, Chand H, Singh D, 1985. Scented rices with stem rot (SR) and bacterial blight (BB) resistance. International Rice Research Newsletter, 10(5):8

Sunder S, Battan KR, Singh R, Gupta KR, 1991. Disease resistance of some promising rice cultivars. International Rice Research Newsletter, 16(3):14

Sunder S, Dodan DS, Singh R, 1988. Survival of stem rot (SR) fungi. International Rice Research Newsletter, 13(4):35-36

Suparyono, 1991. The potentials of biological control of fungal diseases of rice in Indonesia. IARD Journal, 12(1):1-5.

Sutarjo, Suprihatno, 1993. Ratoon crop performance in some rice hybrids. International Rice Research Newsletter, 18(1):18-29.

Suzuki H, Yamaguchi T, 1971. Infection of rice stem rot fungi Helminthosporium sigmoideum var irregulare to rice panicles. Proceedings of the Association of Plant Protection, Hokuriku 19:1-5, From Review of Plant Protection Research, 5:116.

Tseng ST, Oster JJ, 1994. Registration of 87-Y-550, a rice germplasm line resistant to stem rot disease. Crop Science, 34(1):314; 6 ref.

Watson A, Priest MJ, 1998. Stem rot of rice in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area of New South Wales. Australasian Plant Pathology, 27(2):80-83; 11 ref.

Webster RK, Wick CM, Jackson LF, Bolstad J, 1976. Effect of tillage methods on functional inoculum levels and survival of Sclerotium oryzae p. 61. In Proceedings Sixteenth Rice Technical Working group.

Distribution References

Ahuja S C, Srivastava M P, 1990. Stem rot of paddy: a review. Agricultural Reviews (India). 11 (2), 61-78.

Ahuja SC, Sunder S, Singh D, 1986. Association of Homicola sp. with stem rot (SR) complex in Haryana. In: International Rice Research Newsletter, 11 (6) 15-16.

Bowden R L, Eschen D J, 1986. First report of wild rice diseases in Idaho. Plant Disease. 70 (8), 800. DOI:10.1094/PD-70-800b

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Javan-Nikkhah M, Hedjaroude G A, Sharifi-Tehrani A, Elahinia S A, 1998. Rice stem rot in Gilan, Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 34 (1/2), 76-83 (Pe), 19-21 (E.

Kernkamp M F, Kroll R, Woodruff W C, 1976. Diseases of cultivated wild rice in Minnesota. Plant Disease Reporter. 60 (9), 771-775.

Lo TC, Hsieh SPY, 1964. Studies on the stem rot of rice plant. I. Distribution and economic significance of the disease. In: Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 6 121-135.

Misra J K, Gergon E, Mew T W, 1994. Occurrence, distribution and phenology of seedborne fungi of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in certain provinces of the Philippines. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 3 (4), 224-229.

Ou S H, 1985. Rice diseases. Slough, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux. xi + 380 pp.

Phillips D, Chandrashekar M, McLean G, 1992. Evaluation of potential disease and pest risks associated with paddy as a contaminant of milled rice imported into Australia. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 40 (1-2), 4-20.

Shivas R G, 1989. Fungal and bacterial diseases of plants in Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. 1-62.

Sutarjo, Suprihatno, 1993. Ratoon crop performance in some rice hybrids. In: International Rice Research Newsletter, 18 (1) 18-29.

UK, CAB International, 1996. Magnaporthe salvinii. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Map 448.

USA, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 1930. Annual Report No. 42. In: Plant Pathology Bulletin, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. 72-85.

Distribution Maps

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