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Datasheet

Macrophomina phaseolina
(charcoal rot of bean/tobacco)

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Datasheet

Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot of bean/tobacco)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Macrophomina phaseolina
  • Preferred Common Name
  • charcoal rot of bean/tobacco
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Root (top): a reddish-brown discoloration occurs in the vascular tissues of the taproot. Black streaks are found in the woody portion of the crown.
Stem (bottom): microsclerotia form in vascular elements and in the pith, giving a greyish-black colour to subepidermal tissues. They are first visible as profuse small, black, randomly distributed specks at the nodes.
TitleStem and root rot on soyabean
CaptionRoot (top): a reddish-brown discoloration occurs in the vascular tissues of the taproot. Black streaks are found in the woody portion of the crown. Stem (bottom): microsclerotia form in vascular elements and in the pith, giving a greyish-black colour to subepidermal tissues. They are first visible as profuse small, black, randomly distributed specks at the nodes.
CopyrightDenis C. McGee/Iowa State University
Root (top): a reddish-brown discoloration occurs in the vascular tissues of the taproot. Black streaks are found in the woody portion of the crown.
Stem (bottom): microsclerotia form in vascular elements and in the pith, giving a greyish-black colour to subepidermal tissues. They are first visible as profuse small, black, randomly distributed specks at the nodes.
Stem and root rot on soyabeanRoot (top): a reddish-brown discoloration occurs in the vascular tissues of the taproot. Black streaks are found in the woody portion of the crown. Stem (bottom): microsclerotia form in vascular elements and in the pith, giving a greyish-black colour to subepidermal tissues. They are first visible as profuse small, black, randomly distributed specks at the nodes. Denis C. McGee/Iowa State University
Kernels blacken following infection by M. phaseolina.
TitleEar rot of maize
CaptionKernels blacken following infection by M. phaseolina.
CopyrightDenis C. McGee/Iowa State University
Kernels blacken following infection by M. phaseolina.
Ear rot of maizeKernels blacken following infection by M. phaseolina.Denis C. McGee/Iowa State University
M. phaseolina causes kernel rot of maize.
TitleDiseased maize kernels
CaptionM. phaseolina causes kernel rot of maize.
CopyrightDenis C. McGee/Iowa State University
M. phaseolina causes kernel rot of maize.
Diseased maize kernelsM. phaseolina causes kernel rot of maize.Denis C. McGee/Iowa State University
M. phaseolina concealed damage on nut.
TitleSymptoms on nut
CaptionM. phaseolina concealed damage on nut.
CopyrightICRISAT
M. phaseolina concealed damage on nut.
Symptoms on nutM. phaseolina concealed damage on nut.ICRISAT
A, Vertical section of pycnidium; B, part of pycnidial wall and conidiophores; C, conidiophores and young conidia; D, conidia; E, sclerotium; F, section of sclerotium. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 275. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleM. phaseolina - line drawing
CaptionA, Vertical section of pycnidium; B, part of pycnidial wall and conidiophores; C, conidiophores and young conidia; D, conidia; E, sclerotium; F, section of sclerotium. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 275. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
A, Vertical section of pycnidium; B, part of pycnidial wall and conidiophores; C, conidiophores and young conidia; D, conidia; E, sclerotium; F, section of sclerotium. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 275. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
M. phaseolina - line drawingA, Vertical section of pycnidium; B, part of pycnidial wall and conidiophores; C, conidiophores and young conidia; D, conidia; E, sclerotium; F, section of sclerotium. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 275. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.©CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid

Preferred Common Name

  • charcoal rot of bean/tobacco

Other Scientific Names

  • Botryodiplodia phaseoli (Maubl.) Thirum.
  • Dothiorella cajani Syd., P. Syd. & E. J. Butl.
  • Macrophoma cajani Syd., P. Syd. & E. J. Butl.
  • Macrophoma corchori Sawada
  • Macrophoma phaseoli Maubl.
  • Macrophoma phaseolina Tassi
  • Macrophoma sesami Sawada
  • Macrophomina phaseoli (Maubl.) S. F. Ashby
  • Macrophomina philippines Petr.
  • Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taubenh.) E. J. Butler
  • Rhizoctonia lamellifera Small
  • Sclerotium bataticola Taubenh.

International Common Names

  • English: ashy stem blight; ashy stem decay of bean/tobacco; blight of bean/tobacco; root rot of bean/tobacco
  • Spanish: podredumbre café del tallo; podredumbre carbonosa; pudrición de raíz; tizón ceniciento del tallo (del frijol/tabaco)
  • French: nécrose des tiges (de l'haricot/du tabac); pourriture de la racine

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schwarzfäule: Sojabohne; Stengelfäule: Bohne; Stengelfäule: Erdnuss; Stengelfäule: Mais; Stengelfäule: Sorghumhirse
  • USA: Dry weather wilt; Summer wilt

EPPO code

  • MCPHPH (Macrophomina phaseolina)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Order: Botryosphaeriales
  •                         Family: Botryosphaeriaceae
  •                             Genus: Macrophomina
  •                                 Species: Macrophomina phaseolina

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Bakr and Ahmed, 1991
Brunei DarussalamPresentUK CAB International, 1985
ChinaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Chen et al., 1994
-HenanPresentLi et al., 1991
-Hong KongPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-HubeiPresentXiao et al., 1992
-HunanPresentIBPGR, 1993
-ShaanxiPresentZhang et al., 2011
-ShanxiPresentZhang et al., 2011
IndiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Mahadevakumar and Janardhana, 2016South
-Andhra PradeshPresentReddy et al., 1993a; Prasad and Rangappa, 1994
-AssamPresentRoy, 1989; Akhil Borborua, 1990
-BiharPresentSinha and Singh, 1994
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresentPatel et al., 1992
-HaryanaPresentSingh and Srivastava, 1988
-Indian PunjabPresentDey et al., 1986
-Jammu and KashmirPresentThakur et al., 1992
-KarnatakaPresentPanchabhavi et al., 1991; Gopal et al., 1994
-KeralaPresentPrakash et al., 2007
-Madhya PradeshPresentVyas, 1994; Dadwal and Savitri, 2012
-MaharashtraPresentLukade and Rane, 1994; Peshney et al., 1994
-OdishaPresentMishra et al., 1989
-RajasthanPresent
-SikkimPresentSrivastava and Verma, 1990
-Tamil NaduPresentRamadoss and Sivaprakasam, 1993
-Uttar PradeshPresentSiddiqui and Mahmood, 1993; Dwivedi et al., 1994
-West BengalPresentSingh and Kaiser, 1992; Singh and Kaiser, 1993
IndonesiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
IranPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Zad, 1987; Sharifi and Mahdavi, 2012
IraqPresentKhalisy et al., 1981; UK CAB International, 1985
IsraelPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Lisker et al., 1994
JapanPresentWatanabe, 1972; UK CAB International, 1985
Korea, Republic ofPresentYum and Park, 1989
KuwaitPresentUK CAB International, 1985
LebanonPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MalaysiaPresentKanapathipillai and Hashim, 1981
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-SabahPresentLiu, 1979; UK CAB International, 1985
-SarawakPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MyanmarPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Than et al., 1991
NepalPresentICRISAT, 1982; UK CAB International, 1985
OmanPresentUK CAB International, 1985
PakistanPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Sri LankaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Jeyanandarajah, 1991
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresentCheng and Tu, 1972; UK CAB International, 1985; Wu, 1985
TurkeyPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Onan et al., 1992; Mahmoud and Budak, 2011
YemenPresentSattar and Haithami, 1986

Africa

BeninPresent
BotswanaPresent
Burkina FasoPresentUK CAB International, 1985
CameroonPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Central African RepublicPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Côte d'IvoirePresentUK CAB International, 1985; Renard et al., 1989
EgyptPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Abada, 1994
EthiopiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Tadesse, 1995
GabonPresent
GambiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; IBPGR, 1993; Songa et al., 1995
LibyaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MadagascarPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MalawiPresentReddy et al., 1993b; UK CAB International, 1985
MauritiusPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MoroccoPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Achbani and Tourvieille, 1993
MozambiquePresentTarp et al., 1987
NigerPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Subrahmanyam, 1991; Ndiaye, 2007
NigerPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Subrahmanyam, 1991; Ndiaye, 2007
NigeriaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Anaso, 1995
SenegalPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Sierra LeonePresentUK CAB International, 1985
SomaliaPresentGray et al., 1991; Mihail and Taylor, 1995
South AfricaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
SudanPresentKhamees and Schlosser, 1990
SwazilandPresentUK CAB International, 1985
TanzaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; IBPGR, 1993
TogoPresentUK CAB International, 1985
TunisiaPresentBoulila and Mahjoub, 1994; Hajlaoui et al., 2015
UgandaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
ZambiaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
ZimbabwePresentUK CAB International, 1985; Mangombe et al., 1995

North America

Canada
-OntarioPresentUK CAB International, 1985
MexicoPresentLeyva-Mir et al., 2015
USAPresent
-ArizonaPresentMihail and Taylor, 1995
-ArkansasPresentCloud and Rupe, 1994
-CaliforniaPresentGulya et al., 1991
-ColoradoPresentGilbertson et al., 1985
-FloridaPresentCook, 1955; Barnard et al., 1995
-GeorgiaPresentRothrock and Hargrove, 1988
-IdahoPresentKaiser, 1992
-IllinoisPresentJordan et al., 1992; Weems et al., 2011
-IndianaPresentBaird et al., 1994
-IowaPresentYang and Navi, 2005
-KansasPresentTodd, 1994; Winkler et al., 1994
-KentuckyPresentBaird et al., 1994
-LouisianaPresentMilam et al., 1988-1990
-MarylandPresentCook, 1955
-MinnesotaPresentEl-Araby et al., 2003
-MississippiPresentKillebrew et al., 1993
-MissouriPresentMihail and Champaco, 1993
-MontanaPresentKaiser, 1992
-New YorkPresentCummings and Bergstrom, 2013
-North CarolinaPresentCampbell et al., 1993
-North DakotaPresentKaiser, 1992
-South CarolinaPresentCook, 1955; Blake et al., 1994
-South DakotaPresentGulya et al., 2002
-TexasPresentCook, 1955; Gouvela et al., 1993
-VirginiaPresentCook, 1955
-WashingtonPresentKaiser, 1992

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresent
CubaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Garcia et al., 1988
DominicaPresentBeaver et al., 1990
El SalvadorPresentUK CAB International, 1985
GuadeloupePresentToribio, 1976
HondurasPresentdel and Rio, 1989
JamaicaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Chisholm and Coates-Beckford, 1997
Puerto RicoPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK CAB International, 1985

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Baez et al., 1988
BrazilPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Fernandez, 1992
-Mato GrossoPresentAlmeida et al., 2001
-Minas GeraisPresentGoulart, 1988
-Rio Grande do SulPresentAlmeida et al., 2001
-Sao PauloPresentVechiato et al., 2000
ChilePresentUK CAB International, 1985; Apablaza, 1993; Sánchez et al., 2013
ColombiaPresentEllis et al., 1976; UK CAB International, 1985
GuyanaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
PeruPresentVallejos, 1988
UruguayPresentUK CAB International, 1985
VenezuelaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Pineda and Avila, 1993

Europe

AustriaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
BulgariaPresentAlexandrov, 1999
CyprusPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Czech RepublicPresentVeverka et al., 2008
DenmarkPresentUK CAB International, 1985
FrancePresentUK CAB International, 1985; Baudry and Morzieres, 1993; Baudry and Morzieres, 1994
GermanyPresentUK CAB International, 1985
GreecePresentUK CAB International, 1985; Skarmoutsos and Michalopoulou, 1992
HungaryPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Kadlicsko et al., 1994
IrelandPresentUK CAB International, 1985
ItalyPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-SardiniaPresent
Mediterranean countriesPresent
NetherlandsPresentTurkensteen and Lablans, 1988
RomaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Ciurea et al., 1992
Russian Federation
-Russia (Europe)PresentUK CAB International, 1985; Podkina and Kotlyarova, 1990
SlovakiaPresentBokor, 2007
SpainPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Lobo-Ruano, 1991; Aviles et al., 2008
SwitzerlandPresentGindrat, 1984; UK CAB International, 1985
UKPresentScholefield and Griffin, 1979
Yugoslavia (former)PresentUK CAB International, 1985; Draganic and Boric, 1991
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Present

Oceania

AustraliaPresentConde and Diatloff, 1991; Hebbar et al., 1992
-New South WalesPresentTrimboli and Burgess, 1985; UK CAB International, 1985
-QueenslandPresentUK CAB International, 1985; English, 1986
-South AustraliaPresentUK CAB International, 1985; Walker, 1994
-TasmaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
-Western AustraliaPresentUK CAB International, 1985
FijiPresentUK CAB International, 1985
New ZealandPresentUK CAB International, 1985
Papua New GuineaPresentPrice and Munro, 1978
Solomon IslandsPresentUK CAB International, 1985

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / rot of wood
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Seeds / rot
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / seedling blight

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus candidus Antagonist
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen Tamil Nadu
Ensifer meliloti Antagonist Pakistan
Epicoccum nigrum Antagonist
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. psidii Pathogen
Gliocladium virens Antagonist Pakistan
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Neurospora sitophila Pathogen
Paecilomyces lilacinus Mycoparasite Pakistan
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pathogen
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; sclerotia; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves hyphae; sclerotia; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; sclerotia; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; sclerotia; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Abada KA, 1994. Fungi causing damping-off and root-rot on sugar-beet and their biological control with Trichoderma harzianum. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 51(3):333-337.

Abawi GS; Pastor-Corrales MA, 1989. Charcoal rot screening procedure and virulence of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates on dry edible beans. Turrialba, 39(2):200-207

Abawi GS; Pastor-Corrales MA, 1990. Seed transmission and effect of fungicide seed treatments against Macrophomina phaseolina in dry edible beans. Turrialba, 40(3):334-339

Abbasher AA; Kroschel J; Sauerborn J, 1995. Microorganisms of Striga hermonthica in northern Ghana with potential as biocontrol agents. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 5(2):157-161; 17 ref.

Abdou YA; El-Hassan SA; Abbas HK, 1979. Seed transmission and pycnidial formation in sesame wilt disease caused by Macrophomina phaseoli (Maubl.) Ashby. Agricultural Research Review, 57(2):63-69

Abdul Rehman; Mohammad Imran; Saira Mehboob; Khan NA; Waqar Alam; Kashif Riaz, 2015. Etiology, pathogenicity and management of collar rot in Cockscomb (Celosia argentea). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 17(1):9-14. http://www.fspublishers.org/published_papers/46148_..pdf

Achbani EH; Tourvieille D, 1993. Phytosanitary situation of sunflower in Morocco. Al Awamia, No. 83:117-138

Adekunle AT; Cardwell KF; Florini DA; Ikotun T, 2001. Seed treatment with Trichoderma species for control of damping-off of cowpea caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 11(4):449-457; 28 ref.

Agarwal DK; Gangopadhyay S; Sarbhoy AK, 1973. Effect of temperature on the charcoal rot disease of soybean. Indian Phytopathology, 26(3):587-589.

Ahmad Y; Hameed A; Aslam M, 1992. Efficacy of different fungicides in controlling maize stalk rot. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 4(1-2):14-19; 19 ref.

Ahmed SI; Bhutta AR, 1989. Seed-borne fungal pathogens of maize in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 32(2):107-109; 9 ref.

Akhil Borborua, 1990. New potato diseases from Assam. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 20(2):162-163

Al Ahmad M, 1993. Vascular and vascular-like diseases of grain sorghum in Syria. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 11(1):39-44.

Alabouvette C, 1976. The ecology of parasitic fungi in soil. VIII. An ecological study, by means of a selective method of investigation, of Macrophomina phaseolina in soil. Annales de Phytopathologie, 8(2):147-157

Alagarsamy G; Sivaprakasam K, 1988. Effect of antagonists in combination with carbendazim against Macrophomina phaseolina infection in cowpea. Journal of Biological Control, 2(2):123-125

Alexandrov V, 1999. Incidence of charcoal rot of sunflower caused by Sclerotium bataticola Taub. in Bulgaria. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(6):867-870; 9 ref.

Al-Hazmi AS, 1985. Interaction of Meloidogyne incognita and Macrophomina phaseolina in a root-rot disease complex of French bean. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 113(4):311-316

Almeida ÂMR; Torres E; Farias JRB; Benato LC; Pinto MC; Marin SRR, 2001. Macrophomina phaseolina in soybean: effect of tillage system, survival on crop residues and genetic diversity. (Macrophomina phaseolina em soja: sistema de semeadura, sobrevivência em restos de cultura e diversidade genética.) Circular Técnica - Embrapa Soja, No.34:47 pp.

Anaso AB, 1995. Effects of cultivars and seed treatment on sorghum diseases in Nigeria. Cereal Research Communications, 23(1/2):153-159

Anver S; Tiyagi SA; Yadav A; Alam MM, 1991. Interactions between Rotylenchulus reniformis and Macrophomina phaseolina on lentil. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 9(2):127-130

Anwar-ul-Haq; Nasir MA, 1994. Screening of different maize cultivars for resistance against stalk rot. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 6(1):31-34; 17 ref.

Apablaza H GE, 1993. Charcoal rot of melon and watermelon (Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goidanich) in the metropolitan region of Chile. Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria, 20(3):101-105

Arshad Javaid; Amna Saddique, 2012. Control of charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina by extracts of Datura metel. Natural Product Research, 26(18):1715-1720. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gnpl20

Aung Baw; May May Khin; Maung Maung Tin, 1992. Second survey of chickpea diseases in Myanmar. International Chickpea Newsletter, No. 27:9; 1 ref.

Aviles M; Castillo S; Bascon J; Zea-Bonilla T; Martin-Sanchez PM; Perez-Jimenez RM, 2008. First report of Macrophomina phaseolina causing crown and root rot of strawberry in Spain. Plant Pathology, 57(2):382. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01717.x

Babu BK; Saxena AK; Srivastava AK; Arora DK, 2007. Identification and detection of Macrophomina phaseolina by using species-specific oligonucleotide primers and probe. Mycologia, 99(6):797-803.

Baird RE; Hershman DE; Christmas EP, 1994. Occurrence of Macrophomina phaseolina on canola in Indiana and Kentucky. Plant Disease, 78(3):316

Bakr MA; Ahmed F, 1991. Additional sources of resistance to wilt and root rot of chickpea in Bangladesh. International Chickpea Newsletter, No. 25:28-29; 3 ref.

Barnard EL; Dixon WN; Ash EC; Fraedrich SW; Cordell CE, 1995. Scalping reduces impact of soilborne pests and improves survival and growth of slash pine seedlings on converted agricultural croplands. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 19(2):49-59

Baudry A; Morzieres JP, 1993. First report of charcoal rot of strawberry in France. Acta Horticulturae, No. 348:485-488

Baudry A; Morzieres JP, 1994. Macrophomina phaseolina pathogenicity on strawberry plants. Phytoma, No. 461:27-29

Beaver JS; Martinez M; Godoy G, 1990. Evaluation of dry beans for resistance to ashy stem blight. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 74(4):349-355

Bhattacharya M; Samaddar KR, 1976. Epidemiological studies on jute diseases. Survival of Macrophomina phaseoli (Maubl.) Ashby in soil. Plant and Soil, 44(1):27-36

Bikkar Singh; Khara HS, 1991. Root zone mycoflora of okra as influenced by some physical factors. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 28(4):515-520

Blake JH; Mueller JD; Lewis SA, 1994. Diseases of kenaf in South Carolina. Plant Disease, 78(1):102.

Blanco-Lopez MA; Jimenez-Daz RM, 1983. Effect of irrigation on susceptibility of sunflower to Macrophomina phaseoli. Plant Disease, 67(11):1214-1217

Bokor P, 2007. Macrophomina phaseolina causing a charcoal rot of sunflower through Slovakia. Biologia (Bratislava), 62(2):136-138. http://www.springerlink.com/content/v82724672627760k/fulltext.pdf

Botross SE; El-Assiuty EM; Fahmy ZM; Abdel-Rahman TM, 2000. Long-term effects of soil solarization on density levels of soil-borne fungi and stalk-rot incidence in sorghum. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 78(2):575-585; 24 ref.

Boulila M; Mahjoub M, 1994. Inventory of olive disease in Tunisia. Bulletin OEPP, 24(4):817-823; 25 ref.

Bowen CR; Schapaugh WT Jr, 1989. Relationships among charcoal rot infection, yield, and stability estimates in soybean blends. Crop Science, 29(1):42-46

Bowman JB; Sinclair JB; Yorinori JT, 1986. Effect of herbicides on soybean disease development and seed quality in the State of Parana. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 11(1):205-216

Bpz MI; Luduena P; Sanguinetti A, 1988. Phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations between sunflower characters and charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseoli (Maub.) Ashby). Informe Tecnico, Estacion Experimental Regional Agropecuaria Pergamino, Argentina, No. 221:12 pp.

Campbell CL; Gaag DJ van der, 1993. Temporal and spatial dynamics of microsclerotia of Macrophomina phaseolina in three fields in North Carolina over four to five years. Phytopathology, 83(12):1434-1440

Canaday CH; Helsel DG; Wyllie TD, 1986. Effects of herbicide-induced stress on root colonization of soybeans by Macrophomina phaseolina. Plant Disease, 70(9):863-866

Chakraborty BN; Purkayastha RP, 1981. Effect of some growth substances on charcoal-rot resistant and susceptible cultivars of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. Bulletin of the Botanical Society of Bengal, 35(2):103-111

Chakraborty U; Purkayastha RP, 1984. Role of rhizobitoxine in protecting soybean roots from Macrophomina phaseolina infection. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 30(3):285-289

Chaudhary KCB; Pal AK, 1982. Infection of sannhemp (Crotalaria juncea) seeds by Macrophomina phaseolina. Seed Science and Technology, 10(1):151-153

Chauhan MS, 1988. Relative efficiency of different methods for the control of seedling disease of cotton caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 18(1):25-30

Chen HX; Liu FL; Zhao YZ, 1994. Selection and breeding of Zhong Zhi 9 - a new black-seedcoated sesame cultivar with superior quality. Oil Crops of China, 16(4):53-55.

Cheng YH; Tu CC, 1972. Effects of host variety, plant maturity, soil temperature, and soil moisture on the severity of Macrophomina stem rot of jute. Journal of Taiwan Agricultural Research, 21(4):273-279.

Chisholm FV; Coates-Beckford PL, 1997. Fungi associated with seeds of three legume species in Jamaica and seed germination at harvest and after storage. Tropical Agriculture, 74(2):121-127; 25 ref.

Chitima-Matsiga RT; Wyllie TD, 1987. Variability among single conidial isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina. (Abstr.). Phytopathology, 77:1702.

Choudhari SD; Tikhotkar AB, 1987. Effects of charcoal rot on on the physiological parameters responsible for grain yield of kharif sorghum. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 12(3):286-287

Ciurea A; Oprea M; Cojocaru D, 1992. Two harmful diseases of castor and sorghum crops in Romania. Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor, Academia de stiinte Agricole si Silvice, 24:77-84; 6 ref.

Cloud GL; Rupe JC, 1994. Influence of nitrogen, plant growth stage, and environment on charcoal rot of grain sorghum caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Plant and Soil, 158(2):203-210

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