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Datasheet

Adenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Adenanthera pavonina
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red-bead tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. pavonina is a fast-growing tree included in the Global Compendium of Weeds as a natural and agricultural weed (Randall...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); flowering habit. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009
TitleHabit
CaptionAdenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); flowering habit. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Adenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); flowering habit. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009
HabitAdenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); flowering habit. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Adenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); canopy. Nahiku, Maui. June 23, 2009
TitleCanopy
CaptionAdenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); canopy. Nahiku, Maui. June 23, 2009
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Adenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); canopy. Nahiku, Maui. June 23, 2009
CanopyAdenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); canopy. Nahiku, Maui. June 23, 2009©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Adenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); flowers and foliage. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionAdenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); flowers and foliage. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Adenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); flowers and foliage. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
Flowers and foliageAdenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); flowers and foliage. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Adenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); immature seedpods. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2009.
TitleImmature seedpods
CaptionAdenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); immature seedpods. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Adenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); immature seedpods. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2009.
Immature seedpodsAdenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); immature seedpods. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Adenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); seeds and dehisced pods. Makawao Ranch Acres, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
TitleSeeds and dehisced pods
CaptionAdenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); seeds and dehisced pods. Makawao Ranch Acres, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Adenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); seeds and dehisced pods. Makawao Ranch Acres, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
Seeds and dehisced podsAdenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, false wiliwili); seeds and dehisced pods. Makawao Ranch Acres, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Adenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, red-bead tree, false wiliwili); seedlings in understory. Nahiku, Maui. June 23, 2009
TitleSeedlings in understory
CaptionAdenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, red-bead tree, false wiliwili); seedlings in understory. Nahiku, Maui. June 23, 2009
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Adenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, red-bead tree, false wiliwili); seedlings in understory. Nahiku, Maui. June 23, 2009
Seedlings in understoryAdenanthera pavonina (red sandalwood, red-bead tree, false wiliwili); seedlings in understory. Nahiku, Maui. June 23, 2009©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Adenanthera pavonina L., 1753

Preferred Common Name

  • red-bead tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Adenanthera gersenii Scheff.
  • Adenanthera polita Miq.
  • Corallaria parvifolia Rumph.

International Common Names

  • English: bead tree; circassian seed; circassian-bean; coral bean tree; coral wood; crab's eyes; false sandalwood; false wiliwili; jumbie bead; peacock flower-fence; peacock tree; Polynesian peanut; red sandalwood; red sandalwood tree; red wood; saga bean tree
  • Spanish: arbol de coral; caralillo; caralín; carolina; coral; coralitos; coralitos peonía; delicia; jumbie bread; peronía; peronías
  • French: bois de condor; bois de condori; bois noir de Bourbon; bois noir rouge; église; reglisse

Local Common Names

  • Australia: circassan tree; red beantree; zumbic tree
  • Brazil: carolina; tento-carolina
  • Cambodia: chan'trèi
  • Cuba: coralillo; coralín
  • Dominican Republic: peronía extranjera
  • Fiji: lera; lerendamu; pomea
  • French Polynesia: peacock; pitipitio
  • Germany: Condoribaum; Indischer Korallenbaum
  • Guam: colales; culalis; kolales
  • Haiti: deleite
  • India: anikundumani; bandi guruvenda; coralitos; jumble bead; kunchandana; lopa; malatanglin; manjadi; manjetti; peronias; raktakambal; saga; thorligunj
  • Indonesia: kitoke laut; saga telik; segawe sabrang
  • Italy: pavoncina minore; semi di corallo
  • Laos: lam
  • Lesser Antilles: arbre à église; corail végétal; dilmawi; graine réglisse; graine rouge; jumbi bead tree
  • Malaysia: mai-chek; saga daun tumpul; saga tumpul
  • Netherlands: koraal-boom; sandelhout, rood
  • Philippines: malatinglin
  • Puerto Rico: granate; mato colorado; palo de mato; peronías chatas
  • Saint Lucia: dalmawi
  • Samoa: lopa
  • Thailand: ma clam ta cheng; ma clam ton; ma hok daeng; ma klam ta chang; ma klam ton
  • Tonga: lopa
  • United States Virgin Islands: coquelicot
  • USA: legliz
  • USA/Hawaii: false wili wili

EPPO code

  • ADEPA (Adenanthera pavonina)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. pavonina is a fast-growing tree included in the Global Compendium of Weeds as a natural and agricultural weed (Randall, 2012). It was classed by Binggeli (1999) as a moderately invasive woody weed. It is commonly planted in agroforestry systems to be used as a green manure, animal forage, and for soil improvement (Orwa et al., 2009). However, it has escaped from cultivated areas and is currently colonizing new habitats including both disturbed and undisturbed forests in tropical and subtropical regions (ISSG, 2012).

Once established, this species grows forming dense thickets and competing aggressively with native vegetation (PIER, 2012). A. pavonina is listed as one of the worst invasive species in Jamaica and it has been classified as an invasive plant in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and many islands in the Pacific including American Samoa, Hawaii, French Polynesia, Micronesia and Australia (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012). It is also spreading rapidly in the Seychelles (Weber, 2003). In Florida, it is listed as an invasive category II and the commercialization and cultivation of this species is prohibited (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011), although Miller et al. (2002) suggest that it is not altering plant communities.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Adenanthera
  •                                     Species: Adenanthera pavonina

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae is characterized by leaves that are often bicompound and have extra-floral nectaries on the petioles. Flowers within this subfamily are small, often borne in heads, and all open more or less simultaneously. The subfamily Mimosoideae includes 82 genera and 3275 species (Stevens, 2012) distributed in tropical and warm temperate zones. Adenanthera is a genus with about 13 species distributed in Asia, Indo-China, Malesia, Papua New Guinea to SW Pacific, Australia,and Madagascar, with one species widely introduced in Africa and the Neotropics (Luckow, 2005). The name Adenanthera is derived from a combination of the Greek words “aden”, a gland, and the “anther”, anther, alluding to the anther’s characteristics of being tipped and having a deciduous gland (Orwa et al., 2009).

Description

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A. pavonina is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree, 6-15 m tall and up to 45 cm diameter, depending on location; generally erect; bark dark brown to greyish, the inner bark soft, pale brown, and the slash soft, white and fibrous; crown spreading; multiple stems common, as are slightly buttressed trunks in older trees, upper bole sometimes spirally fluted. Leaves are very large, bipinnate with a large swollen pulvinus; 2-6 opposite or sub-opposite pairs of pinnae, each with 8-21 alternate leaflets on short stalks; leaflets 2-4.3 x 1 cm, oblong to ovate, with an asymmetric base and blunt apex, dull green above, light green beneath, turning yellow with age. Flowers in narrow spike like racemes, 12-15(-25) cm long; flowers fragrant, small, petals 5, oblong or elliptic, cream or whites lightly connate at the base, stamens 10, as long as the petals, the anthers tipped with minute glands. Legumes linear, flattened, 15-22 x 1.3-1.5(-2) cm with slight constrictions between seeds, dark brown, turning black upon ripening, leathery, dehiscent from top to bottom by twisting valves to reveal 8-12 hard-coated, vivid scarlet seeds, 7.5-9 mm in diameter, lens shaped; seeds adhere to pod. Ripened fruits can remain on the tree for long periods, sometimes until the following reproductive season (Orwa et al., 2009; PROSEA, 2012).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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A. pavonina is endemic to Southern China and India with first reports being recorded in India (Roshetko and Gutteridge, 1996). It has been widely introduced and naturalized in Malaysia, Western and Eastern Africa as well as most islands of both the Pacific and Caribbean regions (Orwa et al., 2009; Acevedo Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009
CambodiaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2012
ChinaPresentNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002; USDA-ARS, 2012
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
IndiaPresentNative Planted ILDIS, 2002
-AssamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-BiharPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-GoaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-GujaratPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-Indian PunjabPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-KarnatakaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-KeralaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-Madhya PradeshPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-MaharashtraPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-MeghalayaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-SikkimPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-TripuraPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-West BengalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
IndonesiaPresentNative Planted ILDIS, 2002
-Irian JayaPresentNative Planted ILDIS, 2002
-JavaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
-MoluccasPresentNative Planted ILDIS, 2002
-SulawesiPresentNative Planted ILDIS, 2002
JapanPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
LaosPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2012
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2002; USDA-ARS, 2012
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNative Planted ILDIS, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009
-SabahPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
-SarawakPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
MaldivesPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002; ISSG, 2012
MyanmarPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2012
PakistanPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002; USDA-ARS, 2012
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002; USDA-ARS, 2012
SingaporePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
Sri LankaPresentNativeILDIS, 2002; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2012
TaiwanPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009
ThailandPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2012
VietnamPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2012

Africa

AldabraPresentIntroducedISSG, 2012
AngolaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
CameroonPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
ChadPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
ComorosPresentIntroducedISSG, 2012
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
GhanaPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
KenyaPresentIntroduced Planted World Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002; USDA-ARS, 2012
MozambiquePresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
NigeriaPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
RéunionPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002; ISSG, 2012
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroducedISSG, 2012
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
SeychellesPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2002; Weber, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2012
Sierra LeonePresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009
TogoPresent Planted ILDIS, 2002
UgandaPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002; USDA-ARS, 2012

North America

USA
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011Invasive species category II
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2002; USDA-ARS, 2012

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaWidespreadIntroducedILDIS, 2002; Broome et al., 2007
BahamasPresentIntroducedCorrell and Correll, 1982; ILDIS, 2002
BarbadosWidespreadIntroducedILDIS, 2002; Broome et al., 2007
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedProctor, 1984; ILDIS, 2002
CubaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002; González-Torres et al., 2012
DominicaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Broome et al., 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive IABIN, 2003a; ILDIS, 2002; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GrenadaWidespreadIntroducedILDIS, 2002; Broome et al., 2007
GuadeloupeWidespreadIntroducedILDIS, 2002; Broome et al., 2007
HaitiPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Invasive IABIN, 2003b; Adams, 1972; ILDIS, 2002; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002Listed as one of the worst invasive species www.jamaica.org.jm
MartiniqueWidespreadIntroducedILDIS, 2002; Broome et al., 2007
MontserratWidespreadIntroducedILDIS, 2002; Broome et al., 2007
Netherlands AntillesWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007St. Barthelemy
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Francis and Liogier, 1991; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Kitts and NevisWidespreadIntroducedILDIS, 2002; Broome et al., 2007
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002; Broome et al., 2007; Abadie et al., 2008; Graveson, 2012; ISSG, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesWidespreadIntroducedILDIS, 2002; Broome et al., 2007
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas

South America

BrazilPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
French GuianaPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
SurinamePresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002; Funk et al., 2007
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Isla Margarita

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2000; PIER, 2002
AustraliaPresentNativeILDIS, 2002
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNative Natural Cowan, 1998; ILDIS, 2002; USDA-ARS, 2012
-QueenslandPresentNativeCowan, 1998; USDA-ARS, 2012
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2002; Space and Flynn, 2002
FijiPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002; PIER, 2002; USDA-ARS, 2012
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2012
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2012
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2002; ISSG, 2012
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedJosekutty et al., 2002; PIER, 2002
NauruPresentIntroducedPIER, 2002; ISSG, 2012
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2002; Space et al., 2004
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2000; ILDIS, 2002; PIER, 2002
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2002; Space et al., 2003
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeILDIS, 2002; PIER, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2012
SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2002; Space and Flynn, 2002
Solomon IslandsPresentNativeILDIS, 2002; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2012
TongaPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn, 2001; PIER, 2002

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. pavonina has been widely introduced in tropical and subtropical regions to be used in agroforestry systems. This tree is a nitrogen-fixing species commonly used as animal fodder, green manure, and for soil improvement. It is cultivated in tropical Asia from the Malay peninsula, Greater Sunda Islands; Celebes, Lesser Sunda Islands, through to the Mollucas and New Guinea (Nielsen and Fortune Hopkins, 1992). In the West Indies, this species was first reported in 1864 as a naturalized tree in Jamaica (Grisebach, 1864). Later, in 1879 H.F.A. Eggers reported it for the island of St. Croix. By 1905, A. pavonina is described by I. Urban as “culta et quasi spontanea” in Puerto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, US Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Vincent, and Bequia (Grenadines) (Urban, 1905).

Risk of Introduction

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A. pavonina is promoted as a useful but underutilized legume tree, and is likely to be introduced into other countries where it may naturalize or become invasive.

Habitat

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A. pavonina can be found growing in primary and secondary forests, including evergreen forests, seasonally dry forests, open savannahs, agricultural land, forest edges, woodlands, and coastal areas. Adkins (1993) describes it as a secondary forest tree, common in the lowland tropics up to 300-400 m. Weber (2003) reports that it is common throughout the lowland forests of its native range, occurring mainly on neutral soils. This species is also used as an ornamental in gardens and urban forests (Orwa et al., 2009; ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

A. pavonina is cultivated from seeds (Adkins, 1993) which are produced in large quantities (PIER, 2002). It flowers and fruits almost throughout the year, for short periods (Orwa et al., 2009), and the ripened pods may remain on the tree until the following spring (Adkins, 1993). Seeds are probably eaten and dispersed by birds. Propagation from large cuttings is reported in India (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002). There are approximately 3500 seeds per kg (Little and Wadsworth, 1964).

Physiology and Phenology

Seedling growth is slow at first, but height and diameter increase rapidly from the second year (Adkins 1993). Trees planted 1 × 2 m apart for windbreaks and at 2 × 2 m in plantations can be thinned in 3-5 years to provide fuelwood and construction materials. Trees resprout easily, allowing for coppice management with good survival. Trees are susceptible to breakage in high winds, with most of the damage occurring in the crown (Orwa et al., 2009; PROSEA, 2012; PIER, 2012). Most Adenanthera species are deciduous but are leafless for only a few days (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002).

Associations

Adkins (1993) collates earlier reports on the mechanism of nitrogen fixation which is reported to occur through association with Rhizobium

Environmental Requirements

A. pavonina grows best in wet environments, mainly in tropical areas with mean annual rainfall ranging from 3000 mm to 5000 mm and mean annual temperatures around 25-30°C, with the mean maximum of the hottest month being 28-35°C and the mean minimum of the coolest month being 14-22°C. It is not at all frost tolerant. This species is adapted to grow on a variety of soils from deep, well-drained to shallow and rocky soils. However, it prefers neutral to slightly acidic soils (Sosef et al., 1998; Orwa et al., 2009).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
20 -15 300 1200

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 12
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 28 32
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 28 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 14 22

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration26number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall30005000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A. pavonina is susceptible to the pest Xylosandrus ater and to sapstain. The sapwood is susceptible to dry wood termites but the heartwood is resistant.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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A. pavonina spreads by seeds that allow this species to easily escape cultivated areas. Seeds are probably eaten and dispersed by birds, but they can also be dispersed by water, adhered to animals or adhered to agriculture machinery (Orwa et al., 2009, ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012). Long distance dispersal has been intentional, as A. pavonina has been widely planted outside its native range for its agroforestry and ornamental services and its wood, and is known to have naturalised in many countries.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes ISSG, 2012
ForageLeaves and fruits are used as animal fodder Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Forestry Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Timber trade Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
ConsumablesSeeds are used for human consumption Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Host and vector organismsSeeds dispersed by birds Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
MailSeeds sold online Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
WaterSeeds Yes Orwa et al., 2009

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Environmental Impact

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A. pavonina is a fast growing species with the potential to invade both undisturbed and disturbed forests. It can grow quickly forming dense thickets which can displace and prevent the establishment of native vegetation (ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012). In the Seychelles, A. pavonina has spread rapidly in secondary forests and has prevented the regeneration of native trees and shrubs (Weber, 2003).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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A. pavonina is extensively cultivated as a valuable multipurpose agroforestry species which acts as a windbreak, a source of fodder, green manure, and for improving soil nitrogen content through its rhizobial associations (Norani, 1983; Orwa et al., 2009; PROSEA, 2012). Its wood is hard and has been used for constructing decorative wood products as well as for bridge and household construction (beams, posts, joists and rafters), flooring, paving blocks and vehicle bodies. It may also be suitable for furniture and cabinet work and turnery (Benthal, 1946; Clark and Thaman, 1993; Zarnowski et al., 2004). It can be used as a substitute for true red sandalwood (Pterocarpus santalinus). It is a popular fuelwood in the Pacific Islands as the wood burns readily and produces significant amounts of heat.

In several islands in the Pacific (i.e., Melanesia and Polynesia), this species is known as a ‘food tree’. Seeds are roasted and eaten by humans and young leaves are eaten as a vegetable (Orwa et al., 2009). Nutritional studies show the seed oil contains a high percentage of protein and fatty acids (Burkill 1966; Balogun and Fetuga, 1985). In India, Malaysia and Indonesia, this species is used in traditional medicine against rheumatism, migraines, headaches; and dysentery. The red, glossy seeds are used for necklaces and decorative ornaments (Roshetko and Gutteridge, 1996) and are also used for making rosaries (Nielsen and Fortune Hopkins, 1992). Historically, the seeds were used as weight measures for jewellery and goldsmithing, due to their small variation in weight (Benthal, 1946; Burkill, 1966).

In Indonesia and Malaysia, trees are planted for shade in coffee, clove and rubber plantations. It is planted along field borders as a windbreak. In many tropical countries, A. pavonina has been planted as a nitrogen fixing species and as a soil improver. The small leaves break down easily, making the species a good green manure. It is also extensively cultivated as an ornamental for planting along roadsides and in common areas, notably for its red, glossy seeds (Orwa et al., 2009; PROSEA, 2012).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Soil improvement
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental
  • Ritual uses
  • Sociocultural value
  • Souvenirs

Human food and beverage

  • Emergency (famine) food
  • Seeds

Materials

  • Dyestuffs
  • Essential oils
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Seed trade

Wood Products

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Furniture

Roundwood

  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Beams
  • Bridges
  • Flooring
  • Gates

Vehicle bodies

Prevention and Control

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Seedlings and small plants of A. pavonina can be pulled up by hand. Large plants should be cut at ground level using special machinery and the stumps and stems (i.e., re-sprouts) treated with glyphosate or triclopyr. Follow-up treatment and repeated applications of herbicide might be necessary. Because dead trees still carry large numbers of seeds in their leafless canopies, and seeds may remain in the ground, continued control is essential (Swarbrick, 1997; PIER, 2012).

References

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF WAC)http://www.worldagroforestry.org/

Contributors

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07/03/13 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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