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Maize chlorotic dwarf virus

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Datasheet

Maize chlorotic dwarf virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Maize chlorotic dwarf virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Sequiviridae
  •         Genus: Waikavirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
MCDV-infected maize plant showing only upper interlopes reduced in length and leaves proportionately reduced in size. The upper leaves are yellow.
TitleSymptoms on maize plant
CaptionMCDV-infected maize plant showing only upper interlopes reduced in length and leaves proportionately reduced in size. The upper leaves are yellow.
CopyrightAmerican Phytopathological Society (1977)
MCDV-infected maize plant showing only upper interlopes reduced in length and leaves proportionately reduced in size. The upper leaves are yellow.
Symptoms on maize plantMCDV-infected maize plant showing only upper interlopes reduced in length and leaves proportionately reduced in size. The upper leaves are yellow.American Phytopathological Society (1977)
MCDV-infected maize plant showing stunting due to telescoped upper interlopes and yellow discoloration of upper leaves. Leaves are not proportionately reduced in size.
TitleSymptoms on maize plant
CaptionMCDV-infected maize plant showing stunting due to telescoped upper interlopes and yellow discoloration of upper leaves. Leaves are not proportionately reduced in size.
CopyrightAmerican Phytopathological Society (1977)
MCDV-infected maize plant showing stunting due to telescoped upper interlopes and yellow discoloration of upper leaves. Leaves are not proportionately reduced in size.
Symptoms on maize plantMCDV-infected maize plant showing stunting due to telescoped upper interlopes and yellow discoloration of upper leaves. Leaves are not proportionately reduced in size.American Phytopathological Society (1977)
MCDV-infected maize plant showing stunting due to telescoped upper interlopes and red discoloration of upper leaves. Leaves are proportionately reduced in size.
TitleSymptoms on maize plant
CaptionMCDV-infected maize plant showing stunting due to telescoped upper interlopes and red discoloration of upper leaves. Leaves are proportionately reduced in size.
CopyrightAmerican Phytopathological Society (1977)
MCDV-infected maize plant showing stunting due to telescoped upper interlopes and red discoloration of upper leaves. Leaves are proportionately reduced in size.
Symptoms on maize plantMCDV-infected maize plant showing stunting due to telescoped upper interlopes and red discoloration of upper leaves. Leaves are proportionately reduced in size.American Phytopathological Society (1977)
Maize plant in the foreground is infected with MCDV and shows the miniature plant syndrome of stunted plant and proportionately reduced leaf size. The infected plant shows red discoloration of the leaves. The plant in the background is healthy and normal in appearance.
TitleSymptoms on maize plant
CaptionMaize plant in the foreground is infected with MCDV and shows the miniature plant syndrome of stunted plant and proportionately reduced leaf size. The infected plant shows red discoloration of the leaves. The plant in the background is healthy and normal in appearance.
CopyrightD.T. Gordon
Maize plant in the foreground is infected with MCDV and shows the miniature plant syndrome of stunted plant and proportionately reduced leaf size. The infected plant shows red discoloration of the leaves. The plant in the background is healthy and normal in appearance.
Symptoms on maize plantMaize plant in the foreground is infected with MCDV and shows the miniature plant syndrome of stunted plant and proportionately reduced leaf size. The infected plant shows red discoloration of the leaves. The plant in the background is healthy and normal in appearance.D.T. Gordon
Left: Portion of maize leaf from healthy plant showing normal leaf appearance. Right: Portion of maize leaf from a MCDV-infected maize plant showing diagnostic chlorotic vein clearing or banding symptoms.
TitleSymptoms on maize leaf
CaptionLeft: Portion of maize leaf from healthy plant showing normal leaf appearance. Right: Portion of maize leaf from a MCDV-infected maize plant showing diagnostic chlorotic vein clearing or banding symptoms.
CopyrightAmerican Phytopathological Society (1977)
Left: Portion of maize leaf from healthy plant showing normal leaf appearance. Right: Portion of maize leaf from a MCDV-infected maize plant showing diagnostic chlorotic vein clearing or banding symptoms.
Symptoms on maize leafLeft: Portion of maize leaf from healthy plant showing normal leaf appearance. Right: Portion of maize leaf from a MCDV-infected maize plant showing diagnostic chlorotic vein clearing or banding symptoms.American Phytopathological Society (1977)
Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
TitleMCDV particles
CaptionReproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
CopyrightIACR-Rothamsted
Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
MCDV particlesReproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/IACR-Rothamsted
Electron microscope photograph of purified isometric particles of MCDV. Particles measure ca 30nm in diameter.
TitleTEM of MCDV particles
CaptionElectron microscope photograph of purified isometric particles of MCDV. Particles measure ca 30nm in diameter.
CopyrightElectron Microscope Laboratory, Ohio Agricultural Research Centre, Ohio State University
Electron microscope photograph of purified isometric particles of MCDV. Particles measure ca 30nm in diameter.
TEM of MCDV particlesElectron microscope photograph of purified isometric particles of MCDV. Particles measure ca 30nm in diameter.Electron Microscope Laboratory, Ohio Agricultural Research Centre, Ohio State University

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Maize chlorotic dwarf virus

Other Scientific Names

  • maize chlorotic dwarf machlovirus
  • maize chlorotic dwarf MCDV group
  • maize chlorotic dwarf ribotungrovirus
  • maize chlorotic dwarf waikavirus
  • Ohio corn stunt agent

English acronym

  • MCDV

EPPO code

  • MCDV00 (Maize chlorotic dwarf waikavirus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Sequiviridae
  •                 Genus: Waikavirus
  •                     Species: Maize chlorotic dwarf virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Graminella nigrifronsInsectUSA

References

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All JN, 1983. Integrating techniques of vector and weed-host suppression into control programs for maize virus diseases. In: Gordon DT, Knoke JK, Nault LR, Ritter RM, eds. Proceedings of the International Maize Virus Disease Colloquium and Workshop, August 2-6, 1982. Wooster, Ohio, USA: The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 243-247.

All JN; Kuhn CW; Gallaher RN; Jellum MD; Hussey RS, 1977. Influence of no-tillage-cropping, carbofuran, and hybrid resistance on dynamics of maize chlorotic dwarf and maize dwarf mosaic diseases of corn. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70(2):221-225

All JN; Kuhn CW; Jellum MD, 1981. Control strategies for vectors of virus and viruslike pathogens of maize and sorghum. In: Gordon DT, Knoke JK, Scott GE, eds. Virus and viruslike Diseases of Maize in the United States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin, 247:121-131.

Alverson DR; All JN; Kuhn CW, 1980. Simulated intrafield dispersal of maize chlorotic dwarf virus by Graminella nigrifrons with a rubidium marker. Phytopathology, 70(8):734-737

Ammar ED; Gingery RE; Nault LR, 1993. Cytopathology and ultrastructure of mild and severe strains of maize chlorotic dwarf virus in maize and johnsongrass. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71(5):718-724

Ammar ED; Nault LR, 1991. Maize chlorotic dwarf viruslike particles associated with the foregut in vector and nonvector leafhopper species. Phytopathology, 81(4):444-448

Anon., 1973. Corn and grain sorghum performance tests. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report, 149.

Anon., 1974. Performance tests: corn and grain sorghum. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report, 179.

Anon., 1975. Corn and grain sorghum performance tests in 1974. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report, 199.

Anon., 1977. Corn and grain sorghum performance tests in 1976. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report, 238.

Ayers JE; Boyle JS; Gordon DT, 1978. The occurrence of maize chlorotic dwarf and maize dwarf mosaic viruses in Pennsylvania in 1977. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(9):820-821

Bhirud KM; Pitre HN, 1972. Comparative susceptibility of three Cicadellid vectors of the corn stunt disease agent to carbofuran and disulfoton in greenhouse tests. Journal of Economic Entomology, 65(5):1236-1238

Boyd FJ; Pitre HN, 1968. Studies on the field biology of Graminella nigrifrons, a vector of corn stunt virus in Mississippi. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 61:1423-1427.

Boyd FJ; Pitre HN, 1969. Greenhouse studies of host plant suitability to Graminella nigrifrons, a vector of corn stunt virus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 62:126-130.

Bradfute OE; Gingery RE; Gordon DT; Nault LR, 1972. Tissue ultrastructure, sedimentation and leafhopper transmission of a virus associated with a maize dwarfing disease. Journal of Cellular Biology, 55:25a.

Bradfute OE; Louie R; Knoke JK, 1972. Isometric virus-like particles in maize with stunt symptoms. Phytopathology, 62:748.

Bradfute OE; Robertson DC, 1974. Identification of the Mississippi corn stunt agent by electron microscopy. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 1:35-36.

Bradfute OE; Robertson DC, 1981. Electron microscopy of viruses and virus-infected cells of maize. In: Gordon DT, Knoke JK, Scott GE, eds. Virus and Viruslike Diseases of Maize in the United States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin, 247:25-32.

Calvert OH; Fairchild ML; Keaster AJ, 1965. Symptoms and distribution of corn stunt disease in Missouri in 1964. Plant Disease Reporter, 49:213-214.

Childress SA; Harris KF, 1989. Localization of virus-like particles in the foreguts of viruliferous Graminella nigrifrons leafhoppers carrying the semi-persistent maize chlorotic dwarf virus. Journal of General Virology, 70(1):247-251

Choudhury MM; Rosenkrantz E, 1983. Vector relationship of Graminella nigrifrons to maize chlorotic dwarf virus. Phytopathology, 73(5):685-690

Choudhury MM; Rosenkranz E, 1974. Correlation of symptoms with histological changes in corn plants infected with Ohio corn stunt agent. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 1:36.

Collins HL; Pitre HN, 1969. Corn stunt vector leafhopper attractancy to and oviposition preference for hybrid dent corn. II. Graminella nigrifrons. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 62:773-775.

Creamer R; Nault LR; Gingery RE, 1993. Biological factors affecting leafhopper transmission of purified maize chlorotic dwarf machlovirus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 67(1):65-71; 17 ref.

Cross HZ, 1980. Registration of ND245 parental line of maize (Reg. No. PL53). Crop Science, 20:420.

Dale JL; York JO, 1979. Virus disease ratings of corn Inbreds tested in Arkansas in 1978. Mimeograph Series. Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Arkansas, No. 265.

Damsteegt VD, 1977. Survey for corn viruses in Maryland, 1975. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(3):179-182

Derrick KS; Brlansky RH, 1976. Assay for viruses and mycoplasmas using serologically specific electron microscopy. Phytopathology, 66(6):815-820

Dollinger EJ; Findley WR; Williams LE, 1970. Inheritance of resistance to maize dwarf mosaic virus in maize (Zea mays L.). Crop Science, 10:412-415.

Douglas WA; Whitcomb WH; Hepner LW; Kirk VM; Davis R, 1966. Some Cicadellidae (Homoptera) collected from corn in the southeastern United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 59:393-396.

Durant JA, 1968. Leafhopper populations on ten corn inbred lines at Florence, South Carolina. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 61:1433-1436.

Durant JA, 1973. Notes on factors influencing observed leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) population densities on corn. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 8(1):1-5

Durant JA; Hepner LW, 1968. Occurrence of leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on corn in South Carolina. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 3:77-82.

Eberhart SA, 1983. Developing virus resistant commercial maize hybrids. In: Gordon DT, Knoke JK, Nault LR, Ritter RM, eds. Proceedings International Maize Virus Disease Colloquium Workshop. 2-6 August, 1982. Wooster, USA: The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 258-261.

Eberwine JW Jr; Hagood ES Jr, 1995. Effect of johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) control on the severity of virus diseases of corn (Zea mays). Weed Technology, 9(1):73-79

Findley WR; Dollinger EJ; Knoke JK; Louie R; Ryder GJ; Baxter AJ, 1975. Performance of corn hybrids exposed to corn viruses in Ohio in 1974. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. Agronomy Department Series, 213.

Findley WR; Dollinger EJ; Knoke JK; Ryder GJ; Baxter AJ, 1974. Performance of corn hybrids exposed to maize dwarf mosaic in Ohio in 1973. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. Agronomy Department Series, 213.

Findley WR; Dollinger EJ; Louie R; Knoke JK, 1973. Locating genes for maize dwarf mosaic resistance by means of chromosomal translocations in corn (Zea mays L.). Crop Science, 13(6):608-611

Findley WR; Josephson LM; Dollinger EJ, 1981. Breeding for disease resistance in corn. In: Gordon DT, Knoke JK, Scott GE, eds. Virus and Viruslike Diseases of Maize in the United States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin, 247:137-140.

Findley WR; Knoke JK; Dollinger EJ, 1978. Virus tolerance ratings of corn strains grown in Ohio in 1977. In: 1977 Virus Tolerance Ratings for Corn Strains Grown in the Lower Corn Belt. US Department of Agriculture Science Education Administration, 13:6-13.

Findley WR; Knoke JK; Dollinger EJ, 1979. Virus tolerance ratings of corn strains grown in Ohio in 1978. l978 Virus Tolerance Ratings for Corn Strains Grown in the Lower Corn Belt. US Department of Agriculture, AIR-NC-2:6-12.

Findley WR; Knoke JK; Louie R, 1983. Virus tolerance ratings of corn strains grown in Ohio in 1982. In: 1982 Virus Tolerance Ratings for Corn Strains Grown in the Lower Corn Belt. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, AIR-NC-11:5-19.

Findley WR; Louie R; Knoke JK, 1985. Breeding corn for resistance to corn viruses in Ohio. Proceedings Annual Corn Sorghum Research Conference, 39:52-67.

Findley WR; Louie R; Knoke JK; Dollinger EJ, 1977. Breeding corn for resistance to virus in Ohio. In: Williams LE, Gordon DT, Nault LR, ed. International maize virus disease colloquium and workshop proceedings. Wooster, Ohio, USA: Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 123-128

Findley WR; Louie R; Knoke JK; Dollinger EJ, 1977. Virus tolerance ratings of corn strains grown in Ohio. In: 1976 Virus Tolerance Ratings for Corn Strains Grown in the Lower Corn Belt. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, NC-53: 9-20.

Findley WR; Louie R; Knoke JK; Dollinger EJ, 1980. Virus tolerance ratings of corn strains grown in Ohio in 1979. In: 1979 Virus Tolerance Ratings for Corn Strains Grown in the Lower Corn Belt. US Department of Agriculture, AIR-NC-5:7-12.

Findley WR; Nault LR; Styer WE; Gordon DT, 1982. Inheritance of maize chlorotic dwarf virus resistance in maize X Zea diploperennis backcrosses. In: Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter, 56:165-166.

Fleming AA, 1974. Registration of maize inbred GA 209 germplasm. (Reg. No. GP 50). Crop Science, 14:911-912.

Fleming AA, 1983. Registration of GA 203 parental line of maize (Reg. No. PL63). Crop Science, 23:405.

Freytag PH, 1975. The insect parasitoids of Graminella nigrifrons in Kentucky. (Abstr.) Proceedings North Central Branch Entomological Society America, 30:85.

Ge X, 1990. Characterization of the genome of maize chlorotic dwarf virus and an associated satellite RNA. PhD. Thesis. Columbus, USA: Ohio State University.

Genter CF; Brown LW, Camper HM Jr. , Carter MT, Jones GD, Harrison RL, Link LA, Roane CW, Tolin SA, Wilmouth RR, 1973. Virginia corn performance trials of dent, high-lysine, waxy and popcorn hybrids in 1973. Virginia Polytechnical Institute State University Research Division Report, 154.

Genter CF; Brown LW, Camper HM Jr. , Jones GD, Link LA, Roane CW, Wilmouth RR, 1974. Virginia corn performance trials in 1974. Virginia Polytechnical Institute State University Research Division Report, 162.

Genter CF; Bryant J, Camper HM Jr. , Carter MT, Jones GD, Link LA, Roane CW, Wilkinson WB, Wilmouth RR, 1976. Virginia corn performance trials in 1976. Virginia Polytechnical Institute State University Research Division Report, 171.

Gingery RE, 1976. Properties of maize chlorotic dwarf virus and its ribonucleic acid. Virology, 73(2):311-318

Gingery RE, 1978. An immunofluorescence test for maize chlorotic dwarf virus. Phytopathology, 68(10):1526-1529

Gingery RE, 1988. Maize chlorotic dwarf and related viruses. In: Koenig R, ed. The Plant Viruses, Polyhedral Virions with Monopartite RNA Genomes, 3:259-272. New York, USA: Plenum Press.

Gingery RE; Bradfute OE; Gordon DT; Nault LR, 1978. Maize chlorotic dwarf virus. In: Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Wellesbourne, UK: Association Applied Biologists, No. 194, 4 pp.

Gingery RE; Gordon DT, 1981. Assays for viruses and mycoplasmas infecting maize. In: Gordon DT, Knoke JK, Scott GE, eds. Virus and Viruslike Diseases of Maize in the United States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin, 247:19-24.

Gingery RE; Nault LR, 1990. Severe maize chlorotic dwarf disease caused by double infection with mild virus strains. Phytopathology, 80(8):687-691

Gong HaiYan; Zhang YongJiang; Zhang ZhiYu; Chen HongJun; Gao BiDa; Zhu ShuiFang, 2010. Detection and identification of Maize chlorotic mottle virus from imported maize seeds. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 40(4):426-429. http://zwblxb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Gordon DT; Bradfute OE; Gingery RE; Knoke JK; Louie R; Nault LR; Scott GE, 1981. Introduction: History, geographical distribution, pathogen characteristics, and economic importance. In: Gordon DT, Knoke JK, Scott GE, eds. Virus and Viruslike Disease of Maize in the United States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin, 247:1-12.

Gordon DT; Findley WR; Knoke JK; Louie R; Nault LR; Bradfute OE; Dollinger EJ; Gingery RE, 1974. Maize dwarf mosaic and maize chlorotic dwarf diseases in the United States. In: Proceedings Corn Disease Conference 11-12 February, 1974. Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Purdue University, 52-86.

Gordon DT; Nault LR, 1977. Involvement of maize chlorotic dwarf virus and other agents in stunting diseases of Zea mays in the United States. Phytopathology, 67(1):27-36

Grogan CO; Rosenkranz EE, 1968. Genetics of host reaction to corn stunt virus. Crop Science, 8:251-254.

Gudauskas RT; Estes PM, Karr GW Jr. , Stevens C, 1976. Incidence of viral diseases in corn treated with carbofuran. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 3:337.

Harris KF; Childress SA, 1983. Cytology of maize chlorotic dwarf virus infection in corn. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 1(2):135-140

Harris KF; Treur B; Tsai J; Toler R, 1981. Observations on leafhopper ingestion-egestion behavior: its likely role in the transmission of noncirculative viruses and other plant pathogens. Journal of Economic Entomology, 74(4):446-453

Hartman JR; Gregory WW; Stuckey RE, 1979. Effect of systemic insecticides on virus symptoms and yield of selected corn hybrids. In: Proceedings 9th International Congress of Plant Protection, 5-11 August, 1979. Washington, DC, No. 851.

Hilty JW; Josephson LM, 1966. The new corn virus disease in Tennessee. Tennessee Farm and Home Science Progress Report, 57:4-6.

Holm LG; Plucknett DL; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii.

Hoy CW; Heady SE; Koch TA, 1992. Species composition, phenology, and possible origins of leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) in Ohio vegetable crops. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(6):2336-2343

Hunt RE; Nault LR, 1990. Influence of life history of grasses and maize chlorotic dwarf virus on the biotic potential of the leafhopper Graminella nigrifrons (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Environmental Entomology, 19(1):76-84

Hunt RE; Nault LR; Gingery RE, 1988. Evidence for infectivity of maize chlorotic dwarf virus and for a helper component in its leafhopper transmission. Phytopathology, 78(4):499-504

Johnson GR, 1971. Analysis of genetic resistance to maize dwarf mosaic disease. Crop Science, 11:23-24.

Josephson LM; Graves CR; Kincer HC, 1976. Response of corn hybrids to the virus disease complex. Tennessee Farm and Home Science, 97, 16-17.

Josephson LM; Graves CR; Kincer HC, 1978. Performance of corn hybrids grown under virus disease conditions. Tennessee Farm and Home Science, 105, 4-6.

Josephson LM; Hilty JW, 1970. Response of corn hybrids to maize dwarf mosaic virus. Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 469.

Josephson LM; Hilty JW; Arnold JM; Kincer HC; Overton JR, 1969. Grain yield of corn reduced by maize dwarf mosaic virus infection. Plant Disease Reporter, 53:61-63.

Josephson LM; Kincer HC; West DR, 1982. Registration of eight maize germplasm populations (Reg. No. GP 98 to GP 105). Crop Science, 22(3):694-696

Josephson LM; Naidu B, 1971. Reaction in diallel crosses of corn inbreds (Zea mays L.) to maize dwarf mosaic virus. Crop Science, 11(5):664-667

Josephson LM; Scott GE, 1981. Sources of disease resistance in corn. In: Gordon DT, Knoke JK, Scott GE, eds. Virus and Viruslike Diseases of Maize in the United States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin, 247:132-136.

Keaster AJ; Fairchild ML, 1968. Reduction of corn virus disease incidence and control of southwestern corn borer with systemic insecticides. Journal Economic Entomology, 61:367-369.

Keaster AJ; Zuber MS; Fairchild ML, Loesch PJ Jr. , 1969. Effect of planting dates on incidence and severity of corn virus diseases. Agronomy Journal, 61:363-364.

Knoke JK; Anderson RJ; Findley WR; Louie R; Abt JJ; Gordon DT, 1981. The reaction of sweet corn hybrids to maize dwarf mosaic virus strains and maize chlorotic dwarf virus. Research Bulletin, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1135.

Knoke JK; Anderson RJ; Louie R; Madden LV; Findley WR, 1983. Insect vectors of maize dwarf mosaic virus and maize chlorotic dwarf virus. In: Gordon DT, Knoke JK, Nault LR, Ritter RM, eds. Proceedings International Maize Virus Disease Colloquium Workshop, 2-6 August 1976. Wooster, USA: The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 130-138.

Knoke JK; Louie R, 1981. Epiphytology of maize virus diseases. In: Gordon DT, Knoke JK, Scott GE, eds. Virus and Viruslike Diseases of Maize in the United States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin, 247:92-102.

Knoke JK; Louie R; Madden LV; Gordon DT, 1983. Spread of maize dwarf mosaic virus from Johnsongrass to corn. Plant Disease, 67(4):367-370

Kramer JP, 1967. A taxonomic study of Graminella nigrifrons, a vector of corn stunt disease, and its congeners in the United States (Homoptera:Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 60:604-616.

Kuhn CW; Jellum MD, 1970. Evaluations for resistance to corn stunt and maize dwarf mosaic disease in corn. Georgia Experiment Stations Research Bulletin, 82:1-37.

Kuhn CW; Jellum MD; All JN, 1975. Effect of carbofuran treatment on corn yield, maize chlorotic dwarf and maize dwarf mosaic virus diseases, and leafhopper populations. Phytopathology, 65(9):1017-1020

Loesch PJ Jr., Zuber MS, 1967. An inheritance study of resistance to maize dwarf mosaic virus in corn (Zea mays L.). Agronomy Journal, 59:423-426.

Loesch PJ Jr; Zuber MS, 1972. Inheritance of resistance to maize dwarf mosaic virus. Crop Science, 12(3):350-352

Lopes JRS; Nault LR; Gingery RE, 1994. Leafhopper transmission and host plant range of maize chlorotic dwarf waikavirus strains. Phytopathology, 84(9):876-882

Louie R; Anderson RJ, 1993. Evaluation of maize chlorotic dwarf virus resistance in maize with multiple inoculations by Graminella nigrifrons (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(5):1579-1583

Louie R; Jones MW; Anderson RJ, 1997. Symptomatology of maize chlorotic dwarf (MCD) and identification of loci for MCD tolerance in Caribbean maize. In: 39th Annual Maize Genetics Conference, March 13-16, 1997.

Louie R; Knoke JK, 1981. Symptoms and disease diagnosis. In: Gordon DT, Knoke JK, Scott GE, eds. Virus and Viruslike Diseases of Maize in the United States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin, 247:13-18.

Louie R; Knoke JK; Findley WR, 1990. Elite maize germplasm: reactions to maize dwarf mosaic and maize chlorotic dwarf viruses. Crop Science, 30(6):1210-1215

Louie R; Knoke JK; Gordon DT, 1974. Epiphytotics of maize dwarf mosaic and maize chlorotic dwarf diseases in Ohio. Phytopathology, 64(11):1455-1459

Madden LV; Knoke JK; Louie R, 1990. Spread of maize chlorotic dwarf virus in maize fields by its leafhopper vector, Graminella nigrifrons. Phytopathology, 80(3):291-298

Matthews REF, 1991. Plant Virology. London, UK: Academic Press, Inc., Ed. 3, 813 pp.

McMullen MD; Louie R, 1989. The linkage of molecular markers to a gene controlling the symptom response in maize to maize dwarf mosaic virus. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 2(6):309-314

McMullen MD; Roth BA; Townsend R, 1996. Maize chlorotic dwarf virus and resistance thereto. International Patent Publication, Number 5569828.

Milbrath GM; Tosic M, 1974. Occurrence of maize chlorotic dwarf in Illinois. Plant Disease Reporter, 58:420.

Mzira CN, 1993. Maize chlorotic dwarf virus strain M1, A distinct member of the Machlovirus group. PhD. Thesis. Columbus, USA: Ohio State University.

Naidu B; Josephson LM, 1976. Genetic analysis of resistance to the corn virus disease complex. Crop Science, 16(2):167-172

Nault LR, 1976. Vectors of maize viruses. In: Williams LE, Gordon DT, Nault LR, ed. Proceedings, International maize virus disease colloquium and workshop. Wooster, Ohio, USA: Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 111-114

Nault LR, 1997. Arthropod transmission of plant viruses: a new synthesis. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 90(5):521-541; 6 pp. of ref.

Nault LR; Bradfute OE, 1979. Corn stunt: involvement of a complex of leafhopper-borne pathogens. Maramorosch, K.; Harris, K. F. [Editors]: Leafhopper vectors and plant disease agents. London, UK: Academic Press, 561-586

Nault LR; Findley WR, 1981. Zea diploperennis primitive relative offers new traits for corn improvement. Ohio Report on Research and Development in Agriculture, Home Economics, and Natural Resources, 66:90-92.

Nault LR; Gordon DT; Damsteegt VD; Iltis HH, 1982. Response of annual and perennial teosintes (Zea) to six maize viruses. Plant Disease, 66(1):61-62

Nault LR; Gordon DT; Robertson DC; Bradfute OE, 1976. Host range of maize chlorotic dwarf virus. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(5):374-377

Nault LR; Madden LV, 1988. Phylogenetic relatedness of maize chlorotic dwarf virus leafhopper vectors. Phytopathology, 78(12, II):1683-1687

Nault LR; Styer WE; Knoke JK; Pitre HN, 1973. Semipersistent transmission of leafhopper-borne maize chlorotic dwarf virus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 66(6):1271-1273

Nelson LR; Scott GE, 1973. Diallel analysis of resistance of corn (Zea mays L.) to corn stunt. Crop Science, 13(2):162-164

Pirone TP; Bradfute OE; Freytag PH; Lung MCY; Poneleit CG, 1972. Virus-like particles associated with a leafhopper-transmitted disease of corn in Kentucky. Plant Disease Reporter, 56:652-656.

Pitre HN, 1966. Corn virus diseases of recent occurrence in southeastern United States with emphasis on the corn stunt virus-vector-plant interrelationships in Mississippi. Proceedings of the North Central Branch of the Entomological Society of America, 21:43-47.

Pitre HN, 1968. A preliminary study of corn stunt vector populations in relation to corn planting dates in Mississippi. Notes on disease incidence and severity. Journal of Economic Entomology, 61:847-849.

Pitre HN, 1968. Effect of insecticidal sprays on stunt and mosaic virus diseases of corn in small field plots in Mississippi. Journal of Economic Entomology, 61:585-587.

Pitre HN, 1968. Systemic insecticides for control of the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, and effect on corn stunt disease. Journal of Economic Entomology, 61:765-768.

Pitre HN; Boyd FJ, 1970. A study of the role of weeds in corn fields in the epidemiology of corn stunt disease. Journal of Economic Entomology, 63:195-197.

Pitre HNJr., Hepner LW, 1967. Seasonal incidence of indigenous leafhoppers (Homoptera:Cicadellidae) on corn and several winter crops in Mississippi. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 60:1044-1055.

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Reeves JT; Jackson AO; Paschke JD; Lister RM, 1978. Use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of two maize viruses. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(8):667-671

Rodriguez CM; Madden LV; Nault LR; Louie R, 1993. Spread of maize chlorotic dwarf virus from infected corn and Johnsongrass by Graminella nigrifrons. Plant Disease, 77(1):55-60

Rosenkranz E, 1969. A new leafhopper-transmissible corn stunt disease agent in Ohio. Phytopathology, 59:1344-1346.

Rosenkranz E; Scott GE, 1986. Mode of inheritance of resistance in corn to maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV). Phytopathology, 76:1095-1096.

Rosenkranz E; Scott GE, 1987. Type of gene action in the resistance to maize chlorotic dwarf virus in corn. Phytopathology, 77(9):1293-1296

Rosenkranz EE, 1972. Present status of MDM, corn stunt, and other virus and viruslike diseases of corn and sorghum. In: 27th Annual Corn and Sorghum Research Conference Proceedings, Washington, DC, 65-79.

Ross MA, 1986. Johnsongrass. Two decades of progress in control. Crops and Soils Magazine, 39(3):12-14

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Sedlacek JD; Freytag PH, 1986. Aspects of the field biology of the blackfaced leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in corn and pastures in Kentucky. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(3):605-613

Stoner WN, 1964. Corn stunt disease in the United States through 1963. Plant Disease Reporter, 48:640-644.

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Distribution References

Ayers J E, Boyle J S, Gordon D T, 1978. The occurrence of maize chlorotic dwarf and maize dwarf mosaic viruses in Pennsylvania in 1977. Plant Disease Reporter. 62 (9), 820-821.

Bradfute OE, Gingery RE, Gordon DT, Nault LR, 1972. Tissue ultrastructure, sedimentation and leafhopper transmission of a virus associated with a maize dwarfing disease. In: Journal of Cellular Biology, 55 25a.

Bradfute OE, Robertson DC, 1974. Identification of the Mississippi corn stunt agent by electron microscopy. [Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society], 1 35-36.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Damsteegt V D, 1977. Survey for corn viruses in Maryland, 1975. Plant Disease Reporter. 61 (3), 179-182.

Gordon D T, Nault L R, 1977. Involvement of maize chlorotic dwarf virus and other agents in stunting diseases of Zea mays in the United States. Phytopathology. 67 (1), 27-36. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-67-27

Kuhn C W, Jellum M D, All J N, 1975. Effect of carbofuran treatment on corn yield, maize chlorotic dwarf and maize dwarf mosaic virus diseases, and leafhopper populations. Phytopathology. 65 (9), 1017-1020. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-65-1017

Louie R, Knoke J K, Gordon D T, 1974. Epiphytotics of maize dwarf mosaic and maize chlorotic dwarf diseases in Ohio. Phytopathology. 64 (11), 1455-1459. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-64-1455

Milbrath GM, Tosic M, 1974. Occurrence of maize chlorotic dwarf in Illinois. In: Plant Disease Reporter, 58 420.

Pirone T P, Bradfute O E, Freytag P H, Lung M C Y, Poneleit C G, 1972. Virus-like particles associated with a leafhopper-transmitted disease of corn in Kentucky. Plant Disease Reporter. 56 (8), 652-656.

Reddick B B, Habera L F, Law M D, 1997. Nucleotide sequence and taxonomy of maize chlorotic dwarf virus within the family Sesquiviridae. Journal of General Virology. 78 (5), 1165-1174.

Reeves J T, Jackson A O, Paschke J D, Lister R M, 1978. Use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of two maize viruses. Plant Disease Reporter. 62 (8), 667-671.

ROSENKRANZ E, 1969. A new leafhopper-transmissible corn stunt disease agent in Ohio. Phytopathology. 59 (9), 1344-1346 pp.

Rosenkranz EE, 1972. Present status of MDM, corn stunt, and other virus and viruslike diseases of corn and sorghum. [27th Annual Corn and Sorghum Research Conference Proceedings], Washington, DC, 65-79.

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