Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Malus domestica
(apple)

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Datasheet

Malus domestica (apple)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Malus domestica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • apple
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Malus domestica (apple); picked produce. Berkeley Farmers' Market, Berkeley, California, USA. ‎December‎ ‎‎2013.
TitleFruits
CaptionMalus domestica (apple); picked produce. Berkeley Farmers' Market, Berkeley, California, USA. ‎December‎ ‎‎2013.
Copyright©Franco Folini/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Malus domestica (apple); picked produce. Berkeley Farmers' Market, Berkeley, California, USA. ‎December‎ ‎‎2013.
FruitsMalus domestica (apple); picked produce. Berkeley Farmers' Market, Berkeley, California, USA. ‎December‎ ‎‎2013.©Franco Folini/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Malus domestica (apple); blossom and foliage. Spain. April 2012.
Title‎Blossom
CaptionMalus domestica (apple); blossom and foliage. Spain. April 2012.
Copyright©Jesús Cabrera/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Malus domestica (apple); blossom and foliage. Spain. April 2012.
‎BlossomMalus domestica (apple); blossom and foliage. Spain. April 2012.©Jesús Cabrera/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Malus domestica (apple); developing fruits.
Title‎Developing fruits
CaptionMalus domestica (apple); developing fruits.
Copyright©Ettore Balocchi/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Malus domestica (apple); developing fruits.
‎Developing fruitsMalus domestica (apple); developing fruits.©Ettore Balocchi/via flickr - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Malus domestica Borkh.

Preferred Common Name

  • apple

Other Scientific Names

  • Malus pumila Mill.
  • Malus sylvestris var. domestica
  • Pyrus malus L.
  • Pyrus sylvestris

International Common Names

  • English: apple tree
  • Spanish: manzano
  • French: pommier
  • Russian: yablonya
  • Chinese: ping guo shi
  • Portuguese: maceira

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Apfelbaum; Apfelbaum, Johannis-
  • Greece: milia
  • Italy: melo
  • Japan: ringo no ki
  • Netherlands: appelboom
  • Poland: jablon
  • Sweden: aeppeltraed
  • Turkey: elma agaci

EPPO code

  • MABPM (Malus pumila)
  • MABSD (Malus domestica)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rosales
  •                         Family: Rosaceae
  •                             Genus: Malus
  •                                 Species: Malus domestica

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 22 Jul 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentApples production (2008) 190,010 MT (F)
EgyptPresentApples production (2008) 550,743 MT
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresentApples production (2008) 3,564 MT (F)
MadagascarPresentApples production (2008) 7,100 MT (F)
MoroccoPresentApples production (2008) 404,310 MT
RéunionPresentApples production (2008) 120 MT (F)
South AfricaPresentApples production (2008) 687,121 MT
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresentApples production (2008) 110,000 MT
ZimbabwePresentApples production (2008) 7,000 MT (F)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentApples production (2008) 17,500 MT (F)
ArmeniaPresentApples production (2008) 110,000 MT (*)
AzerbaijanPresentApples production (2008) 205,021 MT
BhutanPresentApples production (2008) 7,076 MT (F)
ChinaPresentApples production (2008) 2,985,1163 MT
-BeijingPresent
-GansuPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresentApples production (2008) 2,001,400 MT (F)
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresentApples production (2008) 31,000 MT (F)
IsraelPresentApples production (2008) 96,172 MT
JapanPresentApples production (2008) 840,100 MT (F)
JordanPresentApples production (2008) 34,913 MT
KazakhstanPresentApples production (2008) 94,740 MT
KyrgyzstanPresentApples production (2008) 135,000 MT (*)
LebanonPresentApples production (2008) 125,200 MT (F)
NepalPresentApples production (2008) 35,700 MT
PakistanPresentApples production (2008) 582,512 MT
South KoreaPresentApples production (2008) 470,865 MT
SyriaPresentApples production (2008) 280,247 MT (F)
TajikistanPresentApples production (2008) 185,500 MT (*)
TurkeyPresentApples production (2008) 2,504,490 MT
TurkmenistanPresentApples production (2008) 61,500 MT (*)
UzbekistanPresentApples production (2008) 585,000 MT (*)
YemenPresentApples production (2008) 19,000 MT (F)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentApples production (2008) 22,560 MT
AustriaPresentApples production (2008) 551,356 MT
BelarusPresentApples production (2008) 379,809 MT
BelgiumPresentApples production (2008) 350,000 MT (F)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresentApples production (2008) 23,500 MT
CroatiaPresentApples production (2008) 73,000 MT (*)
CyprusPresentApples production (2008) 9,970 MT
CzechiaPresentApples production (2008) 157,790 MT
DenmarkPresentApples production (2008) 32,000 MT (F)
EstoniaPresentApples production (2008) 4,087 MT (F)
FinlandPresentApples production (2008) 4,282 MT
FrancePresentApples production (2008) 1,940,200 MT
GermanyPresentApples production (2008) 1,046,995 MT
GreecePresentApples production (2008) 234,700 MT
HungaryPresentApples production (2008) 568,600 MT
IcelandPresentIntroduced1953
IrelandPresentApples production (2008) 16,000 MT (F)
ItalyPresentApples production (2008) 2,208,227 MT
KosovoPresent
LatviaPresentApples production (2008) 28,859 MT
LithuaniaPresentApples production (2008) 74,251 MT
LuxembourgPresentApples production (2008) 4,125 MT
MaltaPresentApples production (2008) 100 MT (F)
MoldovaPresentApples production (2008) 255,086 MT
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsPresentApples production (2008) 375,000 MT
North MacedoniaPresent
NorwayPresentApples production (2008) 16,701 MT
PolandPresentApples production (2008) 2,830,870 MT
PortugalPresentApples production (2008) 238,800 MT
-AzoresPresentIntroduced1937
RomaniaPresentApples production (2008) 459,016 MT
RussiaPresentApples production (2008) 1,467,000 MT (*)
SerbiaPresentApples production (2008) 235,601 MT
SlovakiaPresentApples production (2008) 41,803 MT
SloveniaPresentApples production (2008) 102,893 MT
SpainPresentApples production (2008) 721,200 MT
Svalbard and Jan MayenPresentIntroduced1930
SwedenPresentApples production (2008) 22,200 MT
SwitzerlandPresentApples production (2008) 254,628 MT
UkrainePresentApples production (2008) 719,300 MT
United KingdomPresentApples production (2008) 243,100 MT
-EnglandPresent

North America

CanadaPresentApples production (2008) 393,435 MT
-British ColumbiaPresent
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresent
-QuebecPresent
GrenadaPresentApples production (2008) 570 MT (F)
GuatemalaPresentApples production (2008) 22,448 MT (F)
HondurasPresentApples production (2008) 175 MT (F)
MexicoPresentApples production (2008) 524,755 MT
United StatesPresentApples production (2008) 4,431,280 MT
-AlaskaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-New YorkPresent
-OhioPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-WashingtonPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentApples production (2008) 270,476 MT (F)
-New South WalesPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresentApples production (2008) 355,000 MT (F)

South America

ArgentinaPresentApples production (2008) 1,300,000 MT (F)
BoliviaPresentApples production (2008) 9,850 MT (F)
BrazilPresentApples production (2008) 1,121,468 MT
-CearaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
ChilePresentApples production (2008) 1,370,000 MT (F)
ColombiaPresentApples production (2008) 1,050 MT
EcuadorPresentApples production (2008) 17,500 MT (F)
ParaguayPresentApples production (2008) 650 MT (F)
PeruPresentApples production (2008) 136,744 MT (F)
UruguayPresentApples production (2008) 51,266 MT

References

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Audemard H; Burgerjon A; Baudry O; Bergère D; Breniaux D; Delay JC; Desvaux R; Formantin C; Gendrier JP; Tarbouriech MF, 1992. Evaluation of 100 trials of carpovirusine, a granulosis virus preparation to control codling moth Cydia pomonella L. in apple orchards. (Cent essais de lutte contre la carpocapse Cydia pomonella L. en verger de pommiers avec la carpovirusine, une préparation de virus de la granulose.) In: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 27(1-4). 45-49.

Beers EH; Suckling DM; Prokopy RJ; Avilla J, 2003. Ecology and management of apple arthropod pests. In: Apples: botany, production and uses [ed. by Ferree, D. C.\Warrington, I. J.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 489-519. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20073012725

Billing E, 2000. Fire blight risk assessment systems and models. In: Fire blight: the disease and its causative agent, Erwinia amylovora [ed. by Vanneste JL] Wallingford, UK: CABI, 293-318.

Billing E, 2000. Fire blight risk assessment systems and models. In: Vanneste, JL, ed. Fire blight the disease and its causative agent, Erwinia amylovora. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 293-318.

Brown SK; Maloney KE, 2003. Genetic improvement of apple: breeding, markers, mapping and biotechnology. In: Apples: botany, production and uses [ed. by Ferree, D. C.\Warrington, I. J.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 31-59. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20073012709

Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2014. The biology of Malus domestica Borkh. (apple). Biology Document BIO2014-01: a companion document to Directive 94-08 (Dir94-08), Assessment Criteria for Determining Environmental Safety of Plant with Novel Traits. Ottawa, ON, Canada: Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

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Ellis MA; Ferree DC; Spring DE, 1981. Photosynthesis, transpiration, and carbohydrate content of apple leaves infected by Podosphaera leucotricha. Phytopathology, 71(4):392-395.

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Fazio G; Forsline P; Aldwinckle H; Pons L, 2008. The apple collection in Geneva, NY: a resource for the apple industry today and for generations to come. New York Fruit Quarterly, 16(1):5-8. http://www.nyshs.org/pdf/fq/2008-Volume-16/Vol-16-No-1/The-Apple-Collection-in-Geneva,-NY-A-Resource-for-the-Apple-Industry-Today-and-for-Generations-to-Come.pdf

Ferree DC; Warrington IJ, 2003. Apples: botany, production and uses [ed. by Ferree, D. C.\Warrington, I. J.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, xi + 660 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20033083468

Forsline PL; Dickson EE; Djangaliev AD, 1994. Collection of wild Malus, Vitis, and other fruit species genetic resources in Kazakhstan and neighboring republics. HortScience, 29(5):433.

Grove GG; Eastwell KC; Jones AL; Sutton TB, 2003. Diseases of apple. In: Apples: botany, production and uses [ed. by Ferree, D. C.\Warrington, I. J.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 459-488. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20073012724

Hancock JF; Luby JJ; Brown SK; Lobos GA, 2008. Apples. In: Temperate fruit crop breeding: germplasm to genomics [ed. by Hancock, J. F.]. New York, USA: Springer Science+Business Media BV, 1-37.

Harper D, 2016. Apple. Online etymology dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=apple

Harris SA; Robinson JP; Juniper BE, 2002. Genetic clues to the origin of the apple. Trends in Genetics, 18(8):426-430.

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Hoyt SC, 1969. Integrated chemical control of insects and biological control of mites on apple in Washington. Journal of Economic Entomology, 62:74-86.

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Korban SS; Skirvin RM, 1984. Nomenclature of the cultivated apple. HortScience, 19(2):177-180.

Kostiainen TS; Hoy MA, 1996. The Phytoseiidae as biological control agents of pest mites and insects - a bibliography (1960-1994). Monograph No. 17. Gainesville, Florida, USA: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 355 pp.

Luby JJ, 2003. Taxonomic classification and brief history. In: Apples: botany, production and uses [ed. by Ferree, D. C.\Warrington, I. J.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 1-14. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20073012707

Mabberley DJ; Jarvis CE; Juniper BE, 2001. The name of the apple. Telopea, 9(2):421-430.

MacHardy WE, 1996. Apple scab: biology, epidemiology, and management. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society (APS Press), xvi + 545 pp.

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Tanada Y, 1964. A granulosis virus of the codling moth, Carpocapsa pomonella (Linnaeus) (Olethreutidae, Lepidoptera) Journal of Insect Pathology, 6(3):378-380.

Tedeschi, R., Picciau, L., Quaglino, F., Abou-Jawdah, Y., Lova, M. M., Jawhari, M., Casati, P., Cominetti, A., Choueiri, E., Abdul-Nour, H., Bianco, P. A., Alma, A., 2015. A cixiid survey for natural potential vectors of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium' in Lebanon and preliminary transmission trials. Annals of Applied Biology, 166(3), 372-388. doi: 10.1111/aab.12188

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Distribution References

Abid M, Chohan S, Perveen R, Anees M, 2019. First report of bitter rot of apple caused by Colletotrichum siamense in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 103 (3), 583-584. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-18-1573-PDN

Abkhoo J, 2015. Powdery mildews causing fungi in Iran. Mycopath. 13 (1), 51-55. http://111.68.103.26/journals/index.php/mycopath/article/viewFile/673/354

Acheampong S, Strong W B, Schwartz M D, Higgins R J, Thurston M A, Walker E J, Roberts J, 2016. First Canadian records for two invasive seed-feeding bugs, Arocatus melanocephalus (Fabricius, 1798) and Raglius alboacuminatus (Goeze, 1778), and a range extension for a third species, Rhyparochromus vulgaris (Schilling, 1829) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia. 74-78. https://journal.entsocbc.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/940/992

Adeldoost Y, Heydari R, Esmaeili M, Miraeiz E, 2017. Description of some known species of the genus Aphelenchoides Fisher, 1984 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) from Iran. Journal of Crop Protection. 6 (1), 125-143. http://jcp.modares.ac.ir/article-3-5102-en.pdf

Afechtal M, Djelouah K, D'Onghia A M, 2010. The first survey of pome fruit viruses in Morocco. In: Julius-Kühn-Archiv. Quedlinburg, Germany: Julius Kühn Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen. 253. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/issue/archive

Akbaș B, Ilhan D, 2005. Widespread distribution of Apple mosaic virus on apple in Turkey. Plant Disease. 89 (9), 1010. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-1010C

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Bİrİșİk N, Myrta A, Hassan M, Baloğlu S, 2008. A preliminary account on apple viruses in Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Acta Horticulturae. 125-130. http://www.actahort.org

Boubourakas I N, Arambatzis C, Kyriakopoulou P E, Dovas C, 2008. Amelioration of a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of ASSVd, PBCVd and PLMVd viroids, and their presence in cultivated and wild pome and stone fruits in Greece. Acta Horticulturae. 519-527. http://www.actahort.org

Brakta A, Thakur P D, Handa A, 2013. First report of apple top working disease caused by viruses (Apple stem grooving virus, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, and Apple stem pitting virus) in apple in India. Plant Disease. 97 (7), 1001-1002. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-12-1082-PDN

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