Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Malus domestica
(apple)

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Datasheet

Malus domestica (apple)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Malus domestica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • apple
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Uses List
  • Agroforestry
  • Fuelwood
  • Graft stock
  • Ornamental
  • Related to

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Malus domestica (apple); picked produce. Berkeley Farmers' Market, Berkeley, California, USA. ‎December‎ ‎‎2013.
TitleFruits
CaptionMalus domestica (apple); picked produce. Berkeley Farmers' Market, Berkeley, California, USA. ‎December‎ ‎‎2013.
Copyright©Franco Folini/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Malus domestica (apple); picked produce. Berkeley Farmers' Market, Berkeley, California, USA. ‎December‎ ‎‎2013.
FruitsMalus domestica (apple); picked produce. Berkeley Farmers' Market, Berkeley, California, USA. ‎December‎ ‎‎2013.©Franco Folini/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Malus domestica (apple); blossom and foliage. Spain. April 2012.
Title‎Blossom
CaptionMalus domestica (apple); blossom and foliage. Spain. April 2012.
Copyright©Jesús Cabrera/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Malus domestica (apple); blossom and foliage. Spain. April 2012.
‎BlossomMalus domestica (apple); blossom and foliage. Spain. April 2012.©Jesús Cabrera/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Malus domestica (apple); developing fruits.
Title‎Developing fruits
CaptionMalus domestica (apple); developing fruits.
Copyright©Ettore Balocchi/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Malus domestica (apple); developing fruits.
‎Developing fruitsMalus domestica (apple); developing fruits.©Ettore Balocchi/via flickr - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Malus domestica Borkh.

Preferred Common Name

  • apple

Other Scientific Names

  • Malus pumila Mill.
  • Malus sylvestris var. domestica
  • Pyrus malus L.
  • Pyrus sylvestris

International Common Names

  • English: apple tree
  • Spanish: manzano
  • French: pommier
  • Russian: yablonya
  • Chinese: ping guo shi
  • Portuguese: maceira

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Apfelbaum; Apfelbaum, Johannis-
  • Greece: milia
  • Italy: melo
  • Japan: ringo no ki
  • Netherlands: appelboom
  • Poland: jablon
  • Sweden: aeppeltraed
  • Turkey: elma agaci

EPPO code

  • MABPM (Malus pumila)
  • MABSD (Malus domestica)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rosales
  •                         Family: Rosaceae
  •                             Genus: Malus
  •                                 Species: Malus domestica

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Acetobacter aceti; Acetobacter pasteurianus (bacterial brown rot of apple and pear); Acronicta rumicis (knotgrass moth); Aculus schlechtendali (apple rust mite); Adoxophyes orana (summer fruit tortrix); Aeolesthes sarta (city longhorn beetle); Agrilus mali (apple buprestid); Agrotis ipsilon (black cutworm); Alternaria mali (leaf spot: apple); Amphitetranychus viennensis (hawthorn (spider) mite); Anoplophora chinensis (black and white citrus longhorn); Anthonomus pomorum (apple blossom weevil); Anthonomus quadrigibbus (apple curculio); Aphis pomi (apple aphid); Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); Aporia crataegi (black-veined white); Apple chat fruit disease (apple chat fruit); Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (apricot butteratura); Apple dimple fruit viroid; Apple green crinkle disease (green crinkle); Apple mosaic virus (chestnut mosaic); Apple ringspot disease (Granny Smith ring spot); Apple rubbery wood phytoplasma (apple rubbery wood); Apple scar skin viroid (apple dimple); Apple star crack agent (apple star crack); Apple stem grooving virus; Apple stem pitting virus (apple Spy 227 epinasty & decline); Archips fuscocupreanus; Archips podanus (great brown twist moth); Archips rosana (European leaf roller); Argyrotaenia citrana (orange tortrix); Bactrocera aquilonis; Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly); Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly); Botryosphaeria berengeriana f.sp. pyricola (Physalospora canker); Botryosphaeria ribis (canker: apple); Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); Brevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite); Bryobia rubrioculus (brown apple mite); Candidula intersecta (wrinkled dune snail); Carposina sasakii (peach fruit moth); Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly); Ceresa alta (buffalo treehopper); Cherry rasp leaf virus (cherry rasp leaf); Choreutis pariana (apple-and-thorn skeletonizer); Choristoneura rosaceana (oblique banded leaf roller); Clover yellow mosaic virus; Colaspis brunnea (grape colaspis); Conyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane); Cossus cossus (carpenter moth); Cydia pomonella (codling moth); Dasineura mali (apple leaf-curling midge); Diaporthe eres (apple leaf, branch and fruit fungus); Diplocarpon mali; Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila); Dysaphis plantaginea (rosy apple aphid); Dysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug); Epidiaspis leperii (European pear scale); Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth); Eriosoma lanigerum (woolly aphid); Erwinia amylovora (fireblight); Eulecanium tiliae (nut scale); Euproctis chrysorrhoea (brown-tail moth); Forficula auricularia (European earwig); Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips); Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier); Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier); Glomerella cingulata (anthracnose); Gluconobacter oxydans; Grapholita inopinata (Manchurian fruit moth); Grapholita prunivora (plum moth); Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae (cedar apple rust); Gymnosporangium yamadae (Japanese apple rust); Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird); Hedya nubiferana (bud moth); Helicotylenchus dihystera (common spiral nematode); Homona coffearia (tea tortrix); Homona magnanima (oriental tea tortrix); Hoplocampa; Hyphantria cunea (mulberry moth); Lacanobia subjuncta; Lepidium draba (hoary cress); Lepidosaphes ulmi (oystershell scale); Leucoptera malifoliella (pear leaf blister moth); Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle); Malacosoma neustria (common lackey); Malacosoma parallela (mountain ring silk moth); Medicago lupulina (black medick); Melolontha melolontha (white grub cockchafer); Monilia polystroma (Asiatic brown rot); Monilinia fructigena (brown rot); Myzus persicae (green peach aphid); Nattrassia mangiferae (branch wilt of apple); Naupactus xanthographus (South American fruit tree weevil); Neonectria ditissima (Nectria canker (apple, pear)); Orgyia antiqua (European tussock moth); Orgyia leucostigma (white-marked tussock moth); Orthosia cerasi (common quaker); Otiorhynchus cribricollis (weevil, apple); Oxalis latifolia (sorrel); Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); Pandemis cerasana (common twist moth); Pandemis heparana (apple brown tortrix); Panonychus ulmi (European red spider mite); Pantoea agglomerans (bacterial grapevine blight); Parlatoria oleae (olive scale); Parthenolecanium persicae (peach scale); Penicillium expansum (blue mould of stored apple); Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass); Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed); Pezicula malicorticis (apple anthracnose); Phlyctinus callosus (vine calandra); Phyllactinia mali (powdery mildew of pear); Phyllonorycter blancardella (spotted tentiform leafminer); Phyllonorycter crataegella (apple blotch leafminer); Phyllonorycter ringoniella (apple leaf miner); Phyllosticta solitaria (apple blotch); Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (cotton root rot); Phytophthora cactorum (apple collar rot); Phytophthora cambivora (root rot of forest trees); Phytophthora cryptogea (tomato foot rot); Phytophthora megasperma (root rot); Phytoplasma mali (apple proliferation); Podosphaera leucotricha (powdery mildew of apple); Polygonum aviculare (prostrate knotweed); Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion); Proeulia auraria (Chilean fruit tree leaf folder); Proeulia chrysopteris; Pseudococcus calceolariae (scarlet mealybug); Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug); Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans (blister spot of apple); Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); Pythium ultimum (black-leg of seedlings); Ramularia eucalypti; Rhagoletis pomonella (apple maggot); Rhizobium radiobacter (crown gall); Rhopalosiphum insertum (apple-grass aphid); Rosellinia necatrix (dematophora root rot); Rubus ellipticus (yellow Himalayan raspberry); Saturnia pavonia (small emperor moth); Saturnia pyri (giant emperor moth); Schizothyrium pomi (fly speck: apple); Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (cottony soft rot); Scolytus rugulosus (shothole borer); Senecio vulgaris; Solanum carolinense (horsenettle); Spilonota ocellana (eyespotted bud moth); Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar); Synanthedon myopaeformis (hornet clearwing moth); Tetranychus cinnabarinus (carmine spider mite); Tetranychus kanzawai (kanzawa spider mite); Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite); Thrips imaginis (plague thrips); Tomato ringspot virus (ringspot of tomato); Trichodorus (stubby root nematodes); Trichodorus viruliferus (stubby root nematode); Typhlocyba pomaria (white apple leafhopper); Typhlodromus khosrovensis; Valsa ceratosperma (dieback of apple); Valsa malicola; Venturia inaequalis (apple scab); Xiphinema americanum (dagger nematode); Xiphinema rivesi (dagger nematode); Xyleborus dispar (pear blight beetle); Xylosandrus germanus (black timber bark beetle); Xylotrechus namanganensis (namangan longhorn beetle); Yponomeuta malinellus (apple and cherry ermine moths); Zeuzera pyrina (moth, wood leopard)

Minor host of:

Acleris rhombana; Adoretus versutus (rose beetle); Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); Alternaria tenuissima (nailhead spot of tomato); Ametastegia; Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly); Anastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly); Anastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly); Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly); Anthonomus piri (apple bud weevil); Apate monachus (black borer); Aphis gossypii (cotton aphid); Armillaria tabescens (armillaria root rot); Aspergillus flavus (Aspergillus ear rot); Athelia rolfsii (sclerotium rot); Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly); Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Botryosphaeria stevensii (Botryosphaeria disease, grapevine); Byturus tomentosus (raspberry beetle); Caliroa cerasi (pear and cherry slugworm); Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni; Ceratitis rosa (Natal fruit fly); Chaetocnema confinis (flea beetle); Cherry leaf roll virus (walnut ringspot); Chinavia hilaris (green stink bug); Chrysomphalus aonidum (circular scale); Cilix glaucata; Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle); Colletotrichum fioriniae; Colletotrichum fragariae (anthracnose of strawberry); Colletotrichum fructicola; Colletotrichum karsti; Colletotrichum nymphaeae; Conogethes punctiferalis (castor capsule borer); Conotrachelus nenuphar (plum curculio); Conyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane); Cornu aspersum (common garden snail); Cosmia trapezina; Cucumber mosaic virus (cucumber mosaic); Emex australis (Doublegee); Emex spinosa (spiny emex); Empoasca fabae (potato leafhopper); Erannis defoliaria (mottled umber moth); Eutypa lata (Eutypa dieback); Euzophera pinguis (olive moth); Fomitopsis pinicola (brown crumbly rot); Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Globisporangium irregulare (dieback: carrot); Grapholita funebrana (red plum maggot); Grapholita molesta (Oriental fruit moth); Grapholita packardi (cherry fruitworm); Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (European mole cricket); Gymnosporangium clavipes (quince rust); Gymnosporangium globosum (American hawthorn rust); Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid); Hyalopterus pruni (mealy plum aphid); Icerya aegyptiaca (breadfruit mealybug); Lasiodiplodia brasiliensis; Longidorus elongatus (needle nematode); Lopholeucaspis japonica (Japanese baton shaped scale); Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth); Lymantria monacha (nun moth); Macrothylacia rubi; Malacosoma americanum (eastern tent caterpillar); Mamestra brassicae (cabbage moth); Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode); Monilinia fructicola (brown rot); Monilinia laxa (blossom blight); Mucor piriformis (Mucor post-harvest decay); Neofusicoccum ribis; Operophtera brumata (winter moth); Orthotylus marginalis (apple capsid, dark green); Ostrinia nubilalis (European maize borer); Panonychus citri (citrus red mite); Pantomorus cervinus (Fuller's rose beetle); Paratrichodorus porosus; Parlatoria pergandii (chaff scale); Parthenolecanium corni (European fruit lecanium); Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass); Pear blister canker viroid; Penicillium griseofulvum; Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth); Petrobia latens (brown wheat mite); Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis; Phytoplasma aurantifolia (lime witches' broom phytoplasma); Phytoplasma pyri (pear decline); Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); Poa annua (annual meadowgrass); Pratylenchus loosi (root lesion nematode); Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (almond bud failure); Pseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); Pseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive); Pseudomonas viridiflava (bacterial leaf blight of tomato (USA)); Pterochloroides persicae (peach black aphid); Recurvaria nanella (lesser bud moth); Richardia brasiliensis (white-eye (Australia)); Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); Stellaria media (common chickweed); Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion); Tobacco mosaic virus (tobacco mosaic); Tobacco necrosis virus (augusta disease of tulip); Trichothecium roseum (fruit rot of tomato); Truncatella angustata; Urophorus humeralis (pineapple sap beetle); Venturia asperata; Xestia c-nigrum (spotted cutworm); Xiphinema index (fan-leaf virus nematode); Xyleborinus saxesenii (fruit-tree pinhole borer)

Wild host of:

Cryphonectria parasitica (blight of chestnut)

Associated with (not a host):

Anarsia lineatella (peach twig borer); Aspergillus ustus; Aspergillus versicolor (antagonist); Atractotomus mali (bug, brown (usa)); Aureobasidium pullulans (blue stain of wood); Bacillus cereus; Bacillus subtilis; Burkholderia cepacia (sour skin of onion); Campylomma verbasci (mullein bug); Candidatus Phytoplasma solani (Stolbur phytoplasma); Cylindrocarpon liriodendri; Dactylonectria pauciseptata; Epicoccum nigrum (red blotch of grains); Metaseiulus occidentalis (western predatory mite); Neonectria macrodidyma; Orthotydeus californicus; Psallus ambiguus; Pseudomonas fluorescens (pink eye: potato); Trichoderma harzianum (hyperparasite of Rhizoctonia solani)

Host of (source - data mining):

Acleris fimbriana; Acleris minuta (yellowheaded fireworm); Acronicta psi (grey dagger moth); Adoxophyes orana fasciata; Agriopis bajaria; Amphipyra pyramidea (copper underwing); Apocheima cinerarium; Apocheima pilosaria (pale brindled beauty); Archips argyrospilus (fruit-tree leaf roller); Archips breviplicanus (leafroller, Asiatic); Archips crataeganus; Archips subsidiaria; Archips termias; Archips xylosteanus (apple, leafroller); Argyresthia conjugella (apple fruit moth); Argyrotaenia ljungiana; Argyrotaenia velutinana (redbanded leafroller); Aspergillus clavatus; Asteromella mali; Asymmetrasca decedens; Athelia bombacina (antagonist: Venturia spp.); Bacchisa fortunei (pear, borer); Blastobasis decolorella; Botryosphaeria obtusa (black rot of apple); Brahmina coriacea; Brevipalpus obovatus (scarlet tea mite); Cacopsylla mali (apple sucker); Callisto coffeella (fruit, leafminer); Calliteara horsfieldii; Carpophilus mutilatus (flower beetle); Cenopalpus pulcher (scarlet, mite, flat (England)); Chymomyza amoena; Clepsis spectrana (oblique-banded caterpillar); Cochliobolus cynodontis (browning: Bermuda grass); Coleophora prunifoliae; Colletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); Cordana musae (Cordana leaf spot); Corticium koleroga (thread blight); Cotinis nitida (june beetle, green); Ctenopseustis obliquana; Cydia janthinana; Cydia lobarzewskii; Cylindrocarpon didymum; Diaporthe ambigua (canker: pear); Diaspidiotus ancylus (putnam scale); Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); Diptacus gigantorhynchus (plum gall mite); Drosophila immigrans; Drosophila lativittata; Drosophila simulans; Dysaphis devecta (leaf-curling, aphid, rosy); Dysaphis pyri (pear, aphid); Edwardsiana crataegi (apple leaf jassid); Edwardsiana rosae (rose leafhopper); Enarmonia formosana (bark tortrix); Eotetranychus pruni; Eotetranychus uncatus; Eurhizococcus brasiliensis; Eurytoma schreineri; Fieberiella florii; Frankliniella; Fusarium oxysporum (basal rot); Gibberella acuminata (stalk rot of maize); Gibberella tricincta (blight: grasses); Graphiphora augur; Gypsonoma minutana; Halyomorpha mista (stink bug, brown-marmorated); Haptoncus luteolus; Helicobasidium mompa (violet root rot of apple); Holcocerus arenicolus; Holotrichia longipennis; Hoplocampa testudinea (European apple sawfly); Hyalophora cecropia (cecropia moth); Hypoxylon serpens (wood rot: tea); Janus compressus; Lacanobia oleracea (bright-line brown-eye moth); Lygocoris communis (green apple bug); Lygocoris pabulinus (green capsid bug, common); Lyonetia clerkella (apple, leaf miner); Lyonetia prunifoliella; Lyonetia prunifoliella malinella; Lyonetia speculella; Macrodactylus subspinosus (rose chafer); Magicicada septendecim (periodical cicada); Malacosoma indicum; Megaplatypus mutatus; Metcalfa pruinosa (frosted moth-bug); Monilinia laxa f.sp. mali (blossom blight: apple); Mycosphaerella pomi (black spot: apple); Nectria cinnabarina (canker: apple); Neonectria radicicola (black root of strawberry); Operophtera bruceata (bruce spanworm); Orgyia recens; Oribius destructor (grey weevil); Oribius inimicus (grey weevil); Orthosia cruda (small quaker); Orthosia hibisci (speckled green fruitworm); Orthosia incerta (clouded drap); Osmia cornifrons (pollinator of apple (japan)); Ovatus malisuctus (apple leaf-curling aphid); Palaeolecanium bituberculatum; Pammene rhediella (mining, tortrix, fruitlet); Pandemis pyrusana (apple, pandemis); Parlatoria crypta; Parornix geminatella (unspotted tentiform leafminer); Penicillium digitatum (green mould); Pestalotia hartigii (stem girdling of balsam fir); Pezicula alba (bark canker: apple); Phenacoccus aceris (apple mealybug); Phyllachora pomigena (sooty blotch: apple); Phyllonorycter corylifoliella; Phyllonorycter cydoniella; Phyllonorycter elmaella (western tentiform leafminer); Phyllonorycter gerasimowi; Phyllonorycter mespilella; Phyllotreta nigripes; Phytophthora drechsleri (watermelon fruit rot); Phytophthora syringae (twig blight of lilac); Planotortrix excessana (orchard leafroller); Platynota flavedana (rusty brown, tortricid); Platynota idaeusalis (tufted apple, bud moth); Pleospora herbarum (leaf blight of onion); Plesiocoris rugicollis (apple, capsid); Polyphylla fullo (fuller); Pratylenchus neglectus (nematode, California meadow); Pratylenchus scribneri; Pseudexentera mali (pale apple leafroller); Pseudococcus maritimus (grape mealybug); Pseudomonas syringae (bacterial blast); Psylla melanoneura; Ptycholoma lecheanum; Rattus rattus (black rat); Retithrips syriacus (black vine thrips); Rhagoletis tabellaria; Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Rhopobota unipunctana; Scolytus amygdali; Stigmella malella (apple pygmy moth); Swammerdamia pyrella; Synanthedon hector (cherry tree borer); Synanthedon scitula (dogwood borer); Syndemis musculana; Tapinoma nigerrimum; Tetranychus arabicus; Tetranychus mcdanieli (mcDaniel spider mite); Thelonectria lucida (dry: orange root rot); Tischeria malifoliella (appleleaf trumpet miner); Trypodendron signatum; Valsa leucostoma (dieback: fruit trees); Valsa mali (dieback of apple); Venturia pyrina (black spot of pear); Zeuzera coffeae (coffee carpenter)

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Graft stock

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Genetic importance

  • Related to

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Fruits

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore