Lycium ferocissimum (African boxthorn)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Growth Stages
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Lycium ferocissimum Miers
Preferred Common Name
- African boxthorn
Other Scientific Names
- Lycium campanulatum E. Mey. ex C.H. Wright
- Lycium chinense Sensu Bentham non Miller
- Lycium europeum Auct.
- Lycium horridum Auct.
- Lycium macrocalyx Domin
International Common Names
- English: boxthorn; cape boxthorn
Local Common Names
- South Africa: bocksdorn; slangbessie
- LYUFE (Lycium ferocissimum)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Solanales
- Family: Solanaceae
- Genus: Lycium
- Species: Lycium ferocissimum
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 17 Dec 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Planted||Reference||Notes|
|South Africa||Present, Localized||Native|
|-Lord Howe Island||Present||Introduced||1963|
|-New South Wales||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Planted|
|-Northern Territory||Present, Localized||Invasive|
|-Queensland||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||Planted||First reported: before 1917|
|-South Australia||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Planted|
|-Western Australia||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Planted|
|New Zealand||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Most species of Lycium have a chromosome number of n=12 (2n=24), though hybridization must occur as triploids and hexaploids have also been identified.
Physiology and Phenology
L. ferocissimum flowers from July to March in New Zealand (Roy et al., 1998), and similarly in the southern hemisphere summer in its native South Africa and exotic range Australia. L. ferocissimum is, however, capable of flowering and fruiting at any time given sufficient moisture. It is regarded as a halophyte (Webb et al., 1988) and its leaves may contain chemicals making them unpalatable to livestock.
L. ferocissimum is hermaphroditic (Minne et al., 1994). Plants can flower from 2 years of age. Each berry contains up to 70 yellow or light-brown, oval, flattened seeds approximately 2.5 x 1.5 mm in size.
L. ferocissimum is tolerant of a wide range of climates and soil types, but prefers lighter soils such as deep loams (Fuller, 1998). It is tolerant to saline soils and salt-laden sea winds, and is particularly aggressive in dry, coastal environments and islands. It is said to thrive on better soils in Queensland, Australia, but generally cannot invade dense vegetation.
Often associated with coastline vegetation and dunes although it is sometimes the only vegetation on some exposed sites (Webb et al., 1988).
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||0||0|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||15||30|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||0||0|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||0||0|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||2||6||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||200||800||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Berries are ingested by birds and other small animals such as foxes (Fuller, 1998); the seeds remain viable after being voided. Seedlings are commonly found below habitual roosts of birds, such as under trees, fences and overhead wires. L. ferocissimum recently colonized Carnac Island, 8 km off the South Australian coast (Abbott et al., 2000) and long-distance spread by birds appears to be an effective dispersal mechanism.
Seeds can be dispersed by the disposal of agricultural refuse. Some spread occurs through contamination of agricultural produce, gravel or mud, but these are considered of minor importance compared to spread by birds or mammals (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992).
This species was intentionally introduced to Australia and New Zealand as a hedge plant in the 1800s. It is no longer grown for this purpose, but many of the non-coastal incursions have probably spread from existing hedges.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||weeds/seeds|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||weeds/seeds|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page
Social ImpactTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Produces spines, thorns or burrs
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Uses ListTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Mechanical Control
Large stands can be cleared by bulldozing, root-raking or blade ploughing or manually pulling up bushes or trees. The taproot of L. ferocissimum can produce new growth when broken and thus it can be hard to kill by such mechanical means. Physical removal of dead plants is advised because dead standing plants or trash can remain a spiny barrier for many years. Wholesale clearance will result in abundant regeneration from seeds. This can be effectively treated by further cultivation or by herbicides.
Stems up to 5 cm in diameter can be successfully controlled by the careful application of herbicides in diesel to a height of 30-40 cm up the stem. Larger stems can be killed if the stem is cut, and the cut face is immediately treated with concentrated herbicide in the form of a liquid or paste. Foliar herbicide can be applied in late summer and autumn, but only when plants are actively growing (Lee, 1979) and are not effective during extended dry weather. This plant is difficult to kill and repeated applications may be necessary. Modern herbicides used for L. ferocissimum control include triclopyr, glyphosate, hexazinone, 2,4-D amine, picloram and various combinations. Use of a surfactant may reduce efficacy. Granular root-absorbed herbicides such as tebuthiuron may also be used, but as with all herbicides, use should strictly conform to label conditions and local regulations (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; NRM, 2003).
No biological control agents have been recorded (Scott and Delfosse, 1992).
ReferencesTop of page
Arnold TH; de Wet BC, 1993. Plants of southern Africa: names and distribution. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa, No. 62. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.
Carr GW, 1993. Flora of Victoria and its impact on indigenous biota. In: Foreman DB, Walsh NG, eds. Flora of Victoria, Vol. 1, Introduction. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.
Connor HE, 1977. The Poisonous Plants of New Zealand. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 99.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Fuller M, 1998. African boxthorn, Lycium ferocissimum. Agnote No. 590. Alice Springs, Australia: Weeds Branch.
Haegi L, 1976. Taxonomic account of Lycium (Solanaceae) in Australia. Australian Journal of Botany, 24:669-679.
Haegi L, 1986. Lycium. In: Jessop JP, Toelken HR, eds. Flora of South Australia, Part 3, edition 4. Adelaide, Australia: South Australian Government Printing Division.
Marchant NG; Wheeler JR; Rye BL; Bennett EM; Lander NS; Macfarlane TD, 1987. Flora of the Perth Region. Perth Australia: Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Agriculture, Western Australia.
Minne L; Spies JJ; Venter HJG; Venter AM, 1994. Breeding systems in some representatives of the genus Lycium (Solanaceae). Bothalia, 24:107-110.
NRM, 2003. Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland, Australia. www.nrm.qld.au/factsheets/pdf/pest/PP8.pdf.
Roy B; Popay I; Champion P; James T; Rahman A, 1998. An Illustrated Guide to Common Weeds of New Zealand. Canterbury, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Protection Society.
Todd SW, 2000. Patterns of seed production and shrub associations in two palatable shrub species under contrasting land use intensities. African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 17:22-26.
Walsh RS, 1967. Nectar and Pollen Sources of New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: National Beekeepers Association of New Zealand.
Webb CJ; Sykes WR; Garnock-Jones GJ, 1998. Flora of New Zealand, Vol. 2: Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR.
Arnold TH, de Wet BC, 1993. Plants of southern Africa: names and distribution. In: Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa, No. 62, Pretoria, South Africa:
Badii K B, Billah M K, Afreh-Nuamah K, Obeng-Ofori D, 2015. Species composition and host range of fruit-infesting flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Ghana. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 35 (3), 137-151. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JTI
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435
Distribution MapsTop of page
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CABI Summary Records
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