Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Lymantria obfuscata
(Indian gypsy moth)

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Datasheet

Lymantria obfuscata (Indian gypsy moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lymantria obfuscata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian gypsy moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lymantria obfuscata (Indian gypsy moth); adult female (museum set specimen)
TitleAdult
CaptionLymantria obfuscata (Indian gypsy moth); adult female (museum set specimen)
Copyright©David Agassiz
Lymantria obfuscata (Indian gypsy moth); adult female (museum set specimen)
AdultLymantria obfuscata (Indian gypsy moth); adult female (museum set specimen)©David Agassiz

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lymantria obfuscata Walker

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian gypsy moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Porthetria obfuscata

International Common Names

  • English: moth, Indian gypsy

Local Common Names

  • India: apple hairy caterpillar; caterpillar, apple hairy; Kashmir willow defoliator; leaf eating caterpillar

EPPO code

  • LYMAOB (Lymantria obfuscata)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Erebidae
  •                             Subfamily: Lymantriinae
  •                                 Genus: Lymantria
  •                                     Species: Lymantria obfuscata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, Few occurrencesBeeson (1941)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AssamPresent, Few occurrencesBeeson (1941)
-Himachal PradeshPresentRahman and Kalra (1944); CABI (Undated);
-Jammu and KashmirPresent, WidespreadFletcher (1919); Beeson (1941); Malik et al. (1972)
-KarnatakaPresent, Few occurrencesKumar (1974); CABI (Undated)
-Uttar PradeshPresent, Few occurrencesCABI (Undated)Original citation: Gupta & Agarwal, 1985
NepalPresentAdhikari (1978)
PakistanPresent, LocalizedNativeBeeson (1941)

Europe

AustriaAbsent, Intercepted onlyLenek (1975)
RussiaAbsent, Intercepted onlyCABI (Undated)Original citation: Minyailo, 1977

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aleiodes indiscretus Predator/parasite Larvae
Anastatus kashmirensis Parasite India; Jammu and Kashmir apples; Salix
Apanteles flavicoxis Predator/parasite Larvae
Aspergillus flavus Antagonist
Brachymeria lasus Parasite Pupae India; Jammu and Kashmir apples; Salix
Brachymeria tibialis Predator/parasite Pupae
Calosoma himalayanum Predator Larvae
Exorista rossica Parasite Larvae India; Jammu and Kashmir apples; Populus; Salix
Glyptapanteles indiensis Predator/parasite Larvae
Palexorista disparis Predator/parasite Pupae
Rogas indiscretus Parasite Larvae India; Jammu and Kashmir Alnus; Quercus
Theronia atalantae Parasite

References

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1988. Studies on inter-specific competition, host range and ecology of parasites of Lymantria obfuscata in India and use of promising parasites for biological control of Lymantria spp. in India and the USA. Technical Report - Biological Control Centre, ICAR, No. 480:31 pp.

Adhikari S, 1978. Studies on the head capsule of the mature larva of Lymantria obfuscata Walker (Lymantriidae-Lepidoptera). Nepalese Journal of Agriculture, 13/14:93-102

Amin MM; Trali AR; Bhat AM, 1986. Further observations on the natural enemies of Lymantria obfuscata Walker (Lymantriidae: Lepidoptera) in Kashmir. Entomon, 11(4):251-254

Beeson CFC, 1941. The ecology and control of the forest insects of India and the neighbouring countries. Dehra Dun, India: Published privately, Vasant Press (Copyright: Government of India).

Beroza M; Punjabi AA; Bierl BA, 1973. Disparlure and analogues as attractants for Lymantria obfuscata. Journal of Economic Entomology, 66(5):1215-1216

Dar GA; Sheikh AG; Ganjoo BL, 1977. Relative efficacy of some insecticides in supressng Lymantria obfuscata Walker on apple trees in Kashmir. Pesticides, 11(10):27-29.

Dharmadhikari PR; Ramaseshiah G; Achan PD, 1985. Survey of Lymantria obfuscata and its natural enemies in India. Entomophaga, 30(4):399-408

Fletcher TB, 1919. Report Of The Proceedings Of The Third Entomological Meeting. Pusa, Bihar, India, 1:90.

Gupta V, 1982. The ichneumonid parasites associated with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 19(7).

Kumar TP, 1974. Occurrence of Lymantria obfuscata Walker, the Indian gypsy moth a pest of Cacao in South India. Current Science, 43 (12):395.

Kurian P; Sirsi M, 1970. Serological studies in the genus Lymantria. I. Investigations on eggs of L. dispar (Linnaeus) and L. obfuscata Walker. Technical Bulletin, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, 13:95-104.

Kurian P; Sirsi M, 1971. Serological studies in the genus Lymantria (Lep.:Lymantriidae). II. Investigations using post-embryonic developmental stages of L. obfuscata Walker, L. dispar (Linnaeus) and L. ampla Walker. Technical Bulletin of the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, 14:77-90.

Lenek O, 1975. New hybrid forms of Lymantria dispar and L. obfuscata. Zeitschrift-der-Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Osterreichischer, Entomologen, 25:117-119.

Malik RA; Punjabi AA; Bhat AA, 1972. Survey study of insect and non-insect pests in Kashmir. Horticulturist, 3:39-44.

Marsh PM, 1979. The braconid (Hymenoptera) parasites of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 72(6):794-810

Masoodi MA, 1985. Growth response of Lymantria obfuscata Walker in relation to tannin content in different host foliages. Indian Journal of Entomology, 47(4):422-426

Masoodi MA, 1991. Biological studies on Lymantria obfuscata Walker (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in Kashmir. Indian Forester, 117(8):644-651; 14 ref.

Masoodi MA, 1992. Consumption of various host foliages and their effect on development of Lymantria obfuscata Walker in Kashmir. Indian Journal of Forestry, 15(2):169-172; 16 ref.

Masoodi MA; Amin M; Koul VK; Bhagat KC; Singh T, 1987. Control of Lymantria obfuscata Walker on walnut in Kashmir. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 15(1):15-17.

Masoodi MA; Trale AR; Bhat AM, 1990. Suppression of Lymantria obfuscata Walker by sex pheromone trapping of males. Indian Journal of Entomology, 52(3):414-417

Masoodi MA; Trali AR; Bhat AM; Tikoo RK; Nehru RK, 1986b. Incidence of parasites of Lymantria obfuscata (Lymantriidae: Lepidoptera) in Kashmir. Entomophaga, 31(4):401-404.

Mills NJ, 1989. Life tables of the Lymantriidae with particular reference to Lymantria obfuscata in Kashmir. In: Wallner WE, McManus KA, eds. Proceedings, Lymantriidae: a comparison of features of New and Old World tussock moths. General Technical Report, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. USA: USDA Forest Service, 143-154.

Minyailo VA; Kovalev BG; Kirov EI; Minyailo AK, 1977. On the attractiveness of disparlure, the sex pheromone of the gipsy moth Porthetria dispar (Lepidoptera, Orgyidae) for males of Zanclognatha lunaris (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 56(2):309-310

Mishra MP; Basu Choudhru JC, 1974. New pest and distribution record of Lymantria obfuscata Walker (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on cashew from south India. Indian Forester, 100(6):391-393.

Nagaraja H; Dharmadhikari PR; Rao VP, 1968. Comperative study of the external morphology of Lymantria obfuscata Walker in India and Lymantria dispar (L) in the USA. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 59:105-112.

Nair RR; Premkumar T, 1974. Aspergillus flavus Link., a fungal parasite on the leaf-eating caterpillar, Lymantria obfuscata Walk. Current Science, 43(17):563

Pruthi HS; Batra HN, 1960. Important fruit pests of North-West India. New Delhi, India: Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

Punjabi AA; Beroza M; Bierl BA, 1974. Trapping of Lymantria obfuscata Walker with disparlure. Indian Journal of Entomology, 36(2):125-127

Rahman KA, 1941. Occurrence of the gypsy moth Lymantria obfuscata Walker in Shimla Hills. Indian Journal of Entomology, 3(2):338.

Rahman KA; Kalra AN, 1944. Apple hairy caterpillar in the Simla Hills. Indian Farming, 5(7):312-314.

Raju SVS; Jaiswal PK; Singh HN, 1993. Effect of temperature on bioenergetic changes and egg diapause development in Indian gypsy moth Lymantria obfuscata Walker. Journal of Applied Biology, 3(1/2):33-35.

Raju SVS; Kumar GT; Singh HN, 1994. Effect of temperature on egg diapause termination of Indian gypsy moth, Lymantria obfuscata Walk., and survival of its egg parasite, Anastatus kashmiriensis. Naturalia (Sao Paulo), 19:109-117

Rao VP, 1966. Survey for natural enemies of gypsy moth Report for the period of 1961-1966. U.S. PL 480 Project. Bangalore, India: Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control.

Rao VP, 1972. Evaluation of hymenopterous parasites of the gypsy moth and the study of the behaviour of promising species. Final Technical Report March 1, 1967 to August 31, 1972, U.S. PL 480 Project. Bangalore, India: Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control.

Reardon RC, 1970. A new species of Rogas parasitic on the gypsymoth Porthetria dispar (Hymenoptera: Branconidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 72(4):473-475.

Rishi ND; Shah KA, 1985. Survey and bioecological studies on the natural enemy complex of Indian gypsy moth, Lymantria obfuscata Walker (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Journal of Entomological Research, 9(1):82-93

Roonwal ML, 1954. Structure of egg masses and their hairs in some species of Lymantria of importance to forestry. (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). India Forester, 80:553-559.

Roonwal ML, 1977. Life history and control of Kashmir willow defoliator Lymantria obfuscata (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science, 8:97-104.

Sabrosky CW; Reardon RC, 1976. Tachinid parasites of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, with keys to adults and puparia. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, 10(2).

Sankaran T, 1976. Investigations on parasites and predators of some major forest insect pests in India. Entomon, 1(1):87-90

Sheikh AG, 1975. The effect of repeated defoliation caused by Lymantria obfuscata Walker on apple trees in Kashmir. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 3(2):170-171.

Singh HN; Lakshmi AU; Singh HK, 1984. Natural parasitization in eggs of Lymantria obfuscata (Walk.) at Shrinagar. Indian Journal of Entomology, 46(3):365-366

Singh HN; Lakshmi AU; Singh HK, 1987. Natural parasitization in eggs of Lymantria obfuscata Walk. at Srinagar (J. & K.). Bulletin of Entomology (New Delhi), 28(1):70-72

Srivastava AS; Masoodi MA, 1984. Field evaluation of insecticides against the larvae of Lymantria obfuscate Walker. Pestology, 8(12):9-14.

Srivastava AS; Masoodi MA, 1985. Influence of host plants on the development and survival of Lymantria obfuscata. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 33(2):67-69

Srivastava AS; Masoodi MA, 1985. Relative toxicity of some insecticides to the second instar larvae of Lymantria obfuscata Walker. Entomon, 10(3):241-244.

Verma TD; Thakar JR; Dogra GS, 1979. Outbreak of gypsy moth Lymantria obfuscata Wlk., on oak in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Forester, 105(8):594-597.

Distribution References

Adhikari S, 1978. Studies on the head capsule of the mature larva of Lymantria obfuscata Walker (Lymantriidae-Lepidoptera). Nepalese Journal of Agriculture. 93-102.

Beeson C F C, 1941. The ecology and control of the forest insects of India and the neighbouring countries. Dehra Dun, India: Vasant Press (Copyright: Government of India).

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Fletcher T B, 1919. Report Of The Proceedings Of The Third Entomological Meeting. Pusa, Bihar, India, 1. In: Report Of The Proceedings Of The Third Entomological Meeting. Pusa, Bihar, India, 1 [Report Of The Proceedings Of The Third Entomological Meeting. Pusa, Bihar, India, 1], Bihar: 90.

Kumar TP, 1974. Occurrence of Lymantria obfuscata Walker, the Indian gypsy moth a pest of Cacao in South India. In: Current Science, 43 (12) 395.

Lenek O, 1975. New hybrid forms of Lymantria dispar and L. obfuscata. (Neue Hybridformen von Lymantria dispar L. und obfuscata WKR. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).). Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Osterreichischer Entomologen. 117-119.

Malik RA, Punjabi AA, Bhat AA, 1972. Survey study of insect and non-insect pests in Kashmir. In: Horticulturist, 3 39-44.

Rahman K A, Kalra A N, 1944. Apple hairy caterpillar in the Simla Hills. Indian Farming. 5 (7), 312-314.

Distribution Maps

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