Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Lygus lineolaris
(tarnished plant bug)

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Datasheet

Lygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lygus lineolaris
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tarnished plant bug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug); adult, on a clover leaf. USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionLygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug); adult, on a clover leaf. USA.
CopyrightPublic Domain - released by the USDA-ARS/original image by Scott Bauer
Lygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug); adult, on a clover leaf. USA.
AdultLygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug); adult, on a clover leaf. USA.Public Domain - released by the USDA-ARS/original image by Scott Bauer
Lygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug); nymph, ca.6mm in length - a serious pest of alfalfa being grown for seed. USA.
TitleNymph
CaptionLygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug); nymph, ca.6mm in length - a serious pest of alfalfa being grown for seed. USA.
CopyrightPublic Domain - released by the USDA-ARS/original image by Scott Bauer
Lygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug); nymph, ca.6mm in length - a serious pest of alfalfa being grown for seed. USA.
NymphLygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug); nymph, ca.6mm in length - a serious pest of alfalfa being grown for seed. USA.Public Domain - released by the USDA-ARS/original image by Scott Bauer
Lygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug); nymph, ca.6mm in length. USA.
TitleNymph
CaptionLygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug); nymph, ca.6mm in length. USA.
CopyrightPublic Domain - released by the USDA-ARS/original image by Scott Bauer
Lygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug); nymph, ca.6mm in length. USA.
NymphLygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug); nymph, ca.6mm in length. USA.Public Domain - released by the USDA-ARS/original image by Scott Bauer

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lygus lineolaris Palisot de Beauvois, 1818

Preferred Common Name

  • tarnished plant bug

Other Scientific Names

  • Capsus flavonotatus Provancher, 1872
  • Capsus lineolaris Palisot de Beauvois, 1818
  • Capsus oblineatus Say, 1832
  • Capsus strigulatus Walker, 1873
  • Lygus pratensis var. rubidus Knight, 1917

International Common Names

  • English: plant bug, tarnished
  • Spanish: chinche; chinche ligus (Mexico)
  • French: punaise terne

EPPO code

  • LYGULI (Lygus lineolaris)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Heteroptera
  •                             Family: Miridae
  •                                 Genus: Lygus
  •                                     Species: Lygus lineolaris

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Georgia (Republic of)Present

North America

BermudaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
CanadaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ManitobaRestricted distributionTurnock et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Newfoundland and LabradorRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentBoivin et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioRestricted distributionJuzwik and Hubbes, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecRestricted distributionRoy and Vincent, 1987; Boivin et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-SaskatchewanRestricted distributionSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; Bidochka et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
MexicoRestricted distributionMachain, 1973; Schwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentFleischer et al., 1988; Stewart and Gaylor, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-AlaskaPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ArizonaPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; Hopkins and Donaldson, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-DelawarePresentGraham and Debolt, 1986; Schwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-District of ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentHopkins and Donaldson, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; McPherson et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentWilliams et al., 1987; Olson and Wilson, 1990; Schwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-KansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-KentuckyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; Layton, 1995; Holloway et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MainePresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; Handley et al., 1993; McCue et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentColi et al., 1985; Schwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; Hopkins and Donaldson, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentStrauss, 1987; Schwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MississippiPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; Bagwell, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MissouriPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; Bagwell, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MontanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-NevadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentDay, 1987; Schwartz and Foottit, 1992; Carignan et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-New MexicoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; Spangler et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-North DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; Tonhasca, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-OklahomaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Rhode IslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-South DakotaPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-TennesseePresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; Bagwell, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; Hopkins and Donaldson, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-VermontPresentSchwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentWalstrom, 1983; Peterson et al., 1992; Schwartz and Foottit, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-WyomingPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

El SalvadorPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
GuatemalaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
HondurasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal patterns
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / premature drop
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / distortion
Growing point / lesions
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / discoloration (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / distortion (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / fall or shedding
Leaves / abnormal colours
Seeds / distortion
Seeds / empty grains
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / discoloration of bark
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alopecosa helluo Predator Adults/Nymphs
Anaphes iole Predator/parasite Eggs
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults
Erythmelus miridiphagus Predator/parasite Eggs
Euphoriana lygivora Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Jalysus wickhami Predator Adults/Nymphs
Lasioerythraeus johnstoni Parasite
Leiophron schusteri Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Leiophron uniformis Predator/parasite Nymphs
Lycosa antelucana Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nabicula subcoleoptrata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nabis roseipennis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius insidiosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Oxyopes salticus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pardosa milvina Predator Adults/Nymphs
Peristenus digoneutis Predator/parasite Nymphs New Jersey; New York; USA Medicago sativa
Peristenus pallipes Predator/parasite Nymphs
Peristenus pseudopallipes Predator/parasite Nymphs
Phasia aeneoventris Predator/parasite Adults
Phidippus audax Predator Adults/Nymphs
Philodromus praelustris Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phymata pennsylvanica Predator Adults/Nymphs
Podisus maculiventris Predator Adults/Nymphs
Polymerus basalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Polynema pratensiphagum Parasite
Stiretrus anchorago Predator Adults/Nymphs
Thiodina puerpera Predator Adults/Nymphs
Xysticus punctatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Zelus tetracanthus Predator Adults/Nymphs

References

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Bacheler JS; Bradley JR Jr; Eckel CS, 1990. Plant bugs in North Carolina: dilemma or delusion? Proceedings - Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences Memphis, USA; National Cotton Council, 203-206.

Bagwell RD, 1996. Managing resistance - what can we do now? In: 1996 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Volume 1. Memphis, USA: National Cotton Council, 118-124.

Baker DN; Reddy VR; McKinion JM; Whisler FD, 1993. An analysis of the impact of lygus on cotton. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 8(2):147-161; 14 ref.

Bidochka MJ; Miranpuri GS; Khachatourians GG, 1993. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin toward lygus bug (Hem., Miridae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 115(3):313-317.

Boivin G; Blanc JPR le; Adams JA, 1991. Spatial dispersion and sequential sampling plan for the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) on celery. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(1):158-164.

Boivin G; Stewart RK; Rivard I, 1982. Sticky traps for monitoring phytophagous mirids (Hemiptera: Miridae) in an apple orchard in southwestern Quebec. Environmental Entomology, 11(5):1067-1070.

Boyd ML; Lentz GL, 1999. Seasonal occurrence and abundance of the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) and thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on rapeseed in West Tennessee. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 16(3):171-178; 20 ref.

Bryan H, 1989. Control of the tarnished plant bug at the Carters Nursery. Tree Planters' Notes, 40(4):30-33

Butts RA; Lamb RJ, 1990. Injury to oilseed rape caused by mirid bugs (Lygus) (Hetroptera:Miridae) and its effects on seed production. Annals of Applied Biology, 117:253-266.

Butts RA; Lamb RJ, 1991. Pest status of lygus bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) in oilseed Brassica crops. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(5):1591-1596

CABI/EPPO, 2000. Lygus lineolaris. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Map No. 604. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Carignan S; Boivin G; Stewart RK, 1995. Developmental biology and morphology of Peristenus digoneutis Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae). Biological Control, 5(4):553-560; 38 ref.

Cleveland TC, 1982. Hibernation and host plant sequence studies of tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris, in the Mississippi Delta. Environmental Entomology, 11(5):1049-1052.

Cleveland TC, 1987. Predation by tarnished plant bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) of Heliothis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs and larvae. Environmental Entomology, 16(1):37-40.

Coli WM; Green TA; Hosmer TA; Prokopy RJ, 1985. Use of visual traps for monitoring insect pests in the Massachusetts apple IPM program. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 14(3/4):251-265.

Day WH, 1987. Biological control efforts against Lygus and Adelphocoris spp. infesting alfalfa in the United States, with notes on other associated mirid species. In: Hedlund R, Graham HM, eds. Economic Importance and Biological Control of Lygus and Adelphocoris in North America. Washington, USA: USDA, Agric. Res. Publ. ARS., 64:20-39.

Day WH, 1996. Evaluation of biological control of the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in alfalfa by the introduced parasite Peristenus digoneutis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environmental Entomology, 25(2):512-518; 26 ref.

Dixon WN, 1989. The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) in conifer nurseries (Heteroptera: Miridae) Entomology Circular (Gainesville), 320:2pp.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fleischer SJ; Gaylor MJ, 1988. Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae) population dynamics: nymphal development, life tables, and Leslie matrices on selected weeds and cotton. Environmental Entomology, 17(2):246-253.

Fleischer SJ; Gaylor MJ; Hue NE, 1988. Dispersal of Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae) adults through cotton following nursery host destruction. Environmental Entomology, 17(3):533-541.

Grafius E; Morrow EA, 1982. Damage by the tarnished plant bug and alfalfa plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) to asparagus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 75(5):882-884.

Graham HM; Debolt JW, 1986. Reproductive isolation between colonies of Lygus lineolaris. Southwestern Entomologist, 11(2):125-130.

Gutierrez AP; Leigh TF; Wang Y; Cave RD, 1977. An analysis of cotton production in California: Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) injury - an evaluation. Canadian Entomologist, 109(10):1375-1386

Handley DT, 1991. Strawberry fruit development and the effects of feeding by the tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris). The strawberry into the 21st century. Proceedings of the Third North American Strawberry Conference Houston, Texas 14-16 February 1990 [edited by Dale, A.; Luby, J. J.] Portland, Oregon, USA; Timber Press, 209-216

Handley DT; Dill JF; Pollard JE, 1993. Tarnished plant bug injury on six strawberry cultivars treated with differing numbers of insecticide sprays. Fruit Varieties Journal, 47(3):133-137.

Handley DT; Pollard JE, 1993. Tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris) behavior on cultivated strawberries. Acta Horticulturae, No.348:463-468

Hanny BW; Cleveland TC; Meredith WR Jr, 1977. Effects of tarnished plant bug, (Lygus lineolaris), infestation on presquaring cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Environmental Entomology, 6(3):460-462

Hardee DD; Bryan WW, 1997. Influence of Bacillus thuringiensis-transgenic and nectariless cotton on insect populations with emphasis on the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(2):663-668; 35 ref.

Hollingsworth RG; Tabashnik BE; Ullman DE; Johnson MW; Messing R, 1994. Resistance of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) to insecticides in Hawaii: spatial patterns and relation to insecticide use. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(2):293-300.

Holloway JW; Leonard BR; Otta JA; Pankey JH; Graves JB; Snodgrass G, 1998. Insecticide resistance and synergism of pyrethroid toxicity in the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris. 1998 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, San Diego, California, USA, 5-9 January 1998. Volume 2., 947-949; 12 ref.

Holman EM; Oosterhuis DM, 1999. Cotton photosynthesis and carbon partitioning in response to floral bud loss due to insect damage. Crop Science, 39(5):1347-1351; 24 ref.

Hopkins A; Donaldson F, 1996. Early-season insect control with Provado in the Mississippi Delta. 1996 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Nashville, TN, USA, January 9-12, 1996: Volume 2., 945-948; 6 ref.

Horn TO; Harris FA; Robbins JT; Furr REJr, 1999. Influence of boll age on susceptibility to tarnished plant bug injury. 1999 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Orlando, Florida, USA, 3-7 January, 1999: Volume 2., 1044-1045; 10 ref.

Ingerson-Mahar J; Lee D, 1997. Assessing plant bug injury on forage alfalfa in New Jersey. New Jersey Grain and Forage Journal, 4:32-36.

Jensen BM; Wedberg JL; Hogg DB, 1991. Assessment of damage caused by tarnished plant bug and alfalfa plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) on alfalfa grown for forage in Wisconsin. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(3):1024-1027

Juzwik J; Hubbes M, 1986. Bacteria associated with tarnished plant bug stem lesions on hybrid poplars in Ontario. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 16(7):390-400.

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Luttrell RG; Snodgrass GL; Stewart SD, 1998. Susceptibility management of tarnished plant bug in the south. In: Dugger P, Richter D, eds. Proceedings 1998 Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Volume 2. Memphis, USA: National Cotton Council, 951-955.

Machain LM, 1973. Chemical control of Lygus bugs on lucerne, in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California. Agricultura Tecnica en Mexico, 3(6):203-206.

Mailloux G; Bostanian NJ, 1988. Economic injury level model for tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae), in strawberry fields. Environmental Entomology, 17(3):581-586.

Maredia KM; Tugwell NP; Waddle BA; Bourland FM, 1994. Technique for screening cotton germplasm for resistance to tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois). Southwestern Entomologist, 19(1):63-70

Mauney JR; Henneberry TJ, 1979. Identification of damage symptoms and patterns of feeding of plant bugs in cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology, 72(4):496-501

McCue JJ; Handley DT; Pollard JE, 1993. Effect of rowcovers and insecticide sprays on insect damage to strawberries. Acta Horticulturae, No. 348:500-503.

McPherson JE; Weber BC; Henry TJ, 1993. Seasonal flight patterns of Miridae (Hemiptera) in a southern Illinois black walnut plantation. Great Lakes Entomologist, 26(2):97-106.

Meagher RL Jr; Meyer JR; Killian JC, 1987. Within-tree distribution of catfacing injury on peaches in North Carolina. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 4(1):78-81

Michaud OD; Boivin G; Stewart RK, 1989. Economic threshold for tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in apple orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology, 82(6):1722-1728.

Michaud OD; Stewart RK; Boivin G, 1990. Susceptibility of apples to damage by Lygocoris communis and Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae). Phytoprotection, 71(1):25-30

Olson DL; Wilson RL, 1990. Tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae): effect on seed weight of grain amaranth. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(6):2443-2447.

Peterson SS; Wedberg JL; Hogg DB, 1992. Plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) damage to birdsfoot trefoil seed production. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(1):250-255

Platt WD; Stewart SD, 1999. Potential of nectariless cotton in today's cotton production system. 1999 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Orlando, Florida, USA, 3-7 January, 1999: Volume 2., 971-974; 9 ref.

Prokopy RJ; Hubbell GL; Adams RG; Hauschild KI, 1982. Visual monitoring trap for tarnished plant bug adults on apple. Environmental Entomology, 11(1):200-203.

Roy M; Vincent C, 1987. The enemies of fruit trees in Quebec in 1987. Resume des Recherches, Station de Recherches de Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, 16:11-12.

Russell JS; Leonard BR, 1999. Cotton boll susceptibility to tarnished plant bug. Louisiana Agriculture, 42(3):4-5.

Russell JS; Leonard BR; Gore J; Church GE, 1999. Cotton boll abscission influenced by tarnished plant bug feeding. 1999 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Orlando, Florida, USA, 3-7 January, 1999: Volume 2., 1046-1048; 15 ref.

Sapio FJ; Wilson LF; Ostry ME, 1982. A split-stem lesion on young hybrid Populus trees caused by the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera (Heteroptera): Miridae). Great Lakes Entomologist, 15(4):237-246

Scales AL; RE Furr, 1968. Relationship between the tarnished plant bug and deformed cotton plants. Journal of Economic Entomology, 61:114-118.

Schpfers GA, 1980. Yield effects of tarnished plant bug feeding on June-bearing strawberry varieties in New York State. Journal of Economic Entomology, 73(5):721-725

Schwartz MD; Foottit RG, 1992. Lygus bugs on the prairies. Biology, systematics, and distribution. Technical Bulletin - Agriculture Canada, No. 4E, 1-44.

Schwartz MD; Foottit RG, 1998. Revision of the Nearctic species of the genus Lygus Hahn, with a review of the Palearctic species (Heteroptera: Miridae). Memoirs on Entomology, International, Volume 10. Gainesville, USA: Associated Publishers.

Scott WP; Smith JW; Snodgrass GL, 1986. Impact of early season use of selected insecticides on cotton arthropod populations and yield. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(3):797-804

Scott WP; Snodgrass GL; Smith JW, 1988. Tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) and predaceous arthropod populations in commercially produced selected nectariless cultivars of cotton. Journal of Entomological Science, 23(3):280-286

Shepherd RL; Jenkins JN; Parrott WL; McCarty JC, 1986. Registration of eight nectariless-frego bract cotton germplasm lines. Crop Science, 26(6):1260

Snodgrass GL; Elzen GW, 1995. Insecticide resistance in a tarnished plant bug population in cotton in the Mississippi Delta. Southwestern Entomologist, 20(3):317-232; 14 ref.

Sohati PH; Boivin G; Stewart RK, 1992. Parasitism of Lygus lineolaris eggs on Coronilla varia, Solanum tuberosum, and three host weeds in southeastern Quebec. Entomophaga, 37(4):515-523.

Spangler SM; Agnello AM; Schwartz MD, 1993. Seasonal densities of tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) and other phytophagous Heteroptera in brambles. Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(1):110-116.

Stahl FJ; Luepschen NS, 1977. Transmission of Erwinia amylovora to pear fruit by Lygus spp. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(11):936-939.

Steinkraus DC; Tugwell NP, 1997. Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Moniliales) effects on Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae). Journal of Entomological Science, 32(1):79-90; 34 ref.

Stewart RK; Khattat AR, 1980. Economic injury levels of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera (Heteroptera): Miridae), on green beans in Quebec. Canadian Entomologist, 112(3):306-310.

Stewart SD; Gaylor MJ, 1991. Age, sex, and reproductive status of the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) colonizing mustard. Environmental Entomology, 20(5):1387-1392.

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