Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Lupinus polyphyllus
(garden lupin)

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Datasheet

Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lupinus polyphyllus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • garden lupin
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Lupinus polyphyllus, commonly known as garden lupin, is a perennial herb, native to western North America. It has been introduced to Europe, Australia and New Zealand for ornamental purposes, soil stabilisation...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); flower spikes.
TitleFlowers
CaptionLupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); flower spikes.
Copyright©Satu Ramula
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); flower spikes.
Flowers Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); flower spikes.©Satu Ramula
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); habit, growing on a forest edge.
TitleHabit
CaptionLupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); habit, growing on a forest edge.
Copyright©Satu Ramula
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); habit, growing on a forest edge.
HabitLupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); habit, growing on a forest edge.©Satu Ramula
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); immature seed pods.
TitleSeed pods
CaptionLupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); immature seed pods.
Copyright©Satu Ramula
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); immature seed pods.
Seed podsLupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); immature seed pods.©Satu Ramula
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); seeds.
TitleSeeds
CaptionLupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); seeds.
Copyright©Satu Ramula
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); seeds.
SeedsLupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); seeds.©Satu Ramula
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); seedlings.
TitleSeedlings
CaptionLupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); seedlings.
Copyright©Satu Ramula
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); seedlings.
SeedlingsLupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin); seedlings.©Satu Ramula

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.

Preferred Common Name

  • garden lupin

Other Scientific Names

  • Lupinus amplus Greene
  • Lupinus biddlei Henderson ex C. P. Smith
  • Lupinus elongatus Greene ex A. Heller
  • Lupinus grandifolius Lindl. ex J. Agardh
  • Lupinus magnus Greene
  • Lupinus matanuskensis C.P. Sm.
  • Lupinus pallidipes A. Heller
  • Lupinus procerus Greene ex A. Heller
  • Lupinus subsericeus B.L. Rob. ex Piper
  • Lupinus superbus A. Heller
  • Lupinus tooelensis C.P. Sm.

International Common Names

  • English: bigleaf lupine; big-leaved lupine; garden lupin; large-leaved lupine; marsh legume; Russell lupin

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: mangebladet lupin
  • Finland: komealupiini
  • Germany: stauden-lupine; vielblaettrige lupine; vielblättrige lupine
  • Italy: Lupino perenne
  • Netherlands: vaste lupine
  • Norway: hagelupin
  • Sweden: blomsterlupin

EPPO code

  • LUPPO (Lupinus polyphyllus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Lupinus polyphyllus, commonly known as garden lupin, is a perennial herb, native to western North America. It has been introduced to Europe, Australia and New Zealand for ornamental purposes, soil stabilisation and cultivation. In Europe, it shows signs of invasiveness in all countries where the species has naturalized. Its short generation time and ability to disperse easily has allowed it to quickly spread. The species occurs in disturbed habitats, such as road verges and wastelands in temperate regions, and prefers light sandy soils. L. polyphyllus has showy inflorescences that attract pollinators. The species reproduces both sexually and vegetatively via creeping rhizomes below ground. In its introduced range, L. polyphyllus outcompetes local vascular plant species and is also associated with a reduction in the abundance of butterfly species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Lupinus
  •                                     Species: Lupinus polyphyllus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Fabaceae (also called Leguminosae) is one of the largest families of flowering plants and contains many economically important species, for example, those that are used for crops (ILDIS, 2015).

The genus Lupinus contains 200-500 species representing diverse life-histories from annual herbs to longer-lived shrubs and small trees, with the majority of the species being native to North or South America (Aïnouche and Bayer, 1999).

L. polyphyllus hybridises with other herbaceous Lupinus species (Rapp, 2009; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015). It constitutes a wide range of genotypes and natural varieties (Pergl, 2015).

Description

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L. polyphyllus is a short-lived, perennial, leguminous herb (NOBANIS, 2015), although individuals more than 50 years old are known from New Zealand (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995). Palmate leaves consist of several leaflets, about 1 cm wide, that are connected to long petioles and form a tuft that is 10-50 cm high (NOBANIS, 2015). Plants resprout easily when damaged (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995). The root system is large and forms creeping rhizomes below ground that can penetrate to a depth of >30 cm (Chemelíková and Hejcman, 2012). A flowering plant can form one to several flowering stems 50-150 cm high (NOBANIS, 2015). Each flowering stem contains tens of flowers in a raceme, and flowers open sequentially from the base of the raceme (Haynes and Mesler, 1984). L. polyphyllus has three main flower colour morphs (blue, pink, and white) that vary in frequency among populations (Pohtio and Teräs, 1995). Hairy, 5 cm long pods contain up to 10 or 12 seeds (NOBANIS, 2015) - colour and pigmentation may vary among individual plants (Aniszewski et al., 2001; Sõber and Ramula, 2013). Seed length is about 4-4.5 mm and seed weight ranges from about 10 mg up to nearly 70 mg (Aniszewski et al., 2001).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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L. polyphyllus is native to the eastern and western states of the USA and Canada (USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015). NOBANIS (2015) report that L. polyphyllus is native to Alaska, however USDA-NRCS (2015) considers it introduced to this state.

The introduced range of L. polyphyllus includes Asia (from Armenia to China), Europe (from the UK to Ukraine), Chile and Australia and New Zealand. L. polyphyllus is established in at least 16 European countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the UK (DAISIE, 2016).

Higher temperatures due to climate change are likely to enhance or accelerate the natural nitrogen cycle as well as rates of nitrogen fixation (Thomas et al., 2006; Magnusson et al., 2014; Schaeffer et al. 2013). This may have an impact on the distribution and impacts of L. polyphyllus since it is a nitrogen fixing species.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
AzerbaijanPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
ChinaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
JapanPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
KazakhstanPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
KyrgyzstanPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
MongoliaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
PakistanPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-British ColumbiaPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-New BrunswickPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentNativeILDIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-Nova ScotiaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-OntarioPresentNativeILDIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-Prince Edward IslandPresentNativeILDIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-QuebecPresentNativeILDIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlaskaPresentNOBANIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-CaliforniaPresentNative Not invasive ILDIS, 2015; PIER, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-ColoradoPresentNativeILDIS, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
-ConnecticutPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-IdahoPresentNativeILDIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-MainePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-MarylandPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-MassachusettsPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-MichiganPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-MinnesotaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-MontanaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-NevadaPresentNativeILDIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-New HampshirePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-New YorkPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-OregonPresentNative Not invasive ILDIS, 2015; PIER, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-Rhode IslandPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-UtahPresentNativeILDIS, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
-VermontPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-WashingtonPresentNative Not invasive ILDIS, 2015; PIER, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-WisconsinPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-WyomingPresentNativeILDIS, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015

South America

ChileWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Meier et al., 2013

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedFlora Europaea, 1968; EPPO, 2015; ILDIS, 2015
BelarusPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
BelgiumPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2015; DAISIE, 2016Established
BulgariaPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2015
CroatiaPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2015
Czech RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2015; ILDIS, 2015; DAISIE, 2016Established
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentIntroducedFlora Europaea, 1968
DenmarkPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora Europaea, 1968; EPPO, 2015; ILDIS, 2015; NOBANIS, 2015; DAISIE, 2016Established
EstoniaPresentIntroduced1807EPPO, 2015; ILDIS, 2015; NOBANIS, 2015; DAISIE, 2016Established
FinlandPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora Europaea, 1968; EPPO, 2015; ILDIS, 2015; NOBANIS, 2015; DAISIE, 2016First recorded in 1895. Established
FrancePresentIntroduced Invasive Flora Europaea, 1968; EPPO, 2015; ILDIS, 2015; DAISIE, 2016Established
GermanyPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2015; NOBANIS, 2015; DAISIE, 2016First recorded in Bavaria in 1890. Established
HungaryPresentIntroducedFlora Europaea, 1968; EPPO, 2015; ILDIS, 2015
IcelandPresentIntroduced Not invasive NOBANIS, 2015
IrelandPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
ItalyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016Established
LatviaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015; NOBANIS, 2015; DAISIE, 2016First recorded in 1921. Established
LithuaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2015; NOBANIS, 2015; DAISIE, 2016First recorded in 1931. Established
MacedoniaPresentIntroducedFlora Europaea, 1968
MoldovaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedFlora Europaea, 1968; EPPO, 2015; ILDIS, 2015; DAISIE, 2016Established
NorwayPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora Europaea, 1968; ILDIS, 2015; NOBANIS, 2015; DAISIE, 2016Established
PolandPresentIntroduced1877 Invasive Flora Europaea, 1968; ILDIS, 2015; NOBANIS, 2015; DAISIE, 2016Established
RomaniaPresentIntroducedFlora Europaea, 1968; EPPO, 2015; ILDIS, 2015
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentIntroducedFlora Europaea, 1968; EPPO, 2015; ILDIS, 2015; NOBANIS, 2015
-Northern RussiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
-Russia (Europe)PresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016Established
-Southern RussiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
-Western SiberiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
SloveniaPresentIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2015
SpainPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
SwedenPresentIntroducedFlora Europaea, 1968; NOBANIS, 2015; DAISIE, 2016Established
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora Europaea, 1968; EPPO, 2015; ILDIS, 2015Black listed on the Swiss Black and Watch Lists of invasive alient plants
UKPresentIntroduced1826EPPO, 2015; ILDIS, 2015; NOBANIS, 2015; DAISIE, 2016Established
UkrainePresentIntroducedEPPO, 2015; ILDIS, 2015
Yugoslavia (former)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesWidespreadIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedWeeds of Australia, 2015
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedWeeds of Australia, 2015
-VictoriaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2015
New ZealandWidespreadIntroducedILDIS, 2015; PIER, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

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Plant collector David Douglas imported L. polyphyllus to Britain in 1826 (NOBANIS, 2015; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2015). The species has been introduced to many European countries as a garden plant during 1800s, and also for soil improvement, soil stabilisation, and cultivation (NOBANIS, 2015). In Europe, the first records of escaped L. polyphyllus individuals date back to the end of the 1800s/beginning of the 1900s (NOBANIS, 2015).

L. polyphyllus was introduced to New Zealand as a garden plant after 1930, and was intentionally sown along road verges around 1950 (Scott, 1989).

The first European settlers introduced the species to Chilean Patagonia as an ornamental (Meier et al., 2013).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
England and Wales 1826 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes NOBANIS (2015)
Estonia 1807 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause) Yes NOBANIS (2015)
New Zealand around 1950 Yes Scott (1989)
Poland 1877 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes NOBANIS (2015)

Risk of Introduction

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L. polyphyllus is widely available at nurseries because it is used for ornamental purposes and landscaping (NOBANIS, 2015). Once planted, L. polyphyllus is difficult to eradicate due to its ability to propagate vegetatively from creeping rhizomes.

It has already established across the majority of regions in Europe, even the northern regions, due to its ability to tolerate harsh conditions (Fremstad, 2010).

The species is highly overlooked and there is almost no public awareness so it is likely to continue to spread (Pergl, 2015).

Habitat

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In its native range, L. polyphyllus occurs on meadows, road verges, and shores (NOBANIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015). In its invaded range the species inhabits a range of habitat types from open ruderal habitats, such as road verges, wastelands and meadows, to more shady forest understoreys (Rapp, 2009; Vyšniauskiene et al., 2011; Ramula, 2014). It is also able to invade river banks and wetlands (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995; Meier et al., 2013), and tolerates acidic, nutrient-poor mineral soils (NOBANIS, 2015).

L. polyphyllus is spreading rapidly in Finland, along road verges and other disturbed habitats and also to semi-natural grasslands and natural environments such as groves (Finnish Environment Institute, 2015).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Riverbanks Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Principal habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number is 2n=48 (Aïnouche and Bayer, 1999; IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2015; Q-bank, 2015). Depending on the source, the species is described as a tetraploid (Kubešová et al., 2010), diploid (Góralski et al., 2009) or octaploid (te Beest et al., 2011). L. polyphyllus exhibits considerable genetic differentiation among populations in its invaded range (Li et al., 2003; Vyšniauskiene et al., 2011).

Reproductive Biology

L. polyphyllus reproduces both sexually from seed and vegetatively via creeping rhizomes below ground (Rapp, 2009; NOBANIS, 2015), with sexual reproduction taking place in the second year or later (S. Ramula, Aronia Research Institute, Finland, personal observation). Nectarless flowers produce highly fertile pollen (Haynes and Mesler, 1984; Vinogradova et al., 2012) and are mainly pollinated by bumblebees (Haynes and Mesler, 1984; Pohtio and Teräs, 1995), but honeybees and syrphid flies also visit the flowers of L. polyphyllus (Pohtio and Teräs, 1995).

Seeds in hairy pods ripen in a few weeks after fertilization when pods turn brown. In L. polyphyllus’s introduced range, an individual plant produces on average a few hundred seeds (Ramula, 2014). However, seed production varies greatly depending on the size of an individual plant, being sometimes thousands of seeds per plant (Aniszewski et al., 2001).

Physiology and Phenology

Hard-coated seeds germinate in the beginning of the growing season at varying rates (Wurst et al., 2010; Elliott et al., 2011; Ramula, 2014). Germination depends positively on seed mass (Sõber and Ramula, 2013). Fresh seeds have viability close to 100% (S. Ramula, Aronia Research Institute, Finland, personal observation) but they exhibit physical dormancy and therefore, physical or chemical scarification is required for more even germination (Elliott et al., 2011; USDA-NRCS, 2015). Seeds can survive for several years (ca 1% after 2 years) (Pergl, 2015).

In the boreal and temperate regions, L. polyphyllus flowers early in the growing season (May-July in Europe; Pohtio and Teräs, 1995), but individual plants may occasionally flower until the first night frost (S. Ramula, Aronia Research Institute, Finland, personal observation). The blossoming of each inflorescence lasts about one month (Vinogradova et al., 2012).

Longevity

The lifespan of L. polyphyllus is about 20 years (Ramula, 2014).

Seeds of L. polyphyllus maintain viability in the soil for several years (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995; Q-bank, 2015).

Activity Patterns

In cool climates, L. polyphyllus individuals die back in autumn and emerge in spring (NOBANIS, 2015).

Population Size and Structure

L. polyphyllus forms dense populations (Rapp, 2009; Ramula, 2014).

Nutrition

Contains alkaloids, oils and amino acids. Roots are edible (Q-bank, 2015).

Associations

The roots of L. polyphyllus form ruff-like nodules with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium bacteria symbionts (Chemelíková and Hejcman, 2012; Q-bank, 2015). Powdery mildew is common on L. polyphyllus (USDA-NRCS, 2015).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
66 45

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 10
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 0

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration02number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5001600mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In L. polyphyllus’s introduced range, its leaves may be eaten by generalist herbivores, such as slugs and roe deer (S. Ramula, Aronia Research Institute, Finland, personal observation). Aphids may also consume L. polyphyllus (USDA-NRCS, 2015).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Seeds are dispersed ballistically up to a few meters from the mother plant (one plant can produce hundreds of seeds) and also along waterways (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995). It is unlikely that they are dispersed via wind as the seeds are heavy and without appendages.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

The seeds of L. polyphyllus are primarily dispersed via human activities (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995).

Accidental Introduction

Accidental introductions are likely to have occurred via contaminated soils used for road building and landscaping (Fremstad and Elven, 2002).

Intentional Introduction

L. polyphyllus has been intentionally introduced to gardens as an ornamental species (NOBANIS, 2015) and to road verges for erosion prevention (NOBANIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015). Moreover, the species is used as a fodder (NOBANIS, 2015).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves spores Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches eggs Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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The high alkaloid content of L. polyphyllus may be harmful to livestock if consumed in high amounts (NOBANIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015). This means that some areas of infested pastures are not suitable for grazing (Pergl, 2015). However, there are alkaloid poor variants which can be used as fodder.

In Germany, the estimated cost of management of L. polyphyllus is ca. 30,000 Euro (Reinhardt et al., 2013).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

As a nitrogen-fixing species, L. polyphyllus increases soil nitrogen content (Davis, 1991), which in the long-term may lead to changes in plant community composition (Valtonen et al., 2006). However, Meier et al. (2013) found no difference in total nitrogen content between L. polyphyllus invaded and non-invaded sites along the Paloma river in Chilean Patagonia.

The large root system of the species prevents soil erosion and improves soil fertility (USDA-NRCS, 2015). However, on river banks in New Zealand it can also trap silt and debris, making the habitat increasingly suited to L. polyphyllus and less suited to native species (Timmins & Mackenzie, 1995). In this way it may act as an autogenic ecosystem engineer (Wright & Jones, 2004)

Impact on Biodiversity

L. polyphyllus can form dense stands and shade out native species (Maron & Connors 1996; Gosling 2005). In its introduced range, the presence of L. polyphyllus is associated with a reduction in the number of native vascular plant species (Holdaway and Sparrow, 2006; Valtonen et al., 2006; Ramula and Pihlaja, 2012) and a reduction in the abundance of butterfly species on road verges (Valtonen et al., 2006).

L. polyphyllus commonly dominates pioneer vegetation of frequently disturbed areas and rocky terraces of rivers in New Zealand (Holdaway and Sparrow, 2006).

The species may hybridise with the native Lupinus nootkatensis in Alaska (Rapp, 2009).

The high alkaloid content of L. polyphyllus may have allelopathic effects on the germination and establishment of resident plant species (Wurst et al., 2010; Loydi et al., 2015).

In soil with low nitrogen content, L. polyphyllus can have an advantage over native plants if conditions are favourable for growth due to its nitrogen-fixing ability.

The showy inflorescences of L. polyphyllus attract pollinators (USDA-NRCS, 2015) thus changing their behaviour in the introduced range of the plant (Jakobsson and Padrón, 2014; Jakobsson and Ågren, 2015).

Social Impact

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Only a small percentage of people have allergic responses to L. polyphyllus if consumed(Jappe & Vieths, 2010).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - shading
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

 L. polyphyllus is widely used as an ornamental.

Social Benefit

Cultivated as a fodder (Scott and Tesfaye, 2000; NOBANIS, 2015), an important crop because of alkaloids, oils, and amino acids (Q-bank, 2015).

Environmental Services

Attracts a lot of pollinators (Jakobsson and Padrón, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2015), prevents soil erosion (NOBANIS, 2015). It is also a nitrogen-fixing species making it a useful plant for restoring fire-exhausted soils (Miller et al., 2011).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Land reclamation
  • Landscape improvement
  • Revegetation
  • Soil improvement

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Fertilizer
  • Green manure

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Diagnosis

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A tetrazolium staining can be used to determine the viability of L. polyphyllus seeds (Peters, 2000), and a number of microsatellites are available for genetic analyses (Arias et al., 2013).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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L. polyphyllus may be confused with a garden hybrid, Lupinus x regalis, which has a greater variety of flower colours (including yellow and orange; NOBANIS, 2015). There are also other closely related species grouped under the hybrid name Lupinus x pseudopolyphyllus (Pergl, 2015). L. perennis has leaves with mostly 5-7 leaflets and flowers 12-16 mm long, whereas L. polyphyllus, which has leaves with mostly 11-17 leaflets and flowers 15-20 mm long (Go Botany, 2017). The Jepson eFlora (2017) provides a detailed key to a large number of North American species.

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

Public awareness

Intentional spreading should be minimised by avoiding the use of L. polyphyllus in landscaping (NOBANIS, 2015).

Several countries list L. polyphyllus as an invasive species on websites and in informational leaflets.

Eradication

Since L. polyphyllus has become naturalised but not invasive in many European countries, it is not considered to be a major problem (NOBANIS, 2015).

Control

Physical/mechanical control

Hand-pulling may be used for small stands (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995), while a regular mowing or grazing before seeds ripen is recommended for larger stands to reduce seed production (NOBANIS, 2015). However, mowing will not kill the plant.

The ability of L. polyphyllus to vegetatively reproduce can hinder mechanical control methods (Pergl, 2015).

Movement control

Care should be taken when transporting machines and soils (NOBANIS, 2015).

Biological control

Fungal pathogens could potentially be used as biological control in the future because they are currently causing the deaths of adult L. polyphyllus individuals in New Zealand (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995).

Chemical control

Spraying with a herbicide, such as glyphosate, can be effective (NOBANIS, 2015; Anderson et al. 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2015)

Ecosystem Restoration

In its native range, L. polyphyllus is used for prairie and wetland restoration, and for revegetation (USDA-NRCS, 2015).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Information on the relative importance of sexual and vegetative propagation for population spread is lacking.

References

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Chromosome number database. Plantshttp://chromosomes.binoz.uj.edu.pl/chromosomes/
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria.http://www.chah.gov.au/
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO)http://www.eppo.org
International Legume Database and Information Servicehttp://www.ildis.org/
IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2015. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN)http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN
Kew Royal Botanical Gardenswww.kew.org
Q-bank, 2015http://www.q-bank.eu/
USDA-NRCS, 2015http://plants.usda.gov/
Weeds of Australia, 2015. Biosecurity Queensland Editionhttp://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/080c0106-040c-4508-8300-0b0a06060e01/media/Html/Index.htm

Contributors

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23/02/2015 Original text by:

S. Ramula, University of Turku, Finland

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