Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.
Preferred Common Name
- garden lupin
Other Scientific Names
- Lupinus amplus Greene
- Lupinus biddlei Henderson ex C. P. Smith
- Lupinus elongatus Greene ex A. Heller
- Lupinus grandifolius Lindl. ex J. Agardh
- Lupinus magnus Greene
- Lupinus matanuskensis C.P. Sm.
- Lupinus pallidipes A. Heller
- Lupinus procerus Greene ex A. Heller
- Lupinus subsericeus B.L. Rob. ex Piper
- Lupinus superbus A. Heller
- Lupinus tooelensis C.P. Sm.
International Common Names
- English: bigleaf lupine; big-leaved lupine; garden lupin; large-leaved lupine; marsh legume; Russell lupin
Local Common Names
- Denmark: mangebladet lupin
- Finland: komealupiini
- Germany: stauden-lupine; vielblaettrige lupine; vielblättrige lupine
- Italy: Lupino perenne
- Netherlands: vaste lupine
- Norway: hagelupin
- Sweden: blomsterlupin
- LUPPO (Lupinus polyphyllus)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Lupinus polyphyllus, commonly known as garden lupin, is a perennial herb, native to western North America. It has been introduced to Europe, Australia and New Zealand for ornamental purposes, soil stabilisation and cultivation. In Europe, it shows signs of invasiveness in all countries where the species has naturalized. Its short generation time and ability to disperse easily has allowed it to quickly spread. The species occurs in disturbed habitats, such as road verges and wastelands in temperate regions, and prefers light sandy soils. L. polyphyllus has showy inflorescences that attract pollinators. The species reproduces both sexually and vegetatively via creeping rhizomes below ground. In its introduced range, L. polyphyllus outcompetes local vascular plant species and is also associated with a reduction in the abundance of butterfly species.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Fabales
- Family: Fabaceae
- Subfamily: Faboideae
- Genus: Lupinus
- Species: Lupinus polyphyllus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Fabaceae (also called Leguminosae) is one of the largest families of flowering plants and contains many economically important species, for example, those that are used for crops (ILDIS, 2015).
The genus Lupinus contains 200-500 species representing diverse life-histories from annual herbs to longer-lived shrubs and small trees, with the majority of the species being native to North or South America (Aïnouche and Bayer, 1999).
L. polyphyllus hybridises with other herbaceous Lupinus species (Rapp, 2009; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015). It constitutes a wide range of genotypes and natural varieties (Pergl, 2015).
DescriptionTop of page
L. polyphyllus is a short-lived, perennial, leguminous herb (NOBANIS, 2015), although individuals more than 50 years old are known from New Zealand (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995). Palmate leaves consist of several leaflets, about 1 cm wide, that are connected to long petioles and form a tuft that is 10-50 cm high (NOBANIS, 2015). Plants resprout easily when damaged (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995). The root system is large and forms creeping rhizomes below ground that can penetrate to a depth of >30 cm (Chemelíková and Hejcman, 2012). A flowering plant can form one to several flowering stems 50-150 cm high (NOBANIS, 2015). Each flowering stem contains tens of flowers in a raceme, and flowers open sequentially from the base of the raceme (Haynes and Mesler, 1984). L. polyphyllus has three main flower colour morphs (blue, pink, and white) that vary in frequency among populations (Pohtio and Teräs, 1995). Hairy, 5 cm long pods contain up to 10 or 12 seeds (NOBANIS, 2015) - colour and pigmentation may vary among individual plants (Aniszewski et al., 2001; Sõber and Ramula, 2013). Seed length is about 4-4.5 mm and seed weight ranges from about 10 mg up to nearly 70 mg (Aniszewski et al., 2001).
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
L. polyphyllus is native to the eastern and western states of the USA and Canada (USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015). NOBANIS (2015) report that L. polyphyllus is native to Alaska, however USDA-NRCS (2015) considers it introduced to this state.
The introduced range of L. polyphyllus includes Asia (from Armenia to China), Europe (from the UK to Ukraine), Chile and Australia and New Zealand. L. polyphyllus is established in at least 16 European countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the UK (DAISIE, 2016).
Higher temperatures due to climate change are likely to enhance or accelerate the natural nitrogen cycle as well as rates of nitrogen fixation (Thomas et al., 2006; Magnusson et al., 2014; Schaeffer et al. 2013). This may have an impact on the distribution and impacts of L. polyphyllus since it is a nitrogen fixing species.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present||Introduced|
|Finland||Present||Introduced||Invasive||First recorded in 1895. Established|
|Germany||Present||Introduced||Invasive||First recorded in Bavaria in 1890. Established|
|Latvia||Present||Introduced||First recorded in 1921. Established|
|Lithuania||Present||Introduced||Invasive||First recorded in 1931. Established|
|Russia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Present||Introduced|
|Switzerland||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Black listed on the Swiss Black and Watch Lists of invasive alient plants|
|Canada||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Newfoundland and Labrador||Present||Native|
|-Prince Edward Island||Present||Native|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Australia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-New South Wales||Present, Widespread||Introduced|
|New Zealand||Present, Widespread||Introduced|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Plant collector David Douglas imported L. polyphyllus to Britain in 1826 (NOBANIS, 2015; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2015). The species has been introduced to many European countries as a garden plant during 1800s, and also for soil improvement, soil stabilisation, and cultivation (NOBANIS, 2015). In Europe, the first records of escaped L. polyphyllus individuals date back to the end of the 1800s/beginning of the 1900s (NOBANIS, 2015).
L. polyphyllus was introduced to New Zealand as a garden plant after 1930, and was intentionally sown along road verges around 1950 (Scott, 1989).
The first European settlers introduced the species to Chilean Patagonia as an ornamental (Meier et al., 2013).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|England and Wales||1826||Horticulture (pathway cause)||Yes||NOBANIS (2015)|
|Estonia||1807||Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause)||Yes||NOBANIS (2015)|
|New Zealand||around 1950||Yes||Scott (1989)|
|Poland||1877||Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)||Yes||NOBANIS (2015)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
L. polyphyllus is widely available at nurseries because it is used for ornamental purposes and landscaping (NOBANIS, 2015). Once planted, L. polyphyllus is difficult to eradicate due to its ability to propagate vegetatively from creeping rhizomes.
It has already established across the majority of regions in Europe, even the northern regions, due to its ability to tolerate harsh conditions (Fremstad, 2010).
The species is highly overlooked and there is almost no public awareness so it is likely to continue to spread (Pergl, 2015).
HabitatTop of page
In its native range, L. polyphyllus occurs on meadows, road verges, and shores (NOBANIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015). In its invaded range the species inhabits a range of habitat types from open ruderal habitats, such as road verges, wastelands and meadows, to more shady forest understoreys (Rapp, 2009; Vyšniauskiene et al., 2011; Ramula, 2014). It is also able to invade river banks and wetlands (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995; Meier et al., 2013), and tolerates acidic, nutrient-poor mineral soils (NOBANIS, 2015).
L. polyphyllus is spreading rapidly in Finland, along road verges and other disturbed habitats and also to semi-natural grasslands and natural environments such as groves (Finnish Environment Institute, 2015).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Productive/non-natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Wetlands||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Wetlands||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The chromosome number is 2n=48 (Aïnouche and Bayer, 1999; IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2015; Q-bank, 2015). Depending on the source, the species is described as a tetraploid (Kubešová et al., 2010), diploid (Góralski et al., 2009) or octaploid (te Beest et al., 2011). L. polyphyllus exhibits considerable genetic differentiation among populations in its invaded range (Li et al., 2003; Vyšniauskiene et al., 2011).
L. polyphyllus reproduces both sexually from seed and vegetatively via creeping rhizomes below ground (Rapp, 2009; NOBANIS, 2015), with sexual reproduction taking place in the second year or later (S. Ramula, Aronia Research Institute, Finland, personal observation). Nectarless flowers produce highly fertile pollen (Haynes and Mesler, 1984; Vinogradova et al., 2012) and are mainly pollinated by bumblebees (Haynes and Mesler, 1984; Pohtio and Teräs, 1995), but honeybees and syrphid flies also visit the flowers of L. polyphyllus (Pohtio and Teräs, 1995).
Seeds in hairy pods ripen in a few weeks after fertilization when pods turn brown. In L. polyphyllus’s introduced range, an individual plant produces on average a few hundred seeds (Ramula, 2014). However, seed production varies greatly depending on the size of an individual plant, being sometimes thousands of seeds per plant (Aniszewski et al., 2001).
Physiology and Phenology
Hard-coated seeds germinate in the beginning of the growing season at varying rates (Wurst et al., 2010; Elliott et al., 2011; Ramula, 2014). Germination depends positively on seed mass (Sõber and Ramula, 2013). Fresh seeds have viability close to 100% (S. Ramula, Aronia Research Institute, Finland, personal observation) but they exhibit physical dormancy and therefore, physical or chemical scarification is required for more even germination (Elliott et al., 2011; USDA-NRCS, 2015). Seeds can survive for several years (ca 1% after 2 years) (Pergl, 2015).
In the boreal and temperate regions, L. polyphyllus flowers early in the growing season (May-July in Europe; Pohtio and Teräs, 1995), but individual plants may occasionally flower until the first night frost (S. Ramula, Aronia Research Institute, Finland, personal observation). The blossoming of each inflorescence lasts about one month (Vinogradova et al., 2012).
The lifespan of L. polyphyllus is about 20 years (Ramula, 2014).
In cool climates, L. polyphyllus individuals die back in autumn and emerge in spring (NOBANIS, 2015).
Population Size and Structure
Contains alkaloids, oils and amino acids. Roots are edible (Q-bank, 2015).
The roots of L. polyphyllus form ruff-like nodules with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium bacteria symbionts (Chemelíková and Hejcman, 2012; Q-bank, 2015). Powdery mildew is common on L. polyphyllus (USDA-NRCS, 2015).
ClimateTop of page
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Preferred||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||10|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||10|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||0|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||0||2||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||500||1600||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
In L. polyphyllus’s introduced range, its leaves may be eaten by generalist herbivores, such as slugs and roe deer (S. Ramula, Aronia Research Institute, Finland, personal observation). Aphids may also consume L. polyphyllus (USDA-NRCS, 2015).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Seeds are dispersed ballistically up to a few meters from the mother plant (one plant can produce hundreds of seeds) and also along waterways (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995). It is unlikely that they are dispersed via wind as the seeds are heavy and without appendages.
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
The seeds of L. polyphyllus are primarily dispersed via human activities (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995).
Accidental introductions are likely to have occurred via contaminated soils used for road building and landscaping (Fremstad and Elven, 2002).
L. polyphyllus has been intentionally introduced to gardens as an ornamental species (NOBANIS, 2015) and to road verges for erosion prevention (NOBANIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015). Moreover, the species is used as a fodder (NOBANIS, 2015).
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Botanical gardens and zoos||Accidental||Yes||Yes||NOBANIS (2015)|
|Crop production||Deliberate||Yes||Yes||NOBANIS (2015)|
|Escape from confinement or garden escape||Accidental||Yes||Yes||NOBANIS (2015)|
|Garden waste disposal||Accidental||Yes||Yes||Fremstad and Elven (2002)|
|Habitat restoration and improvement||Deliberate||Yes||USDA-NRCS (2015)|
|Interconnected waterways||Accidental||Yes||Yes||Timmins and MacKenzie (1995)|
|Landscape improvement||Deliberate||Yes||Yes||NOBANIS (2015)|
|Ornamental purposes||Accidental||Yes||Yes||NOBANIS (2015)|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes||fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx||fungi/spores||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Leaves||fungi/spores||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Roots||fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||arthropods/eggs||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Cultural/amenity||Positive and negative|
|Environment (generally)||Positive and negative|
Economic ImpactTop of page
The high alkaloid content of L. polyphyllus may be harmful to livestock if consumed in high amounts (NOBANIS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015). This means that some areas of infested pastures are not suitable for grazing (Pergl, 2015). However, there are alkaloid poor variants which can be used as fodder.
In Germany, the estimated cost of management of L. polyphyllus is ca. 30,000 Euro (Reinhardt et al., 2013).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitats
As a nitrogen-fixing species, L. polyphyllus increases soil nitrogen content (Davis, 1991), which in the long-term may lead to changes in plant community composition (Valtonen et al., 2006). However, Meier et al. (2013) found no difference in total nitrogen content between L. polyphyllus invaded and non-invaded sites along the Paloma river in Chilean Patagonia.
The large root system of the species prevents soil erosion and improves soil fertility (USDA-NRCS, 2015). However, on river banks in New Zealand it can also trap silt and debris, making the habitat increasingly suited to L. polyphyllus and less suited to native species (Timmins & Mackenzie, 1995). In this way it may act as an autogenic ecosystem engineer (Wright & Jones, 2004)
Impact on Biodiversity
L. polyphyllus can form dense stands and shade out native species (Maron & Connors 1996; Gosling 2005). In its introduced range, the presence of L. polyphyllus is associated with a reduction in the number of native vascular plant species (Holdaway and Sparrow, 2006; Valtonen et al., 2006; Ramula and Pihlaja, 2012) and a reduction in the abundance of butterfly species on road verges (Valtonen et al., 2006).
L. polyphyllus commonly dominates pioneer vegetation of frequently disturbed areas and rocky terraces of rivers in New Zealand (Holdaway and Sparrow, 2006).
The species may hybridise with the native Lupinus nootkatensis in Alaska (Rapp, 2009).
In soil with low nitrogen content, L. polyphyllus can have an advantage over native plants if conditions are favourable for growth due to its nitrogen-fixing ability.
The showy inflorescences of L. polyphyllus attract pollinators (USDA-NRCS, 2015) thus changing their behaviour in the introduced range of the plant (Jakobsson and Padrón, 2014; Jakobsson and Ågren, 2015).
Social ImpactTop of page
Only a small percentage of people have allergic responses to L. polyphyllus if consumed(Jappe & Vieths, 2010).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Reproduces asexually
- Has high genetic variability
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of nutrient regime
- Monoculture formation
- Reduced amenity values
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Soil accretion
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - shading
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
L. polyphyllus is widely used as an ornamental.
Attracts a lot of pollinators (Jakobsson and Padrón, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2015), prevents soil erosion (NOBANIS, 2015). It is also a nitrogen-fixing species making it a useful plant for restoring fire-exhausted soils (Miller et al., 2011).
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
- Erosion control or dune stabilization
- Land reclamation
- Landscape improvement
- Soil improvement
- Botanical garden/zoo
- Green manure
- Potted plant
- Seed trade
DiagnosisTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
L. polyphyllus may be confused with a garden hybrid, Lupinus x regalis, which has a greater variety of flower colours (including yellow and orange; NOBANIS, 2015). There are also other closely related species grouped under the hybrid name Lupinus x pseudopolyphyllus (Pergl, 2015). L. perennis has leaves with mostly 5-7 leaflets and flowers 12-16 mm long, whereas L. polyphyllus, which has leaves with mostly 11-17 leaflets and flowers 15-20 mm long (Go Botany, 2017). The Jepson eFlora (2017) provides a detailed key to a large number of North American species.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Intentional spreading should be minimised by avoiding the use of L. polyphyllus in landscaping (NOBANIS, 2015).
Several countries list L. polyphyllus as an invasive species on websites and in informational leaflets.
Since L. polyphyllus has become naturalised but not invasive in many European countries, it is not considered to be a major problem (NOBANIS, 2015).
Hand-pulling may be used for small stands (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995), while a regular mowing or grazing before seeds ripen is recommended for larger stands to reduce seed production (NOBANIS, 2015). However, mowing will not kill the plant.
The ability of L. polyphyllus to vegetatively reproduce can hinder mechanical control methods (Pergl, 2015).
Care should be taken when transporting machines and soils (NOBANIS, 2015).
Fungal pathogens could potentially be used as biological control in the future because they are currently causing the deaths of adult L. polyphyllus individuals in New Zealand (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995).
In its native range, L. polyphyllus is used for prairie and wetland restoration, and for revegetation (USDA-NRCS, 2015).
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
Information on the relative importance of sexual and vegetative propagation for population spread is lacking.
ReferencesTop of page
Ainouche A-K; Bayer RJ, 1999. Phylogenetic relationship in Lupinus (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) based on internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. American Journal of Botany, 86(4):590-607.
Anderson SJ; Woolmore CB; Westbrooke IM; Rohan M, 2014. Applying triclopyr to Russell lupins (Lupinus polyphyllus) before seed pods mature affects seed development and seed/seedling viability. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 52(4):407-416. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tnzb20
Arias MC; Atteke M; Augusto SC, 2013. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2013-31 March 2013. Molecular Ecology Resources, 13(2):760-762.
Beest te M; Roux le JJ; Richardson DM; Brysting AK; Suda J; Kubešova M; Pyšek P, 2011. The more the better? The role of polyploidy in facilitating plant invasions. Annals of Botany, 109(1):19-45.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015. Australia's virtual herbarium. Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au/#tab_simpleSearch
DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do
Elliott CW; Fischer DG; LeRoy CJ, 2011. Germination of three native Lupinus species in response to temperature. Northwest Science [The future of restoration and management of prairie-oak ecosystems in the Pacific Nothwest. Proceedings of the Cascadia PrairieOak Partnership session held during the 2010 Northwest Scientific Association meeting, Washington, USA, 24-27 March 2010.] 85(2):403-410. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3955/046.085.0223
EPPO, 2014. Update of the Black List and Watch List of invasive alien plants in Switzerland, 09-2014. EPPO Reporting Service. https://gd.eppo.int/reporting/article-3269
EPPO, 2015. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.
Finnish Environment Institute, 2015. Lupine., Finland. http://www.ymparisto.fi/fi-FI/Luonto/Lajit/Vieraslajit/Komealupiini
Flora Europaea, 1968. Rosaceae to Umbelliferae, 2 [ed. by Tutin TG, Burges, NA, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA]. UK: Cambridge University Press, 486 pp.
Fremstad E, 2010. NOBANIS - Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet. Lupinus polyphyllus. Online Database of the European Network on Invasive Alien Species- NOBANIS. https://www.nobanis.org/globalassets/speciesinfo/l/lupinus-polyphyllus/lupinus-polyphyllus.pdf
Fremstad E; Elven R, 2002. Perennial lupins in Fennoscandia. Wild and cultivated lupins from the Tropics to the Poles. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Lupin Conference, Laugarvatn, Iceland, 19-24 June 2002 [ed. by Santen E van, Hill GD]. Canterbury, New Zealand: International Lupin Association, 178-183.
Go Botany, 2017. Lupinus polyphyllus Lndl., blue lupine. Framingham, Maryland, USA: New England Wild Flower Society. https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/lupinus/polyphyllus/
Goralski G; Lubczynska P; Joachimiak AJ, 2009. Chromosome number database - Plants. http://chromosomes.binoz.uj.edu.pl/chromosomes/
Holdaway RJ; Sparrow AD, 2006. Assembly rules operating along a primary riverbed-grassland successional sequence. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 94(6):1092-1102. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2006.01170.x
ILDIS, 2015. International Legume Database and Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/
IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2015. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN
Jakobsson A; Padron B, 2014. Does the invasive Lupinus polyhpyllus increase pollinator visitation to a native herb through effects on pollinator population sizes. Oecologia, 174(1):271-226.
Jakobsson A; Padrón B; Agren J, 2015. Distance-dependent effects of invasive Lupinus polyphyllus on pollination and reproductive success of two native herbs. Basic and Applied Ecology, 16(2):120-127. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14391791
Kubesová M; Moravcová L; Suda J; Jarosík V; Pysek P, 2010. Naturalized plants have smaller genomes than their non-invading relatives: a flow cytometric analysis of the Czech alien flora. Preslia, 82(1):81-96. http://www.ibot.cas.cz/preslia/2010.html#loureiro
Li S; Vasemagi A; Matos-Maravi PF; Ramula S, 2013. Development and testing of microsatellite loci for the invasive herb Lupinus polyphyllus through 454 pyrosequencing. Molecular Ecology Resources, 13(4):760-762.
Loydi A; Donath TW; Eckstein RL; Otte A, 2015. Non-native species litter reduces germination and growth of resident forbs and grasses: allelopathic, osmotic or mechanical effects? Biological Invasions, 17(2):581-595. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10530-014-0750-x
Magnusson B; Myrold DD; Reed SC; Sigurdsson BD; Korner C, 2014. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N2 fixing plants in cold biomes. Oecologia, 176:11-24.
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23/02/2015 Original text by:
S. Ramula, University of Turku, Finland
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