Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Lupinus angustifolius
(narrow-leaf lupin)

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Datasheet

Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leaf lupin)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lupinus angustifolius
  • Preferred Common Name
  • narrow-leaf lupin
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Lupinus angustifolius is a fast growing annual herb native to the Mediterranean regions of Europe, Asia and Africa. It has been widely introduced in tropical and subtropical regions of the world for use as gree...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lupinus angustifolius L.

Preferred Common Name

  • narrow-leaf lupin

Other Scientific Names

  • Lupinus canaliculatus Sweet

International Common Names

  • English: blue lupine; European blue lupine; narrow-leaved lupine
  • Spanish: altramuz azul; altramuz de hoja estrecha; haba loca; lupino azul
  • French: lupin à feuilles étroites; lupin bleu
  • Chinese: xia ye yu shan dou
  • Portuguese: tremoçeiro-azul; tremoço-bravo; tremoço-de-folhas-estreitas

Local Common Names

  • Czech Republic: lupina úzkolistá
  • Dominican Republic: yuca
  • France: lupin petit bleu
  • Germany: blaue lupine; blau-lupine; schmalblättrige lupine
  • Hungary: keskenylevelű csillagfürt
  • Italy: lupino azzurro
  • Jamaica: lupin
  • Netherlands: blauwe lupine
  • Sweden: blålupin

EPPO code

  • LUPAN (Lupinus angustifolius)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Lupinus angustifolius is a fast growing annual herb native to the Mediterranean regions of Europe, Asia and Africa. It has been widely introduced in tropical and subtropical regions of the world for use as green manure, forage and as a grain legume and soil improver. In many places it is an agricultural and environmental weed. It is naturalized primarily along roadsides, in disturbed areas, secondary forests and in ruderal areas near cultivation. L. angustifolius is able to suppress native plant species by altering soil characteristics through its nitrogen fixing activity, allowing the spread of other non-native species. It is listed as invasive in Australia.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Lupinus
  •                                     Species: Lupinus angustifolius

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Lupinus is a large and diverse genus comprising about 200-500 species of annual and perennial herbs, shrubs and small trees. Lupinus species are distributed worldwide, but there is greater diversity in the New World, with over 90% of species in the genus occurring in the temperate and subtropical zones of North and South America, from Washington State, in the USA, to southern Argentina and Chile. Only 12-13 species are considered native to the Mediterranean and Africa, with some populations extending to the highlands of East African tropical areas (Ainouche and Bayer, 1999; Stevens, 2012; Australian Government, 2013). Several Lupinus species have a long history of use both as ornamental plants in gardens and as agricultural crops. L. angustifolius, L. albus, L. luteus and L. mutabilis have gained agricultural importance and are cultivated worldwide (Australian Government, 2013).

Description

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The following description is from Standley and Steyermark (1946):

L. angustifolius is an annual plant, erect, branched, slender, mostly 50 cm high or less, the stems pilose with short, mostly appressed, sometimes spreading hairs, densely leafy; leaves long-petiolate, the leaflets 5-9, linear, 2-4 cm long, 2-5 mm wide, very obtuse or rounded at the apex, glabrous above, sericeous beneath; stipules 7 mm long, linear; racemes short or elongate, few-many-flowered, short-pedunculate, the bracts small, caducous; calyx lips long and narrow, pilose; corolla bright blue, the standard 12 mm long; legume 5-7 cm long, 10-12 mm wide, hirsute, 5-6-seeded; seeds gray and brown, 7-8 mm long.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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L. angustifolius is native to the Mediterranean, occurring in southern Europe, northern Africa and western Asia (Rhodes and Maxted, 2016; DAISIE, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). It has been introduced in tropical and subtropical areas across the Americas, Australia and Europe (FAO, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017; Weeds of Australia, 2017). It is widely cultivated in Australia, where it is also listed as invasive (Weeds of Australia, 2017). It is listed as ‘possibly invasive’ in the Dominican Republic (Mir, 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EgyptPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
MoroccoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2010)Cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2017)Cultivated
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2017)Cultivated
IsraelPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
LebanonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
PalestinePresentNativeRhodes and Maxted (2016)
SyriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
TurkeyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeRhodes and Maxted (2016)
AustriaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2017)
BelgiumPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2017)
BulgariaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
CyprusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
CzechiaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2017)
DenmarkPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2017)Established
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2017)Naturalized
FrancePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-CorsicaPresentNativeRhodes and Maxted (2016)
GermanyPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2017)
GreecePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
HungaryPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2017)
ItalyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)Including Sardinia and Sicily
LatviaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2017)
MaltaPresentNativeRhodes and Maxted (2016)
PortugalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDAISIE (2017)Naturalized
SpainPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Balearic IslandsPresentNativeRhodes and Maxted (2016)
SwedenPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2017)
United KingdomPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2017)

North America

CanadaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Present based on regional records
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2017)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedMir (2012)Possibly invasive
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
United StatesPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Present based on regional records
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2017)
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2017)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2017)
-MainePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2017)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeeds of Australia (2015)
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeeds of Australia (2015)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeeds of Australia (2015)
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeeds of Australia (2015)
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeeds of Australia (2015)
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeeds of Australia (2015)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2008)
BoliviaPresentIntroducedBolivia Catalogue (2017)
ChilePresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2008)
UruguayPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2008)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Lupinus species have an ancient history in agriculture that can be traced back more than 4000 years (Kurlovich, 2002). Domestication first occurred in the Mediterranean region and the American continent, but the breakthrough that established Lupinus species as modern agricultural crops occurred in Europe and Australia. From the 1930s to 1970s, several varieties were developed and cultivated in Australia and Germany (Australian Government, 2013).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of L. angustifolius is very high. Many varieties of this species are widely cultivated across tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Weeds of Australia, 2017).

Habitat

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L. angustifolius grows as an environmental and agricultural weed. It has become naturalized in disturbed sites, wastelands, roadsides, sandy coastal habitats, open woodlands, degraded shrublands, abandoned fields, shrub steppes, parks and gardens (Rhodes and Maxted, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2017).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for L. angustifolius varies, and has been recorded as 2n = 38, 2n = 42 and 2n = 44 (Ghrabi Gammar et al., 1997).

Reproductive Biology

The flowers of L. angustifolius are hermaphrodite and pollinated by bees (PFAF, 2017). However, the species is self-compatible and mainly reproduces by self-pollination (Australian Government, 2013).

Physiology and Phenology

L. angustifolius reaches maturity in 105-150 days and produces flowers after 80-120 days. In the USA, it flowers between April and June (FAO, 2017). In Australia, cultivated L. angustifolius begins flowering from late July to early September and plants are harvested in October or November (Australian Government, 2013). Germination and emergence is reduced when soil temperature is higher than 20°C, with almost no germination and emergence at 30°C (Australian Government, 2013).

Associations

Symbiosis occurs between L. angustifolius and nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria such as Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium (FAO, 2017).

Environmental Requirements

In temperate regions, L. angustifolius grows at elevations between sea level and 545 m, whereas in the tropics it grows between 1500 and 2500 m above sea level (FAO, 2017). In Australia it thrives in areas receiving less than 500 mm annual rainfall (Australian Government, 2013), though it can tolerate an average annual rainfall of 840 mm (Duke, 1981). It usually occurs on non-calcareous soils with an average pH between 4.9 and 8.2 (Duke, 1981; Clements et al., 2005).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
50 20 0 2500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -6
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 4 26

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall400840mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Colletotrichum lupini Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
Pleiochaeta setosa Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
Thanatephorus cucumeris Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In Australia, anthracnose (caused by Colletotrichum lupini), brown leaf spot and root rot (caused by Pleiochaeta setosa) and phomopsis (caused by Diaporthe toxica) are the diseases that have the greatest impact on Lupinus species (Australian Government, 2013).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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L. angustifolius spreads via seed that is dispersed by waterways, animals and by human activities (Australian Government, 2013).

Intentional Introduction

L. angustifolius has been widely introduced by humans outside its native distribution range, primarily for use as a forage/fodder crop (FAO, 2017).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionCultivated as a legume pulse Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
DisturbanceWeed in disturbed sites Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2017
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2017
Forage Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Habitat restoration and improvementSoil improver Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
People foragingHuman food (pulse) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesFruits/seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Land vehiclesSeeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
WaterSeeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017

Impact

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The seeds of L. angustifolius contain alkaloids that are toxic for human and animal consumption (Australian Government, 2013; PFAF, 2017).

Economic Impact

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L. angustifolius is listed as an agricultural weed, particularly in Australia (Australian Government, 2013).

Environmental Impact

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L. angustifolius is regarded as an environmental weed. It often grows as a weed of road verges, disturbed sites and secondary forests (Weeds of Australia, 2017). It is able to suppress the growth of native plant species by altering soil characteristics through its nitrogen fixing activity and allowing the spread of other non-native species (Weeds of Australia, 2017).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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L. angustifolius is grown for use as human food (a pulse), animal fodder and forage, for green manure and as a soil improver and stabilizer. It is also planted as honey flora and seeds are used as a protein additive in animal feed (FAO, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Soil improvement

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora
  • Pulse

Materials

  • Green manure
  • Poisonous to mammals

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control

Physical/Mechanical Control

Small infestations of L. angustifolius can be controlled through prevention of seed set for 3-4 years by mowing, grazing or hand pulling before flowering (Australian Government, 2013).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Ainouche AK, Bayer RJ, 1999. Phylogenetic relationships in Lupinus (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) based on internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. American Journal of Botany, 86(4), 590-607.

Australian Government, 2013. The Biology of Lupinus L. (lupin or lupine). Australia: Department of Health and Ageing, Office of the Gene Technology Regulator.http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/Content/biologylupin2013-toc/$FILE/biologylupin2013-2.pdf

Bolivia Catalogue, 2017. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/BC

Clements JC, Buirchel BJ, Yang H, Smith PMC, Sweetingham MW, Smith CG, 2005. Lupin. In: Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvements Volume 1, Grain Legumes, Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis Group. 231-323.

DAISIE, 2017. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Duke JA, 1981. New York, USA: Plenum Press.

FAO, 2017. http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropSearchForm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2010. Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Flora of China. 10. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.1-577. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/mss/volume10/FOC_10_Fabaceae_all.pdf

Ghrabi Gammar de Z, Puech S, Zouaghi M, Nabli M, 1997. Rapports (827-830). In: Mediterranean chromosome number reports 7. Flora Mediterranea , 7. 221-225.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2017. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Kurlovich BS, 2002. The history of lupin domestication. In: Lupins: Geography, classification, genetic resources and breeding, St. Petersburg and Pellosniemi, Russia and Finland: OY International North Express. 241-268.

Mir C, 2012. Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Santo Domingo.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

PFAF, 2017. http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

Rhodes L, Maxted N, 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, e.T174707A19404942. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T174707A19404942.en

Standley, P. C., Steyermark, J. A., 1946. Flora of Guatemala. V. Fieldiana: Botany, 24(5), v + 502 pp.

Stevens PF, 2012. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2017. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2017. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.http://plants.usda.gov/

Weeds of Australia, 2017. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/index.htm

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay)). USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.3348 pp.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bolivia Catalogue, 2017. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Bolivia)., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/BC

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

DAISIE, 2017. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2010. Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Flora of China., 10 St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. 1-577. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/mss/volume10/FOC_10_Fabaceae_all.pdf

India Biodiversity Portal, 2017. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Mir C, 2012. [English title not available]. (Estrategia Nacional de especies exóticas invasoras realizado en el marco del Proyecto “Mitigando las amenazas de las especies exóticas invasoras en el Caribe Insular”)., Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Santo Domingo.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Rhodes L, Maxted N, 2016. Lupinus angustifolius. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, e.T174707A19404942. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T174707A19404942.en

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Weeds of Australia, 2015. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition., http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=

Zuloaga F O, Morrone O, Belgrano M J, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 3348 pp.

Contributors

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11/03/17 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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