Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ludwigia octovalvis
(primrose willow)

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Datasheet

Ludwigia octovalvis (primrose willow)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ludwigia octovalvis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • primrose willow
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Habit at waters edge.
TitleHabit
CaptionHabit at waters edge.
CopyrightSheldon Navie
Habit at waters edge.
HabitHabit at waters edge.Sheldon Navie
a, leaf; b, flower, view from below and from above; c, sepal; d, flower without perianth; e, capsule and enlarged base; f, seed.
TitleL. octovalvis - line drawing
Captiona, leaf; b, flower, view from below and from above; c, sepal; d, flower without perianth; e, capsule and enlarged base; f, seed.
CopyrightSEAMEO-BIOTROP
a, leaf; b, flower, view from below and from above; c, sepal; d, flower without perianth; e, capsule and enlarged base; f, seed.
L. octovalvis - line drawinga, leaf; b, flower, view from below and from above; c, sepal; d, flower without perianth; e, capsule and enlarged base; f, seed.SEAMEO-BIOTROP
Growth habit showing a dense stand.
TitleHabit
CaptionGrowth habit showing a dense stand.
CopyrightSheldon Navie
Growth habit showing a dense stand.
HabitGrowth habit showing a dense stand.Sheldon Navie
Leaves and flowers.
TitleHabit
CaptionLeaves and flowers.
CopyrightSheldon Navie
Leaves and flowers.
HabitLeaves and flowers.Sheldon Navie
Stem with leaves and flowers.
TitleHabit
CaptionStem with leaves and flowers.
CopyrightSheldon Navie
Stem with leaves and flowers.
HabitStem with leaves and flowers.Sheldon Navie
Young plant.
TitleYoung plant
CaptionYoung plant.
CopyrightSheldon Navie
Young plant.
Young plantYoung plant.Sheldon Navie
Immature fruits.
TitleFruits
CaptionImmature fruits.
CopyrightSheldon Navie
Immature fruits.
FruitsImmature fruits.Sheldon Navie
Mature seed pods.
TitleFruits
CaptionMature seed pods.
CopyrightSheldon Navie
Mature seed pods.
FruitsMature seed pods.Sheldon Navie
Close-up of flower.
TitleFlower
CaptionClose-up of flower.
CopyrightSheldon Navie
Close-up of flower.
FlowerClose-up of flower.Sheldon Navie

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven

Preferred Common Name

  • primrose willow

Other Scientific Names

  • Jussiaea angustifolia Lam.
  • Jussiaea linearis Willd.
  • Jussiaea octovalvis Swartz
  • Jussiaea pubescens L.
  • Jussiaea suffruticosa L.
  • Oenothena octovalvis Jacq.

International Common Names

  • Spanish: clavito; hierta de Santa Cruz
  • French: herbe à pique

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: cruz de Malta

EPPO code

  • LUDOC (Ludwigia octovalvis)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Onagraceae
  •                             Genus: Ludwigia
  •                                 Species: Ludwigia octovalvis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page L. octovalvis has a complex pattern of variation which makes it difficult to assign formal taxonomic categories. Raven (1963) recognized four subspecies, two of which have distinct ranges.

1. subsp. brevispala (Brenan) Raven

The only representative of the species present over much of Africa: sepals <6 mm long.

All other subspecies have sepals >6 mm long.

2. subsp. macropoda (Presl) Raven

The only one along the west coast of South America, from Ecuador to northern Chile.

3. subsp. sessiliflora (Mich.) Raven

With a range largely distinct from that of subsp. octovalvis within South America, but overlapping and confused in the Old World. Only subsp. sessiliflora is found in New Caledonia and southern India; it has a wider range in China, to southern Japan, but a much narrower range in the Pacific, only as far as Fiji. This subspecies is usually distinguishable from subsp. octovalvis by the presence of long erect hairs on the leaves, and ovate or subovate leaves (while subsp. octovalvis typically has few or no hairs, and lanceolate or linear leaves).

4. subsp. octovalvis

Uncommon in Africa; but nearly throughout India, to south-east China and Taiwan, and as far south as Australia, and through the Pacific to Hawaii, Tahiti and the Marquesas.

Description

Top of page L. octovalvis is a robust, well-branched herb, up to 3 m tall, sometimes woody at base or even shrubby. Hairy. Leaves linear to subovate, 2-14.5 cm long, 0.4-4 cm wide, narrowly or broadly cuneate at the base, apex attenuate; main veins 11-20 on each side of midrib; submarginal vein well developed; petioles up to 10 mm long. Sepals 4, ovate or lanceolate, 6-15 mm long, 1-7.5 mm wide. Petals (4-5) yellow, broadly obovate or cuneate, 5-17 mm long, 4-17 mm wide. Stamens 8, pale-greenish-yellow. Seeds pluriseriate in each locule of thin-walled capsule, free, brown, rounded, 0.6-0.75 mm wide, including the inflated raphe which is the same size as the body of seed and evenly transversely ridged. (After Munz, 1942.)

Distribution

Top of page L. octovalvis is found throughout the Tropics, from sea level to 1500 m elevation (see also Notes on Taxonomy).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentMoody, 1989
CambodiaPresentMoody, 1989
ChinaPresentRaven, 1963
IndiaRestricted distributionRaven, 1963
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentRaven, 1963
-AssamPresentRaven, 1963
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Irian JayaPresentRaven, 1963
-JavaPresentRaven, 1963
-KalimantanPresentRaven, 1963
-MoluccasPresentRaven, 1963
-Nusa TenggaraPresentRaven, 1963
-SulawesiPresentRaven, 1963
-SumatraPresentRaven, 1963
IraqPresentHolm et al., 1979
JapanPresentRaven, 1963
JordanPresentHolm et al., 1979
LaosPresentMoody, 1989
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentRaven, 1963
-SabahPresentRaven, 1963
-SarawakPresentRaven, 1963
MyanmarPresentWaterhouse, 1993
NepalPresentMoody, 1989
PhilippinesPresentMoody, 1989
SingaporePresentWaterhouse, 1993
Sri LankaPresentRaven, 1963
TaiwanPresentRaven, 1963
ThailandPresentMoody, 1989
VietnamPresentMoody, 1989

Africa

BeninPresentHolm et al., 1979
BotswanaPresentHolm et al., 1979
CameroonPresentRaven, 1963
Cape VerdePresentRaven, 1963
CongoPresentRaven, 1963
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentRaven, 1963
GambiaPresentBrenan, 1954
GhanaPresentRaven, 1963
GuineaPresentRaven, 1963
Guinea-BissauPresentRaven, 1963
KenyaPresentRaven, 1963
LiberiaPresentRaven, 1963
MadagascarPresentRaven, 1963
MalawiPresentRaven, 1963
MaliPresentRaven, 1963
MauritiusPresentHolm et al., 1979
MozambiquePresentRaven, 1963
NigerPresentRaven, 1963
NigeriaPresentRaven, 1963
SenegalPresentRaven, 1963
Sierra LeonePresentRaven, 1963
South AfricaPresentRaven, 1963
SudanPresentRaven, 1963
TanzaniaPresentRaven, 1963
TogoPresentRaven, 1963
UgandaPresentRaven, 1963
ZambiaPresentRaven, 1963
ZimbabwePresentRaven, 1963

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentRaven, 1963

Central America and Caribbean

HondurasPresentHolm et al., 1979
JamaicaPresentHolm et al., 1979

South America

BrazilPresentHolm et al., 1979
ChilePresentRaven, 1963
ColombiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
EcuadorPresentRaven, 1963
PeruPresentHolm et al., 1979
SurinamePresentHolm et al., 1979

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentRaven, 1963
-New South WalesPresentRaven, 1963
-Western AustraliaPresentRaven, 1963
FijiPresentRaven, 1963
French PolynesiaPresentFlorence et al., 1983

Habitat

Top of page L. octovalvis is found in wet places, usually associated with agriculture: most commonly in either rainfed or irrigated ricefields (see, for example, Pablico and Moody, 1987).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)SterculiaceaeMain

Biology and Ecology

Top of page L. octovalvis is found in wet places, and experimental evidence confirms that it is highly tolerant of fluctuating water levels (Mohankumar and Alexander, 1989). The periderm of the plant tissues swells rapidly when immersed in water: this is probably a defence against waterlogging (Angeles, 1992). Like many rice weeds, the plant responds strongly to application of nitrogenous fertilizer (up to 100 kg/ha) by increased dry matter accumulation, which may increase problems of weed control in heavily fertilized ricefields (Gaffer, 1985; Kim and Moody, 1989).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Altica foveicollis Herbivore Leaves
Mompha ludwigiae Herbivore Leaves

Impact

Top of page L. octovalvis is primarily a weed of rice, particularly in South-East Asia (Moody, 1989), where it infests a wide range of rice culture systems, especially dry-seeded rice (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand), wet-seeded rice (Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam), transplanted rice (Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam) and upland rice (Indonesia, Philippines, Nepal). L. octovalvis also occurs in direct-seeded rice (India, Sri Lanka), tidal swamp rice (Indonesia), lowland rice (Cambodia, Laos), and seedling nursery rice (Philippines).

Raju and Reddy (1986) list L. octovalvis fourth in global-scale importance among broadleaved weeds that infest rice (out of a total of 350 weed species in rice, worldwide). This weed also affects plantation crops: for example, young cocoa plantations in Brazil (Mori et al., 1980). It is a troublesome weed of a range of irrigated crops in Africa (Cook, 1974). It has been reported as a pasture weed from the Southern Pacific region (Reynolds, 1978), and is a major broadleaved weed of legume crops, including soyabeans, in the Philippines.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Herbicides

Rice

Weed species of Ludwigia (primarily L. adscendens, L. hyssopifolia and L. octovalvis) that occur in rice are reported to be susceptible to the following herbicides (results reported as usually at least as good as standard twice-repeated hand-weeded controls).

Standard treatments include MCPA and 2,4-D as post-emergence treatments (Raju and Reddy, 1986). Others are quinclorac + bensulfuron or molinate + 2,4-D. More recently, pretilachlor (often in combination with other active ingredients; see, for example, Llorente and Evangelista, 1990) has emerged as an effective herbicide for use against Ludwigia spp. Good results have been observed in recent years with a range of these and other products and mixes, in varying situations as summarized below.

Post-emergence application of piperophos + propanil was reported to be very effective in direct-seeded and transplanted lowland rice in Nigeria, with oxadiazon + propanil, and fluorodifen [now superseded] + propanil also reasonable. Tank-mixed post-emergence application of thiobencarb + propanil + fenoprop [now superseded] or butachlor + propanil was effective against L. octovalvis. Pre-emergence treatments were less effective because of crop phytotoxicity or poor weed control efficacy (using pretilachlor + dimethametryn, or oxadiazon) (Imeokparia et al., 1992; Imeokparia, 1994).

Pre-emergence thiobencarb plus one hand-weeding was slightly better than butachlor plus one hand weeding in dry and wet-sown rice in Tamil Nadu, India: in these trials, post-emergence treatments were not effective in either crop - using thiobencarb + 2,4-D, butachlor + 2,4-D, fluchloralin + 2,4-D, pendimethalin + 2,4-D or piperophos + 2,4-D (Kandasamy and Palaniappan, 1990).

Other workers have studied herbicide use against other Ludwigia spp. (L. adscendens: Allard and Zoschke,1990; L. hyssopifolia: Azmi and Supaad, 1992).

Pasture

In the South Pacific region, L. octovalvis is reported as one of 14 problem bushy or woody weed species: it is susceptible to control by 2,4-D or glyphosate (Reynolds, 1978).

Biological Control

The chrysomelid beetle Altica foveicollis has been considered as a possible biocontrol agent against L. octovalvis, for example in Bangladesh (Alam and Karim, 1980). Larvae of the lepidopteran Mompha ludwigiae will feed on L. octovalvis, though these larvae primarily provide biocontrol against L. adscendens (Bradley et al., 1973).

Cultural Methods

Soil solarization, using clear polythene sheeting, has been reported to reduce the abundance of broadleaved weeds, including L. octovalvis, in Western Samoa (Ragone and Wilson, 1988).

References

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Alam S; Karim ANMR, 1980. The black beetle: an efficient weed feeder in Bangladesh. International Rice Research Newsletter, 5(4):23

Allard JL; Zoschke A, 1990. A solution to the major weed problems in wet-sown rice: experiences with pretilachlor/fenclorim in south-east Asia. Pest management in rice (conference held by the Society of Chemical Industry, London, UK, 4-7 June 1990) [edited by Grayson, B.T.; Green, M.B.; Copping, L.G.] Barking, UK; Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd., 378-388

Angeles G, 1992. The periderm of flooded and non-flooded Ludwigia octovalvis (Onagraceae). IAWA Bulletin, 13:195-200.

Azmi M; Supaad MA, 1992. Evaluation of new herbicides for weed control in direct seeded rice. Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on plant protection in the tropics, Genting Highlands, Malaysia, 20-23 March 1990 [edited by Ooi, P.A.C.; Lim, G.S.; Teng, P.S.] Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Malaysian Plant Protection Society, Vol. 6:292-296

Bradley JD; Carter DJ; Sankaran T; Narayanan E, 1973. A new species of Mompha Hubner (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from Assam, N.E. India, a potential agent for biological control of Ludwigia adscendens. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 63(1):57-63

Brenan JPM, 1954. Onagraceae. In: Keay RWJ, ed. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol I, Part I, 2nd edition. London, UK: Crown Agents, 166-170.

Cook CDK, 1974. Water Plants of the World. The Hague, The Netherlands: Junk.

Florence J; Guerin M; Reboul JL, 1983. Weeds of French Polynesia (Les mauvaises herbes de la Polynesie Francaise). Compte Rendu de la 12e Conference du COLUMA. Tome I. Paris, France: Comite Francais de Lutte contre les Mauvaises Herbes, 427-432.

Gaffer MA, 1985. Studies on nitrogen economy in transplant aman rice through weed control measures. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 20(1-4):159-162

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Imeokparia PO, 1994. Weed control in flooded rice with various herbicide combinations in the southern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management, 40(1):31-39

Imeokparia PO; Lagoke STO; Olunuga BA, 1992. Evaluation of postemergence herbicides for broad-spectrum weed control in three cultivars of flooded rice in Nigeria. Crop Protection, 11(2):165-173

Kandasamy OS; Palaniappan SP, 1990. Weed control in dry and wet seeded irrigated rice. International Rice Research Newsletter, 15(3):33

Kim SC; Moody K, 1989. Growth dynamics of rice and several weed species under density and fertiliser stress. Proceedings 12th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, 1:47-56.

Llorente JL; Evangelista CC, 1990. Efficacy of pretilachlor for weed control in transplanted rice (IR 74). University of Southern Mindanao College of Agriculture Research Journal, 1:9-17.

Mohankumar B; Alexander D, 1989. Influence of water regimes on weed growth and yields of transplanted rice. Oryza, 26(1-2):103-105

Moody K, 1989. Weeds reported in Rice in South and Southeast Asia. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

Mori SA; Silva LAM; Lisboa G; Pereira RC; Santos TSdos, 1980. Studies of weedy plants of southern Bahia 1. Productivity and phenology. Boletim Tecnico, Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau, No. 73:18 pp.

Munz PA, 1942. Studies in Onagraceae XII A revision of the New World species of Jussiaea. Darwiniana, 4(2-3):179-284.

Pablico PP; Moody K, 1987. A survey of weeds in transplanted and wet-seeded rice under rainfed and irrigated conditions. International Rice Research Newsletter, 12(1):23

Ragone D; Wilson JE, 1988. Control of weeds, nematodes and soil-borne pathogens by soil solarization. Alafua Agricultural Bulletin, 13(1):13-20

Raju RA; Reddy MN, 1986. Protecting the world's rice crops. Agricultural Information Development Bulletin, 8(2):17-18

Raven PH, 1963. The old world species of Ludwigia (including Jussiaea), with a synopsis of the genus (Onagraceae). Reinwardtia, 6(3):327-427.

Reynolds S, 1978. Suggested control methods for some pasture weeds. Alafua Agricultural Bulletin, 3(1):7-13

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

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