Ludwigia octovalvis (primrose willow)
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven
Preferred Common Name
- primrose willow
Other Scientific Names
- Jussiaea angustifolia Lam.
- Jussiaea linearis Willd.
- Jussiaea octovalvis Swartz
- Jussiaea pubescens L.
- Jussiaea suffruticosa L.
- Oenothena octovalvis Jacq.
International Common Names
- Spanish: clavito; hierta de Santa Cruz
- French: herbe à pique
Local Common Names
- Brazil: cruz de Malta
- LUDOC (Ludwigia octovalvis)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Myrtales
- Family: Onagraceae
- Genus: Ludwigia
- Species: Ludwigia octovalvis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page L. octovalvis has a complex pattern of variation which makes it difficult to assign formal taxonomic categories. Raven (1963) recognized four subspecies, two of which have distinct ranges.
1. subsp. brevispala (Brenan) Raven
The only representative of the species present over much of Africa: sepals <6 mm long.
All other subspecies have sepals >6 mm long.
2. subsp. macropoda (Presl) Raven
The only one along the west coast of South America, from Ecuador to northern Chile.
3. subsp. sessiliflora (Mich.) Raven
With a range largely distinct from that of subsp. octovalvis within South America, but overlapping and confused in the Old World. Only subsp. sessiliflora is found in New Caledonia and southern India; it has a wider range in China, to southern Japan, but a much narrower range in the Pacific, only as far as Fiji. This subspecies is usually distinguishable from subsp. octovalvis by the presence of long erect hairs on the leaves, and ovate or subovate leaves (while subsp. octovalvis typically has few or no hairs, and lanceolate or linear leaves).
4. subsp. octovalvis
Uncommon in Africa; but nearly throughout India, to south-east China and Taiwan, and as far south as Australia, and through the Pacific to Hawaii, Tahiti and the Marquesas.
DescriptionTop of page L. octovalvis is a robust, well-branched herb, up to 3 m tall, sometimes woody at base or even shrubby. Hairy. Leaves linear to subovate, 2-14.5 cm long, 0.4-4 cm wide, narrowly or broadly cuneate at the base, apex attenuate; main veins 11-20 on each side of midrib; submarginal vein well developed; petioles up to 10 mm long. Sepals 4, ovate or lanceolate, 6-15 mm long, 1-7.5 mm wide. Petals (4-5) yellow, broadly obovate or cuneate, 5-17 mm long, 4-17 mm wide. Stamens 8, pale-greenish-yellow. Seeds pluriseriate in each locule of thin-walled capsule, free, brown, rounded, 0.6-0.75 mm wide, including the inflated raphe which is the same size as the body of seed and evenly transversely ridged. (After Munz, 1942.)
DistributionTop of page L. octovalvis is found throughout the Tropics, from sea level to 1500 m elevation (see also Notes on Taxonomy).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|India||Restricted distribution||Raven, 1963|
|-Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Present||Raven, 1963|
|Indonesia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Irian Jaya||Present||Raven, 1963|
|-Nusa Tenggara||Present||Raven, 1963|
|Iraq||Present||Holm et al., 1979|
|Jordan||Present||Holm et al., 1979|
|Malaysia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Peninsular Malaysia||Present||Raven, 1963|
|Sri Lanka||Present||Raven, 1963|
|Benin||Present||Holm et al., 1979|
|Botswana||Present||Holm et al., 1979|
|Cape Verde||Present||Raven, 1963|
|Congo Democratic Republic||Present||Raven, 1963|
|Mauritius||Present||Holm et al., 1979|
|Sierra Leone||Present||Raven, 1963|
|South Africa||Present||Raven, 1963|
|USA||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
Central America and Caribbean
|Honduras||Present||Holm et al., 1979|
|Jamaica||Present||Holm et al., 1979|
|Brazil||Present||Holm et al., 1979|
|Colombia||Present||Holm et al., 1979|
|Peru||Present||Holm et al., 1979|
|Suriname||Present||Holm et al., 1979|
|Australia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Australian Northern Territory||Present||Raven, 1963|
|-New South Wales||Present||Raven, 1963|
|-Western Australia||Present||Raven, 1963|
|French Polynesia||Present||Florence et al., 1983|
HabitatTop of page L. octovalvis is found in wet places, usually associated with agriculture: most commonly in either rainfed or irrigated ricefields (see, for example, Pablico and Moody, 1987).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page L. octovalvis is found in wet places, and experimental evidence confirms that it is highly tolerant of fluctuating water levels (Mohankumar and Alexander, 1989). The periderm of the plant tissues swells rapidly when immersed in water: this is probably a defence against waterlogging (Angeles, 1992). Like many rice weeds, the plant responds strongly to application of nitrogenous fertilizer (up to 100 kg/ha) by increased dry matter accumulation, which may increase problems of weed control in heavily fertilized ricefields (Gaffer, 1985; Kim and Moody, 1989).
Natural enemiesTop of page
ImpactTop of page L. octovalvis is primarily a weed of rice, particularly in South-East Asia (Moody, 1989), where it infests a wide range of rice culture systems, especially dry-seeded rice (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand), wet-seeded rice (Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam), transplanted rice (Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam) and upland rice (Indonesia, Philippines, Nepal). L. octovalvis also occurs in direct-seeded rice (India, Sri Lanka), tidal swamp rice (Indonesia), lowland rice (Cambodia, Laos), and seedling nursery rice (Philippines).
Raju and Reddy (1986) list L. octovalvis fourth in global-scale importance among broadleaved weeds that infest rice (out of a total of 350 weed species in rice, worldwide). This weed also affects plantation crops: for example, young cocoa plantations in Brazil (Mori et al., 1980). It is a troublesome weed of a range of irrigated crops in Africa (Cook, 1974). It has been reported as a pasture weed from the Southern Pacific region (Reynolds, 1978), and is a major broadleaved weed of legume crops, including soyabeans, in the Philippines.
Prevention and ControlTop of page Herbicides
Weed species of Ludwigia (primarily L. adscendens, L. hyssopifolia and L. octovalvis) that occur in rice are reported to be susceptible to the following herbicides (results reported as usually at least as good as standard twice-repeated hand-weeded controls).
Standard treatments include MCPA and 2,4-D as post-emergence treatments (Raju and Reddy, 1986). Others are quinclorac + bensulfuron or molinate + 2,4-D. More recently, pretilachlor (often in combination with other active ingredients; see, for example, Llorente and Evangelista, 1990) has emerged as an effective herbicide for use against Ludwigia spp. Good results have been observed in recent years with a range of these and other products and mixes, in varying situations as summarized below.
Post-emergence application of piperophos + propanil was reported to be very effective in direct-seeded and transplanted lowland rice in Nigeria, with oxadiazon + propanil, and fluorodifen [now superseded] + propanil also reasonable. Tank-mixed post-emergence application of thiobencarb + propanil + fenoprop [now superseded] or butachlor + propanil was effective against L. octovalvis. Pre-emergence treatments were less effective because of crop phytotoxicity or poor weed control efficacy (using pretilachlor + dimethametryn, or oxadiazon) (Imeokparia et al., 1992; Imeokparia, 1994).
Pre-emergence thiobencarb plus one hand-weeding was slightly better than butachlor plus one hand weeding in dry and wet-sown rice in Tamil Nadu, India: in these trials, post-emergence treatments were not effective in either crop - using thiobencarb + 2,4-D, butachlor + 2,4-D, fluchloralin + 2,4-D, pendimethalin + 2,4-D or piperophos + 2,4-D (Kandasamy and Palaniappan, 1990).
Other workers have studied herbicide use against other Ludwigia spp. (L. adscendens: Allard and Zoschke,1990; L. hyssopifolia: Azmi and Supaad, 1992).
In the South Pacific region, L. octovalvis is reported as one of 14 problem bushy or woody weed species: it is susceptible to control by 2,4-D or glyphosate (Reynolds, 1978).
The chrysomelid beetle Altica foveicollis has been considered as a possible biocontrol agent against L. octovalvis, for example in Bangladesh (Alam and Karim, 1980). Larvae of the lepidopteran Mompha ludwigiae will feed on L. octovalvis, though these larvae primarily provide biocontrol against L. adscendens (Bradley et al., 1973).
Soil solarization, using clear polythene sheeting, has been reported to reduce the abundance of broadleaved weeds, including L. octovalvis, in Western Samoa (Ragone and Wilson, 1988).
ReferencesTop of page
Allard JL; Zoschke A, 1990. A solution to the major weed problems in wet-sown rice: experiences with pretilachlor/fenclorim in south-east Asia. Pest management in rice (conference held by the Society of Chemical Industry, London, UK, 4-7 June 1990) [edited by Grayson, B.T.; Green, M.B.; Copping, L.G.] Barking, UK; Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd., 378-388
Angeles G, 1992. The periderm of flooded and non-flooded Ludwigia octovalvis (Onagraceae). IAWA Bulletin, 13:195-200.
Azmi M; Supaad MA, 1992. Evaluation of new herbicides for weed control in direct seeded rice. Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on plant protection in the tropics, Genting Highlands, Malaysia, 20-23 March 1990 [edited by Ooi, P.A.C.; Lim, G.S.; Teng, P.S.] Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Malaysian Plant Protection Society, Vol. 6:292-296
Bradley JD; Carter DJ; Sankaran T; Narayanan E, 1973. A new species of Mompha Hubner (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from Assam, N.E. India, a potential agent for biological control of Ludwigia adscendens. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 63(1):57-63
Brenan JPM, 1954. Onagraceae. In: Keay RWJ, ed. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol I, Part I, 2nd edition. London, UK: Crown Agents, 166-170.
Cook CDK, 1974. Water Plants of the World. The Hague, The Netherlands: Junk.
Florence J; Guerin M; Reboul JL, 1983. Weeds of French Polynesia (Les mauvaises herbes de la Polynesie Francaise). Compte Rendu de la 12e Conference du COLUMA. Tome I. Paris, France: Comite Francais de Lutte contre les Mauvaises Herbes, 427-432.
Kim SC; Moody K, 1989. Growth dynamics of rice and several weed species under density and fertiliser stress. Proceedings 12th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, 1:47-56.
Llorente JL; Evangelista CC, 1990. Efficacy of pretilachlor for weed control in transplanted rice (IR 74). University of Southern Mindanao College of Agriculture Research Journal, 1:9-17.
Munz PA, 1942. Studies in Onagraceae XII A revision of the New World species of Jussiaea. Darwiniana, 4(2-3):179-284.
Raven PH, 1963. The old world species of Ludwigia (including Jussiaea), with a synopsis of the genus (Onagraceae). Reinwardtia, 6(3):327-427.
Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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