Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Lathyrus odoratus
(sweet pea)

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Datasheet

Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lathyrus odoratus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sweet pea
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Lathyrus odoratus is a fast-growing, annual herb native only to southwest Italy and Sicily, but widely introduced as an ornamental. The ability of this species to tolerate a wide range of habitats, including di...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); flowers. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant.
TitleFlowers
CaptionLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); flowers. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant.
Copyright©Frank Vincentz/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3 .0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); flowers. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant.
FlowersLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); flowers. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant.©Frank Vincentz/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3 .0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); flowers. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant.
TitleFlowers
CaptionLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); flowers. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant.
Copyright©Frank Vincentz/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3 .0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); flowers. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant.
FlowersLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); flowers. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant.©Frank Vincentz/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3 .0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); flowers, from cultivation. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant. Lalbagh, Bangalore, India. January 2012 .
TitleFlowers
CaptionLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); flowers, from cultivation. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant. Lalbagh, Bangalore, India. January 2012 .
Copyright©Rameshng/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); flowers, from cultivation. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant. Lalbagh, Bangalore, India. January 2012 .
FlowersLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); flowers, from cultivation. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant. Lalbagh, Bangalore, India. January 2012 .©Rameshng/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); habit and flowers of cultivated plants. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant. USA. August 2008.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); habit and flowers of cultivated plants. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant. USA. August 2008.
Copyright©Liz West/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); habit and flowers of cultivated plants. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant. USA. August 2008.
Flowering habitLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); habit and flowers of cultivated plants. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant. USA. August 2008.©Liz West/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); habit of cultivated plants, var. 'Cupani'. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant. Cambridge University Botanic Garden, Cambridge, UK. July 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); habit of cultivated plants, var. 'Cupani'. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant. Cambridge University Botanic Garden, Cambridge, UK. July 2009.
Copyright©Magnus Manske/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); habit of cultivated plants, var. 'Cupani'. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant. Cambridge University Botanic Garden, Cambridge, UK. July 2009.
HabitLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); habit of cultivated plants, var. 'Cupani'. As the specific name implies, the flowers of L. odortaus are very fragrant. Cambridge University Botanic Garden, Cambridge, UK. July 2009.©Magnus Manske/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); stem.
TitleStem
CaptionLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); stem.
Copyright©Frank Vincentz/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3 .0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); stem.
StemLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); stem.©Frank Vincentz/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3 .0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); tendrils on a wire-mesh fence.
TitleTendrils
CaptionLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); tendrils on a wire-mesh fence.
Copyright©Frank Vincentz/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3 .0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); tendrils on a wire-mesh fence.
TendrilsLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); tendrils on a wire-mesh fence.©Frank Vincentz/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3 .0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); seedpod.
TitleSeedpod
CaptionLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); seedpod.
Copyright©Frank Vincentz/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3 .0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); seedpod.
SeedpodLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); seedpod.©Frank Vincentz/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3 .0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); seeds.
TitleSeeds
CaptionLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); seeds.
Copyright©Ursus sapien/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); seeds.
SeedsLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea); seeds.©Ursus sapien/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Lathyrus latifolius (broad-leaved everlasting pea); similar species. habit. The flowers of L. latifolius have no fragrance. ca.330m a.s.l.  nr. Oberstinkenbrunn, Hollabrunn District, Lower Austria. June 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionLathyrus latifolius (broad-leaved everlasting pea); similar species. habit. The flowers of L. latifolius have no fragrance. ca.330m a.s.l. nr. Oberstinkenbrunn, Hollabrunn District, Lower Austria. June 2013.
Copyright©Stefan.lefnaer/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Lathyrus latifolius (broad-leaved everlasting pea); similar species. habit. The flowers of L. latifolius have no fragrance. ca.330m a.s.l.  nr. Oberstinkenbrunn, Hollabrunn District, Lower Austria. June 2013.
HabitLathyrus latifolius (broad-leaved everlasting pea); similar species. habit. The flowers of L. latifolius have no fragrance. ca.330m a.s.l. nr. Oberstinkenbrunn, Hollabrunn District, Lower Austria. June 2013.©Stefan.lefnaer/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Lathyrus latifolius (broad-leaved everlasting pea); similar species. habit. The flowers of L. latifolius have no fragrance. Bavaria, Upper Franconia, Germany. July 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionLathyrus latifolius (broad-leaved everlasting pea); similar species. habit. The flowers of L. latifolius have no fragrance. Bavaria, Upper Franconia, Germany. July 2012.
Copyright©Udo Schmidt/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lathyrus latifolius (broad-leaved everlasting pea); similar species. habit. The flowers of L. latifolius have no fragrance. Bavaria, Upper Franconia, Germany. July 2012.
HabitLathyrus latifolius (broad-leaved everlasting pea); similar species. habit. The flowers of L. latifolius have no fragrance. Bavaria, Upper Franconia, Germany. July 2012.©Udo Schmidt/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lathyrus latifolius (broad-leaved everlasting pea); similar species. habit. The flowers of L. latifolius have no fragrance. Bavaria, Upper Franconia, Germany. July 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionLathyrus latifolius (broad-leaved everlasting pea); similar species. habit. The flowers of L. latifolius have no fragrance. Bavaria, Upper Franconia, Germany. July 2012.
Copyright©Udo Schmidt/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lathyrus latifolius (broad-leaved everlasting pea); similar species. habit. The flowers of L. latifolius have no fragrance. Bavaria, Upper Franconia, Germany. July 2012.
HabitLathyrus latifolius (broad-leaved everlasting pea); similar species. habit. The flowers of L. latifolius have no fragrance. Bavaria, Upper Franconia, Germany. July 2012.©Udo Schmidt/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lathyrus odoratus L.

Preferred Common Name

  • sweet pea

International Common Names

  • Spanish: chorreque; frijol de olor; guisante
  • French: gesse odorante; pois de senteur; pois fleur
  • Chinese: xiang wan dou
  • Portuguese: ervilha-de-cheiro

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: chicharito de olor; guisante de olor
  • Germany: duftende platterbse; duftwicke; gartenwicke; wohlriechende platterbse
  • Italy: pisello d'odore
  • Mexico: chicharo de olor
  • Netherlands: lathyrus, welriekende
  • Puerto Rico: chícharos de jardín; guisantes del jardín; látiros

EPPO code

  • LTHOD (Lathyrus odoratus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Lathyrus odoratus is a fast-growing, annual herb native only to southwest Italy and Sicily, but widely introduced as an ornamental. The ability of this species to tolerate a wide range of habitats, including disturbed areas, roadsides, secondary forests, as well as natural forests, means that it has the potential to spread much further than it has to date. This species has a climbing or sprawling habit, and consequently, has the capability to displace native species. Currently it is considered invasive in New Zealand and ‘possibly invasive’ in the Dominican Republic. However, in its native range it is listed as Near Threatened, as it is subject to wild collection threat due to its commercial value.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Papilionoideae
  •                                 Genus: Lathyrus
  •                                     Species: Lathyrus odoratus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Fabaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants. It includes about 766 genera and 19,500 species growing in a wide range of climates and habitats (Stevens, 2012). The genus Lathyrus contains about 160 species distributed throughout the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with species occurring in Europe, North America, Asia, tropical East Africa and temperate South America. For this genus, the main centre of diversity is the eastern Mediterranean region, with smaller centres in North and South America (El-Shanshoury, 1997; Asmussen and Liston, 1998; Badr et al., 2002).

Description

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The following description is from the Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017):

Annual herbs, 50-200 cm tall. Stem climbing, much branched, somewhat hairy, and winged. Leaves with branched ten­dril at apex; rachis winged; stipules semisagittate; leaflets 1-paired, ovate-oblong or elliptic, 20-60 x 7-30 mm, with pinnate veins, rarely subparallel veins, margin entire. Raceme longer than leaf, 1-3(or 4)-flowered. Calyx campanulate, equally toothed and longer than tube. Corolla usually purple, or other colours, 20-30 mm. Ovary linear; style twisted. Legume brown-yellow, linear, 5-7 cm, pubescent. Seeds smooth.

Distribution

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L. odoratus has a very restricted native distribution, only occurring in Italy, but it has been widely introduced and cultivated as an ornamental worldwide (ILDIS, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). In mainland Italy, this species is only found in the southwest and in Sicily, the area of occupancy is thought to be less than 2000 km² and its extent of occurrence is below 20,000 km² (Branca and Donnini, 2011). It is ‘possibly invasive’ in the Dominican Republic (Mir, 2012) and considered invasive in New Zealand (Allan Herbarium, 2000; Howell and Sawyer, 2006; Wilton et al., 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017Cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2017
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2017
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
IraqPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
PakistanPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
LibyaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
MauritiusPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
RéunionPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
RwandaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017

North America

CanadaPresentIntroducedPresent based on regional records
-ManitobaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017Cultivated
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-OntarioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
MexicoPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
USAPresentIntroducedPresent based on regional records
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-FloridaPresentIntroducedBrown and Knox, 2016Cultivated
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-MainePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-MichiganPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-OhioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-TennesseePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-UtahPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedMir, 2012Possibly invasive
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017Cultivated
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedBolivia Catalogue, 2017
ColombiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
PeruPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
CyprusPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
FrancePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
GreecePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
ItalyPresentNativeBranca and Donnini, 2011Native to southwestern Italy and Sicily
PortugalPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
SpainPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017

Oceania

FijiPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2017
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive Allan Herbarium, 2000; Howell and Sawyer, 2006; Wilton et al., 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

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In 1699 several specimens of L. odoratus were sent to England, where much of the initial breeding and selection of sweet peas for cultivation was conducted. Later, in the eighteenth century, the Scottish horticulturalist Henry Eckford bred more than a hundred cultivars.

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of L. odoratus is moderate to high. Many cultivars of this species have been introduced worldwide through the horticultural trade. Its international trade is highly likely to continue.

Habitat

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Lathyrus species occur in a wide range of habitats, including open woods, forest margins, meadows, pastures, fields, slopes, marshes, seashores, sand dunes and roadsides. In Mexico, L. odoratus is naturalized in ruderal areas of pine and oak forests (Vibrans, 2009). In Central America, it has been recorded in ruderal habitats along roadsides and in old gardens (Flora Mesoamericana, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for L. odoratus is 2n = 14 (Seijo and Fernández, 2003; Vibrans, 2009).

Reproductive Biology

L. odoratus has hermaphroditic flowers pollinated by insects, mostly bees (Asmussen and Liston, 1998; PFAF, 2017).

Physiology and Phenology

In the northern hemisphere, this species flowers from July to September and fruits from August to October. In China, it flowers and fruits from June to September (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; PFAF, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Environmental Requirements

L. odoratus grows on sandy, loamy and heavy soils in moist areas. It prefers well-drained soils with pH ranging from 7 to 7.8 (PFAF, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 9 22

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5001200mm; lower/upper limits

Notes on Natural Enemies

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No natural enemies have been reported for L. odoratus. Slugs and snails are attracted to young plants (PFAF, 2017).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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L. odoratus spreads by seed (PFAF, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Intentional Introduction

L. odoratus has been widely commercialized in the horticultural trade and introduced as an ornamental (Branca and Donnini, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Impact

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Social Impact

Fruits and seeds of L. odoratus are inedible and poisonous to humans (PFAF, 2017).

Environmental Impact

L. odoratus is a fast-growing climber able to cause environmental degradation by displacing native vegetation (Mir, 2012; Calflora, 2016; Jepson Flora Project, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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L. odoratus is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant. Due to its high commercial value, this species is subject to wild collection threat and native populations are declining (Branca and Donnini, 2011).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Allan Herbarium, 2000. Nga Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plant Names Database. New Zealand, Landcare Research. http://nzflora.landcareresearch.co.nz/

Asmussen CB, Liston A, 1998. Chloroplast DNA characters, phylogeny, and classification of Lathyrus (Fabaceae). American Journal of Botany, 85(3):387-387

Badr A, El Shazly H, El Rabey H, Watson LE, 2002. Systematic relationships in Lathyrus sect. Lathyrus (Fabaceae) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data. Canadian Journal of Botany, 80:962-969

Bolivia Catalogue, 2017. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Bolivia. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Tropicos website. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/BC

Branca F, Donnini D, 2011. Lathyrus odoratus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T176367A7227153. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T176367A7227153.en

Brown SP, Knox GW, 2016. Flowering vines for Florida. Circular 860. Florida, USA: Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension

Calflora, 2016. Information on California plants for education, research, and conservation. Berkeley, California, USA: Calflora Database. http://www.calflora.org

El-Shanshoury AR, 1997. The use of seed proteins revealed by SDS PAGE in taxonomy and phylogeny of some Lathyrus species. Biologia Plantarum, 39:553-559

Flora Mesoamericana, 2016. Flora Mesoamericana. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Howell CJ, Sawyer JWD, 2006. New Zealand naturalised vascular plant checklist. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network

ILDIS, 2017. International Legume Database and Information Service: World Database of Legumes (version 10). Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

India Biodiversity Portal, 2017. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Jepson Flora Project, 2016. Jepson eFlora. Berkeley California, USA: Univeristy of California. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/jepson_flora_project.htm

Mir C, 2012. Estrategia Nacional de Especies Exóticas Invasoras Realizado en el marco del Proyecto “Mitigando las amenazas de las especies exóticas invasoras en el Caribe Insular”. Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Santo Domingo

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

PFAF, 2017. Plants For A Future Database. http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

Seijo JG, Fernández A, 2003. Karyotype analysis and chromosome evolution in South American species of Lathyrus (Leguminosae). American Journal of Botany, 90(7):980-987

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vibrans H, 2009. Malezas de México. Listado alfabético de las especies, ordenadas por género (Weeds of Mexico. Alphabetical list of species, ordered by genera). http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/paginas/lista-plantas-generos.htm

Wilton AD, Schönberger I, Boardman KF, et al., 2016. Checklist of the New Zealand Flora – Seed Plants. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua-Landcare Research

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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11/03/17 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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