Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Acyrthosiphon pisum
(pea aphid)

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Datasheet

Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 26 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acyrthosiphon pisum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pea aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, 1776

Preferred Common Name

  • pea aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Acyrthosiphon destructor (Johnson, 1900)
  • Acyrthosiphon nigricantis
  • Acyrthosiphon onobrychis (Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1841)
  • Acyrthosiphon pisi Mordvilko, 1914
  • Acyrthosiphon pisum destructor Johnson, 1900
  • Acyrthosiphon spartii Koch, 1855
  • Acyrthosiphon spartii nigricantis Börner, 1952
  • Acyrthosiphon trifolii
  • Anuraphis promedicaginis del Guercio, 1930
  • Aphis basalis Walker, 1848
  • Aphis lathyri Mosley, 1841
  • Aphis onobrychis Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1841
  • Aphis onobrychis galegae Börner, 1952
  • Aphis pisi Curtis, 1860
  • Aphis pisi Kaltenbach, 1843
  • Aphis pisi brevicaudatum Takahashi, 1965
  • Aphis pisi turanicum Mordvilko, 1914
  • Aphis pisi ussuriense Mordvilko, 1914
  • Aphis pisum (Harris, 1776)
  • Macchiatiella promedicaginis del Guercio, 1930
  • Macchiatiella trifolii del Guercio, 1917
  • Macrosiphon theobaldii Davis, 1915
  • Macrosiphum destructor (Johnson, 1900)
  • Macrosiphum onobrychis (Boyer de Fonscolombe)
  • Macrosiphum pisi (Kaltenbach, 1843)
  • Macrosiphum pisum (Harris, 1776)
  • Macrosiphum spartii (Koch, 1855)
  • Macrosiphum trifolii Pergande, 1904
  • Macrosiphum trifolii Theobald, 1913
  • Nectarophora destructor (Johnson, 1990)
  • Siphonophora corydalis Oestlund, 1886
  • Siphonophora ononis Ferrari, 1872
  • Siphonophora ononis Koch, 1855
  • Siphonophora pisum ononis (Koch, 1855)
  • Siphonophora spartii Koch, 1855
  • Siphonophora spartii nigricantis Börner, 1952

International Common Names

  • English: destructive pea louse; European pea aphid; fenugreek aphid; green pea aphid; green pea louse; pea aphis; pea louse
  • Spanish: pulgón de la alfalfa; pulgón del chicharo; pulgón verde de la alfalfa; pulgón verde del guisante
  • French: puceron du pois; puceron vert du pois

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: Ærtelus; artebladlus
  • Finland: hernekirva
  • Germany: Erbsenblattlaus; Gruene Besenginsterblattlaus; Gruene Erbsenblattlaus
  • Iran: schatte nochod (sabs rang)
  • Italy: afide del pisello
  • Japan: endo-higenaga-aburamusi
  • Netherlands: Erwtenbladluis
  • Norway: ertebladlus
  • Sweden: artbladlus
  • Turkey: bugday yaprak biti

EPPO code

  • ACYRON (Acyrthosiphon pisum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Acyrthosiphon
  •                                         Species: Acyrthosiphon pisum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNHM; CIE, 1982
ChinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GansuPresentHe and Zhang, 2006
-GuizhouPresentCIE, 1982
-JiangsuPresentCIE, 1982
-ShaanxiPresentCIE, 1982
-SichuanPresentCIE, 1982; Tao, 1999
-TibetPresentTao, 1999
-YunnanPresentZhou Hui et al., 1995; Tao, 1999
Georgia (Republic of)PresentCIE, 1982
IndiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Andhra PradeshPresentCIE, 1982
-Arunachal PradeshPresentGhosh, 1975
-AssamPresentGhosh, 1975
-DelhiPresentCIE, 1982
-Himachal PradeshPresentCIE, 1982
-Indian PunjabPresentCIE, 1982
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCIE, 1982
-KarnatakaPresentCIE, 1982
-Madhya PradeshPresentBhatnagar, 1996
-MaharashtraPresentCIE, 1982
-ManipurPresentGhosh, 1975
-MeghalayaPresentGhosh, 1975
-OdishaPresentCIE, 1982
-RajasthanPresentCIE, 1982
-SikkimPresentCIE, 1982
-Tamil NaduPresentCIE, 1982
-Uttar PradeshPresentCIE, 1982
-West BengalPresentCIE, 1982
IranPresentCIE, 1982; Seyedoleslaami et al., 1995
IraqPresentCIE, 1982
IsraelPresentCIE, 1982
JapanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HokkaidoPresentCIE, 1982
-HonshuPresentCIE, 1982; Honda, 1989
-KyushuPresentCIE, 1982
JordanPresentCIE, 1982
Korea, DPRPresentPaik, 1966
Korea, Republic ofPresentPaik, 1966
LebanonPresentCIE, 1982
MongoliaPresentCIE, 1982
NepalPresentCIE, 1982
PakistanPresentCIE, 1982
PhilippinesPresentCIE, 1982
Saudi ArabiaPresentCIE, 1982
SyriaPresentCIE, 1982
TaiwanPresentFang, 1994; Tao, 1999
ThailandPresentNHM
TurkeyPresentCIE, 1982; Turkmen et al., 1992
UzbekistanPresentCIE, 1982
YemenPresentCIE, 1982

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCIE, 1982
BotswanaPresentNHM
BurundiPresentAutrique et al., 1989
EgyptPresentCIE, 1982
EthiopiaPresentCIE, 1982
KenyaPresentCIE, 1982
LibyaPresentCIE, 1982
MalawiPresentCIE, 1982
MoroccoPresentCIE, 1982
RwandaPresentNHM
South AfricaPresentCIE, 1982
SudanPresentCIE, 1982
TanzaniaPresentCIE, 1982
TunisiaPresentAsma et al., 2003
UgandaPresentCIE, 1982
ZambiaPresentCIE, 1982
ZimbabwePresentCIE, 1982

North America

CanadaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-AlbertaPresentNHM; CIE, 1982; Harper et al., 1993
-British ColumbiaPresentNHM; CIE, 1982
-ManitobaPresentNHM; CIE, 1982; Zimmer and Lamb, 1993
-New BrunswickPresentCIE, 1982
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentCIE, 1982
-Nova ScotiaPresentCIE, 1982; Smith and MacKay, 1989
-OntarioPresentCIE, 1982
-QuebecPresentNHM; CIE, 1982
-SaskatchewanPresentCIE, 1982; Smith and MacKay, 1989
MexicoPresentCIE, 1982
USAPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-AlabamaPresentCIE, 1982
-ArizonaPresentCIE, 1982
-ArkansasPresentCIE, 1982
-CaliforniaPresentCIE, 1982
-ColoradoPresentCIE, 1982
-ConnecticutPresentCIE, 1982
-DelawarePresentCIE, 1982
-FloridaPresentCIE, 1982
-GeorgiaPresentCIE, 1982
-HawaiiPresentNHM; CIE, 1982
-IdahoPresentCIE, 1982; Schotzko and O'Keeffe, 1989
-IllinoisPresentCIE, 1982
-IndianaPresentCIE, 1982
-IowaPresentCIE, 1982; Giles et al., 1994
-KansasPresentCIE, 1982
-KentuckyPresentCIE, 1982
-LouisianaPresentCIE, 1982
-MainePresentCIE, 1982
-MarylandPresentCIE, 1982
-MassachusettsPresentCIE, 1982; Driesche and Peters, 1987
-MichiganPresentCIE, 1982
-MinnesotaPresentDi Fonzo et al., 1997; CIE, 1982
-MississippiPresentCIE, 1982
-MissouriPresentCIE, 1982
-MontanaPresentCIE, 1982
-NebraskaPresentCIE, 1982
-NevadaPresentCIE, 1982
-New HampshirePresentCIE, 1982
-New JerseyPresentCIE, 1982
-New MexicoPresentCIE, 1982
-New YorkPresentCIE, 1982
-North CarolinaPresentCIE, 1982
-North DakotaPresentCIE, 1982
-OhioPresentCIE, 1982
-OklahomaPresentCIE, 1982
-OregonPresentCIE, 1982; Jensen, 1992
-PennsylvaniaPresentCIE, 1982
-Rhode IslandPresentCIE, 1982
-South CarolinaPresentCIE, 1982
-South DakotaPresentCIE, 1982
-TennesseePresentCIE, 1982
-TexasPresentCIE, 1982
-UtahPresentCIE, 1982
-VermontPresentCIE, 1982
-VirginiaPresentCIE, 1982
-WashingtonPresentCIE, 1982; Schotzko and O'Keeffe, 1989
-West VirginiaPresentCIE, 1982
-WisconsinPresentCIE, 1982; Losey et al., 1997
-WyomingPresentCIE, 1982

Central America and Caribbean

El SalvadorPresentRivas Platero et al., 1991

South America

ArgentinaPresentNHM; CIE, 1982
BoliviaPresentCIE, 1982
BrazilPresentNHM
-Minas GeraisPresentCarvalho et al., 1996
-ParanaPresentCIE, 1982
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCIE, 1982
-Santa CatarinaPresentCIE, 1982
-Sao PauloPresentSousa Silva et al., 1998
ChilePresentNHM; CIE, 1982
PeruPresentCIE, 1982
UruguayPresentCIE, 1982
VenezuelaPresentCIE, 1982

Europe

AlbaniaPresentCIE, 1982
AustriaPresentCIE, 1982
BelarusPresentBoyar, 2005
BelgiumPresentCIE, 1982
BulgariaPresentCIE, 1982
CyprusPresentNHM; CIE, 1982
Czech RepublicPresentCIE, 1982
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCIE, 1982
DenmarkPresentCIE, 1982
Faroe IslandsPresentCIE, 1982
FinlandPresentCIE, 1982
FranceWidespreadCIE, 1982
-CorsicaPresentNHM
GermanyWidespreadCIE, 1982; Hinz, 1991
GreecePresentCIE, 1982; Lykouressis and Polatsidis, 1990
HungaryPresentCIE, 1982
IcelandPresentNHM
IrelandPresentNHM
ItalyPresentCIE, 1982
LatviaPresentRupais, 1989
LithuaniaPresentSurkus, 2002
LuxembourgPresentCIE, 1982
Mediterranean countriesPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MoldovaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NetherlandsWidespreadCIE, 1982
NorwayPresentCIE, 1982
PolandWidespreadCIE, 1982; Szwejda, 1992
PortugalPresentCIE, 1982
-MadeiraPresentNHM; CIE, 1982
RomaniaPresentCIE, 1982
Russian FederationPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Central RussiaPresentCIE, 1982; Posylaeva, 1990
-Russian Far EastPresentCIE, 1982
SlovakiaPresentCagán and Barta, 2001
SpainPresentCIE, 1982
SwedenWidespreadCIE, 1982; Bommarco and Ekbom, 1996
SwitzerlandPresentCIE, 1982; Derron and Goy, 1993
UKWidespreadCIE, 1982
-England and WalesPresentFerrari et al., 2006; Ferrari et al., 2006
UkrainePresentCIE, 1982
Yugoslavia (former)PresentCIE, 1982

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-New South WalesPresentCIE, 1982; Holtkamp and Clift, 1993
-QueenslandPresentCIE, 1982; MacKay et al., 1989
-South AustraliaPresentCIE, 1982
-TasmaniaPresentCIE, 1982
-VictoriaPresentCIE, 1982
-Western AustraliaPresentJones, 2004
New ZealandPresentCIE, 1982

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dead heart
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / wilting
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Adalia bipunctata Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs
Aeolothrips fasciatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Allothrombium pulvinus Parasite
Alloxysta macrophadna Parasite
Alloxysta victrix Parasite
Amara farcta Predator Adults/Nymphs
Anthocoris gallarumulmi Predator Adults/Nymphs
Anthocoris nemorum Predator Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus asychis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus semiflavus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius aedyi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius bertrandi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius colemani Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius eadyi Parasite Adults/Nymphs Morocco; New Zealand legumes; Medicago sativa
Aphidius ervi Parasite Adults/Nymphs Argentina; Australia; British Columbia; Canada; Manitoba; Delaware; India; Jammu and Kashmir; Lebanon; Morocco; New Zealand; Queensland; USA legumes; Medicago; Medicago sativa; peas; Trifolium
Aphidius nigripes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius picipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs Lebanon; USA Medicago sativa
Aphidius pisivorus Parasite Adults/Nymphs Canada; Manitoba; Europe Medicago sativa; peas
Aphidius rhopalosiphi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius smithi Parasite Adults/Nymphs Argentina; British Columbia; Canada; Alberta; Manitoba; Chile; Czechoslovakia; Europe; Hawaii; India; Jammu and Kashmir; New Zealand; Peru; Poland; USA; Washington legumes; Medicago; Medicago sativa; peas; Trifolium
Aphidius sp. nr. pisivorus Parasite Adults/Nymphs USA Medicago sativa
Aphidius staryi Parasite Adults/Nymphs California
Aphidius urticae Parasite Adults/Nymphs USA Medicago sativa
Aphidoletes aphidimyza Predator Adults/Nymphs
Asaphes lucens Parasite
Bembidion lampros Predator Adults/Nymphs
Betasyrphus serarius Predator Adults/Nymphs
Brumoides suturalis Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Manipur Lathyrus sativus
Carabidae Predator Nymphs
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs Manipur
Chrysopa oculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysopa pallens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysopa quadripunctata Predator
Chrysopa slossonae Predator
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs Moldova
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysoperla harrisii Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella ancoralis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella californica Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs
Coccinella transversalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella transversoguttata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella trifasciata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinellina eryngii var. limbicollis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus howardii Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coleomegilla maculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coleomegilla maculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coleomegilla quadrifasciata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus coronatus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus obscurus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus osmodes Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Cycloneda limbifer Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cycloneda munda Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cycloneda sanguinea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Dendrocerus carpenteri Parasite
Diaeretiella rapae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Ephedrus californicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Ephedrus plagiator Parasite Adults/Nymphs New Zealand legumes
Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Eriopis connexa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Erynia kondoiensis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Erynia neoaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Erynia nouryi Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Erynia phalloides Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Eupeodes corollae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Eupeodes nitens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Exochomus quadripustulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Geocoris pallens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Geocoris punctipes Predator Adults/Nymphs
Harmonia axyridis Predator USA cereals
Harpalus amputatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hemerobius stigma Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia convergens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia parenthesis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia quinquesignata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia sinuata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia tredecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia undecimnotata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia variegata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Melanostoma fasciatum Predator
Melanostoma mellinum Predator Adults/Nymphs
Metaphidippus galathea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Micromus tasmaniae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Monoctonus nervosus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Nabis alternatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nabis americoferus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nabis capsiformis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nabis ferus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nabis kinbergii Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nabis pseudoferus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nineta pallida Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nomuraea rileyi Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Olla v-nigrum Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius tristicolor Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pachyneuron siphonophorae Parasite
Pandora neoaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Phaenoglyphis villosa Parasite
Phalangium opilio Predator Adults/Nymphs
Podisus maculiventris Predator Adults/Nymphs
Praon barbatum Parasite Adults/Nymphs Lebanon; New Zealand legumes; Medicago sativa
Praon occidentale Parasite Adults/Nymphs Canada; Manitoba Medicago sativa; peas
Praon orientale Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Praon pequodorum Parasite Adults/Nymphs Canada; Manitoba Medicago sativa; peas
Praon volucre Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Propylea quatuordecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pterostichus cupreus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pterostichus melanarius Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scymnus frontalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Solenopsis invicta Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria scripta Predator Adults/Nymphs
Stagmomantis limbata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Syrphus vitripennis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Tjederina gracilis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Toxares deltiger Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Trioxys tucumanus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Wesmaelius subnebulosus Predator

References

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Abate T, 1991. Entomophagous arthropods of Ethiopia: A catalogue. Technical Manual No. 4, No. 4. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Institute of Agricultural Research, 50 pp.

Ali K; Gebremedhin T, 1990. Pea aphid: an important pest of field pea. Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research Newsletter, 5(1):1-2.

Ali K; Louw Svan den M; Swart WJ, 2005. Components and mechanisms of resistance in selected field pea Pisum sativum lines to the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 25(2):114-121.

Andarge A; Westhuizen MCvan der, 2004. Mechanisms of resistance of lentil Lens culinaris Medikus, genotypes to the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 24(3):249-254.

Anuj Bhatnagar, 1996. Efficacy and economics of some insecticides and a neem formulation on incidence of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) on pea, Pisum sativum. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 4(2):131-133; 2 ref.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Asma Najar; Kumari SG; Makkouk KM; Abderazzek Daaloul, 2003. A survey of viruses affecting faba bean (Vicia faba) in Tunisia includes first record of Soybean dwarf virus. Plant Disease, 87(9):1151.

Autrique A; Stary P; Ntahimpera L, 1989. Biological control of pest aphids by hymenopterous parasitoids in Burundi. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 37(2):71-76

Behrens U, 1993. Entomophthora fungi for control of the pea aphid. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 57(1):22-26

Berhanu Bekele; Kumari SG; Kemal Ali; Abdulrazak Yusuf; Makkouk KM; Mandefro Aslake; Melkamu Ayalew; Gelelbelu Girma; Dereje Hailu, 2005. Survey of viruses affecting legume crops in the Amhara and Oromia Regions of Ethiopia. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 44(3):235-246. http://epress.unifi.it/riviste

Bizzaro D; Mandrioli M; Zanotti M; Giusti M; Manicardi GC, 2000. Chromosome analysis and molecular characterization of highly repeated DNAs in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Aphididae, Hemiptera). Genetica, 108(2):197-202; 28 ref.

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Bommarco R, 1991. Action level threshold and economic injury level for the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae), on field peas, Pisum sativum. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 55(4):114-119

Bommarco R; Ekbom B, 1995. Phenology and prediction of pea aphid infestations on peas. International Journal of Pest Management, 41(2):109-113

Bommarco R; Ekbom B, 1996. Variation in pea aphid population development in three different habitats. Ecological Entomology, 21(3):235-240; 33 ref.

Boyar DM, 2005. Development of monitoring of the dynamics of numbers and structure of populations of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris). Vestsi¯ Natsyyanal'nai Akademi¯i¯ Navuk Belarusi¯. Seryya Bi¯yalagi¯chnykh Navuk, No.2:55-60.

Braendle C; Weisser WW, 2001. Variation in escape behavior of red and green clones of the pea aphid. Journal of Insect Behavior, 14(4):497-509; 42 ref.

Cagán L'; Barta M, 2001. Seasonal dynamics and entomophthoralean infection of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. Plant Protection Science, 37(1):17-24.

Cammell ME; Way MJ, 1983. Aphid pests. In: Hebblethwaite PD, ed. The Faba Bean. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 315-346.

Carvalho AR de; Bueno VHP; Mendes S, 1996. Influencia de fatores climaticos e do corte na flutuacao populacional de pulgoes (Homoptera: Aphididae) na cultura da alfafa (Medicago sativa L.), em Lavras, MG. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 31(5):317-324.

Chakraborty A; Dutta SK, 1998. Development and reproduction of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) on pea. Journal of the Agricultural Science Society of North East India, 11(2):162-166; 5 ref.

Charles H; Ishikawa H, 1999. Physical and genetic map of the genome of Buchnera, the primary endosymbiont of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 48(2):142-150; 40 ref.

CIE, 1982. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A (Agricultural), Map No. 23 (revised) December 1982. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Dawson GW; Griffiths DC; Merritt LA; Mudd A; Pickett JA; Wadhams LJ; Woodcock CM, 1991. Aphid semiochemicals - a review, and recent advances on the sex pheromone. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 16(11):3019-3030

Derron JO; Goy G, 1993. Le puceron du pois (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris): biologie, nuisibilite et moyens de lutte sur le pois proteagineux. Revue Suisse d'Agriculture, 25(1):43-47.

DiFonzo CD; Ragsdale DW; Radcliffe EB; Gudmestad NC; Secor GA, 1997. Seasonal abundance of aphid vectors of potato virus Y in the Red River Valley of Minnesota and North Dakota. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(3):824-831; 32 ref.

Digilio MC, 1995. Rapid identification of the nymphal stages of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera Aphidoidea). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 27(1):111-116; 11 ref.

Driesche RG van; Peters TM, 1987. Potential for increased use of biological control agents against pests of forage crops in Massachusetts. Research Bulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 718:75-86

Eastop VF, 1971. Keys for the identification of Acyrthosiphon. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Entomology), 26:1-115.

Eastop VF; Hille Ris Lambers D, 1976. Survey of the World's Aphids. The Hague, Netherlands: DR. W. Junk bv Publishers.

Ekbom B, 1994. Arthropod predators of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harr. (Hom., Aphididae) in peas (Pisum sativum L.), clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Journal of Applied Entomology, 117(5):469-476

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