Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Leptosphaeria maculans
(stem canker)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Leptosphaeria maculans (stem canker)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Leptosphaeria maculans
  • Preferred Common Name
  • stem canker
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leaf lesions on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Capitol) caused by L. maculans, showing typical pale lesions with associated pycnidia (a) and dark lesion type (b) both with leaf chlorosis.
TitleSymptoms on rape leaf
CaptionLeaf lesions on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Capitol) caused by L. maculans, showing typical pale lesions with associated pycnidia (a) and dark lesion type (b) both with leaf chlorosis.
CopyrightJonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Leaf lesions on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Capitol) caused by L. maculans, showing typical pale lesions with associated pycnidia (a) and dark lesion type (b) both with leaf chlorosis.
Symptoms on rape leafLeaf lesions on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Capitol) caused by L. maculans, showing typical pale lesions with associated pycnidia (a) and dark lesion type (b) both with leaf chlorosis.Jonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Infected stem of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing stem lesions.
TitleSymptoms on rape stem
CaptionInfected stem of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing stem lesions.
CopyrightJonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Infected stem of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing stem lesions.
Symptoms on rape stemInfected stem of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing stem lesions.Jonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Stem lesion caused by L. maculans on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing an infected petiole still attached to the stem.
TitleSymptoms on rape stem
CaptionStem lesion caused by L. maculans on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing an infected petiole still attached to the stem.
CopyrightJonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Stem lesion caused by L. maculans on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing an infected petiole still attached to the stem.
Symptoms on rape stemStem lesion caused by L. maculans on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing an infected petiole still attached to the stem.Jonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Pycnidia on rape seed in blotter test.
TitlePycnidia on rape seed
CaptionPycnidia on rape seed in blotter test.
CopyrightISU
Pycnidia on rape seed in blotter test.
Pycnidia on rape seedPycnidia on rape seed in blotter test.ISU
Stem canker on Brassica vegetable plant.
TitleSymptoms on Brassica
CaptionStem canker on Brassica vegetable plant.
CopyrightISU
Stem canker on Brassica vegetable plant.
Symptoms on BrassicaStem canker on Brassica vegetable plant.ISU
Early symptoms of stem canker (second stem from bottom) and stem lesions (other stems) on B. napus caused by UK field isolates of L. maculans.
TitleSymptoms on B. napus stems
CaptionEarly symptoms of stem canker (second stem from bottom) and stem lesions (other stems) on B. napus caused by UK field isolates of L. maculans.
CopyrightBruce Fitt/British Society for Plant Pathology
Early symptoms of stem canker (second stem from bottom) and stem lesions (other stems) on B. napus caused by UK field isolates of L. maculans.
Symptoms on B. napus stemsEarly symptoms of stem canker (second stem from bottom) and stem lesions (other stems) on B. napus caused by UK field isolates of L. maculans.Bruce Fitt/British Society for Plant Pathology
Squashed pseudothecia of L. maculans showing a) ascospores, b) bitunicate ascus containing 8 ascospores, c) immature ascus. Scale bar = 20µm.
TitlePseudothecia
CaptionSquashed pseudothecia of L. maculans showing a) ascospores, b) bitunicate ascus containing 8 ascospores, c) immature ascus. Scale bar = 20µm.
CopyrightJonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Squashed pseudothecia of L. maculans showing a) ascospores, b) bitunicate ascus containing 8 ascospores, c) immature ascus. Scale bar = 20µm.
PseudotheciaSquashed pseudothecia of L. maculans showing a) ascospores, b) bitunicate ascus containing 8 ascospores, c) immature ascus. Scale bar = 20µm.Jonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Ascospores released from squashed pseudothecia of  L. maculans. Scale bar = 20µm.
TitlePseudothecia
CaptionAscospores released from squashed pseudothecia of L. maculans. Scale bar = 20µm.
CopyrightJonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Ascospores released from squashed pseudothecia of  L. maculans. Scale bar = 20µm.
PseudotheciaAscospores released from squashed pseudothecia of L. maculans. Scale bar = 20µm.Jonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. & de Not.

Preferred Common Name

  • stem canker

Other Scientific Names

  • Phoma brassicae Thüm.
  • Phoma lingam (Tode) Desm.
  • Phoma oleracea Sacc.
  • Phome napobrassicae Rostr.
  • Phyllosticta brassicae (Curr.) Westend.
  • Phyllosticta napi Sacc.
  • Plenodomus lingam (Tode) Höhn.
  • Pleospora maculans (Desm.) Tul.
  • Sphaeria lingam Tode
  • Sphaeria maculans Desm.

International Common Names

  • English: black leg of cabbage; blackleg of cabbage; crucifers black leg; crucifers canker; crucifers dry rot; Phoma leaf spot
  • Spanish: pie negro de las cruciferas; podredumbre seca de las cruciferas
  • French: chancre des cruciferes; chancre du chou; chancre du colza; jambe noire des cruciferes; jambe noire du chou; necrose du collet des cruciferes; phoma des cruciferes; pied noir du chou

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fussfaeule: Kohl; Halsnekrose: Raps; Stengelfaeule: Raps; Trockenfaeule: Kohl; Umfallkrankheit: Kohl; Wurzelhalsfaeule: Raps

EPPO code

  • LEPTMA (Leptosphaeria maculans)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Leptosphaeriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Leptosphaeria
  •                                     Species: Leptosphaeria maculans

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentMichail et al. (1979)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Gugel and Petrie (1992); EPPO (2020)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)

Asia

ArmeniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-HenanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Himachal PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-RajasthanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
KazakhstanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
KyrgyzstanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-SabahPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
ThailandPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)

Europe

AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BelarusPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
BelgiumPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
CzechiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
EstoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
FinlandPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Tahvonen (1979); EPPO (2020)
FrancePresentLACOSTE et al. (1969); UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
HungaryPresent, Few occurrences1941UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
IrelandPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
LatviaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
LithuaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
MaltaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
NorwayPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); UK, CAB International (1978)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Kachlicki and Jetail˜dryczka (1994); EPPO (2020)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978)
SlovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
SwedenPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); Eckert et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)
-EnglandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-ScotlandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-AlbertaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-New BrunswickPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Nova ScotiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Hall et al. (1993); EPPO (2020)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-SaskatchewanPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Xi et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
GuadeloupePresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); Farr et al. (1989); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-IdahoPresentAgostini et al. (2013)
-IllinoisPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Eastburn (1989); EPPO (2020)
-KentuckyPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Mengistu et al. (1990); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-North DakotaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Lamey and Hershman (1993); EPPO (2020)
-OregonPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentGabrielson (1974); UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-WisconsinPresentUK, CAB International (1978); Bonman et al. (1980); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-TasmaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentMcGee (1974); UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); MacNish (1979); EPPO (2020)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentCunningham (1927); UK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / canker on woody stem
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus polymixa Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

Top of page

Abuamsha R; Salman M; Ehlers RU, 2011. Effect of seed priming with Serratia plymuthica and Pseudomonas chlororaphis to control Leptosphaeria maculans in different oilseed rape cultivars. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 130(3):287-295. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Agostini A; Johnson DA; Hulbert S; Demoz B; Fernando WGD; Paulitz T, 2013. First report of blackleg caused by Leptosphaeria maculans on canola in Idaho. Plant Disease, 97(6):842. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Andreoli C; Maguire JD, 1995. Preliminary investigations on viability of the use of abscisic acid (ABA) in crucifer seed health test for detecting Phoma lingam. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 30(2):291-294

Anon., 1989. Handbook for detection of seed-borne diseases. Agriculture Canada, Laboratory Services Division.

Ansan-Melayah D; Balesdent MH; BuTe M; Rouxel T, 1995. Genetic characterization of AvrLm1, the first avirulence gene of Leptosphaeria maculans. Phytopathology, 85(12):1525-1529; 29 ref.

Ansan-Melayah D; Rouxel T; Bertrandy J; Letarnec B; Mendes-Pereira E; Balesdent MH, 1997. Field efficiency of Brassica napus specific resistance correlates with Leptosphaeria maculans population structure. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(9):835-841; 28 ref.

Baird RE; Phillips DV; Mullinix BG; Alt PJ, 1999. Relative longevity of Leptosphaeria maculans and associated mycobiota on canola debris. Phytoprotection, 80:1-11.

Balesdent MH; Gall C; Robin P; Rouxel T, 1992. Intraspecific variation in soluble mycelial protein and esterase patterns of Leptosphaeria maculans French isolates. Mycological Research, 96(8):677-684

Ballinger DJ; Salisbury PA, 1996. Seedling and adult plant evaluation of race variability in Leptosphaeria maculans on Brassica species in Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 36(4):485-488; 21 ref.

Barbetti MJ, 1975. Effects of temperature on development and progression in rape of crown canker caused by Leptosphaeria maculans. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 15(76):705-708

Barbetti MJ; Carmody P; Khangura RK; Sweetingham M; Walton G, 2000. Managing Blackleg in 2000. Perth, Western Australia: Agriculture Western Australia, Bulletin 4400.

Barbetti MJ; Khangura RK, 1999. Managing blackleg in the disease-prone environment of Western Australia. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Rapeseed Congress, September 26-29, 1999, Canberra, Australia.

Beatty PH; Jensen SE, 2002. Paenibacillus polymyxa produces fusaricidin-type antifungal antibiotics active against Leptosphaeria maculans, the causative agent of blackleg disease of canola. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 48(2):159-169; 47 ref.

Biddulph JE; Fitt BDL; Leech PK; Welham SJ; Gladders P, 1999. Effects of temperature and wetness duration on infection of oilseed rape leaves by ascospores of Leptosphaeria maculans (stem canker). European Journal of Plant Pathology, 105(8):769-781; 12 ref.

Boerema GH, 1964. Phoma herbarum Westend., the type-species of the form-genus Phoma Sacc. Persoonia, 3:9-16.

Boerema GH, 1970. Additional notes on Phoma herbarum. Persoonia, 6:15-48.

Boerema GH, 1976. The Phoma species studied in culture by Dr. R.W.G. Dennis. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 67(2):289-319

Boerema GH; de Gruyter J; van Kesteren HA, 1994. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) - III. I. Section Plenodomus: Taxa often with a Leptosphaeria teleomorph. Persoonia, 15(4):431-487.

Boerema GH; Kesteren HA Van, 1964. The nomenclature of two fungi parasitising Brassica. Persoonia, 3:17-28.

Bokor A; Barbetti MJ; Brown AGP MacNish GC; Wood PM, 1975. Blackleg of rapeseed. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia, 16(1):7-10

Bonman JM; Delwiche PA; Gabrielson RL; Williams PH, 1980. Leptosphaeria maculans on cabbage in Wisconsin. Plant Disease, 64(3):326

Bonman JM; Gabrielson RL, 1981. Localized infections of siliques and seed of cabbage by Phoma lingam. Plant Disease, 65(11):868-869

Brun H; Levivier S; Eber F; Renard M; ChFvre AM, 1997. Electrophoretic analysis of natural populations of Leptosphaeria maculans directly from leaf lesions. Plant Pathology, 46(1):147-154; 13 ref.

Burton WA; Pymer SJ; Marcroft SJ; Salisbury PA; Ballinger DJ, 1999. Selection methods for blackleg resistance in Australia. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Rapeseed Congress, September 26-29, 1999, Canberra, Australia.

CABI/EPPO, 2005. Leptosphaeria maculans. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 73. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CABI; EPPO, 2005. Leptosphaeria maculans. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 6). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 73.

Chigogora JL; Hall R, 1995. Relationships among measures of blackleg in winter oilseed rape and infection of harvested seed by Leptosphaeria maculans. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 17(1):25-30

Crouch JH; Lewis BG; Mithen RF, 1994. The effect of A genome substitution on the resistance of Brassica napus to infection by Leptosphaeria maculans. Plant Breeding, 112(4):265-278

Cunningham GH, 1927. Dry-rot of swedes and turnips: its cause and control. New Zealand Department of Agriculture Bulletin 133.

Davies JML, 1986. Diseases of oilseed rape In: Scarisbrick DH, Daniels RW, eds. Oilseed Rape. London, UK: William Collins Sons and Company Limited, 195-236.

DesmaziFres J, 1849. Plant Cryptogamies. Annales des Sciences Naturelles France 3 SFries Botanique 11:280-281.

Eastburn D, 1989. Disease management of cabbage and broccoli an IPM approach. Transactions of the Illinois State Horticultural Society, 123:32-35

Eckert MR; Rossall S; Selley A; Fitt BDL, 2010. Effects of fungicides on in vitro spore germination and mycelial growth of the phytopathogens Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa (phoma stem canker of oilseed rape). Pest Management Science, 66(4):396-405. http://www.interscience.wiley.com/pestmanagementscience

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Evans IR; Kharbanda PD; Harrison L; Kaminski D, 1991. Blackleg of canola survey in Alberta - 1990. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 71:98-99.

Farr DF; Bills GF; Chamuris GP; Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

Farr DF; Bills GF; Chamuris GP; Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

Ferreira ME; Rimmer SR; Williams PH; Osborn TC, 1995. Mapping loci controlling Brassica napus resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans under different screening conditions. Phytopathology, 85(2):213-217

Fitt BDL; Hu BC; Li ZQ; Liu SY; Lange RM; Kharbanda PD; Butterworth MH; White RP, 2008. Strategies to prevent spread of Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) onto oilseed rape crops in China; costs and benefits. Plant Pathology, 57(4):652-664. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Gabrielson RL, 1974. Washington's all-out attack on blackleg. American Vegetable Grower, 22:21, 25.

Gabrielson RL, 1983. Blackleg disease of cabbage caused by Leptosphaeria maculans (Phoma lingam) and its control. Seed Science Technology, 11:749.

Gabrielson RL; Mulanax MW; Matsuoka K; Williams PH; Whiteaker GP; Maguire JD, 1977. Fungicidal eradication of seedborne Phoma lingam of crucifers. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(2):118-121

Gaetßn SA; Garbagnoli C; Irigoyen ED, 1995. Microorganisms isolated from rape seeds (Brassica napus L. subsp. oleifera (Metzg.) Sinsk.) in Argentina. Fitopatologi^acute~a, 30(2):107-117; 43 ref.

Gall C; Balesdent MH; Desthieux I; Robin P; Rouxel T, 1995. Polymorphism of Tox Leptosphaeria maculans isolates as revealed by soluble protein and isozyme electrophoresis. Mycological Research, 99(2):221-229

Gladders P, 1995. Canker on winter oilseed: Occurrence in Eastern England 1977-1995 and prospects for forecasting and control. Blackleg News, 5:7-8.

Gladders P; Musa TM, 1980. Observations on the epidemiology of Leptosphaeria maculans stem canker in winter oilseed rape. Plant Pathology, 29(1):28-37

Gladders P; Symonds BV, 1995. Occurrence of canker (Leptosphaeria maculans) in winter oilseed rape in eastern England 1977-1993. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 18:1-11.

Gladders P; Symonds BV; Hardwick NV; Sansford CE, 1998. Opportunities to control canker (Leptosphaeria maculans) in winter oilseed rape by improved spray timing. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 21(5):111-120; 9 ref.

Glpser G, 1981. Interesting disease occurrences in vegetable crops 1980. Pflanzenarzt, 34(6):61-64

Gretenkort MA; Ingram DS, 1993. A comparison of the disease reactions of stems and detached leaves of soil and in vitro grown plants and regenerants of oilseed rape to Leptosphaeria maculans and protocols for selection for novel disease resistance. Journal of Phytopathology, 137(2):89-104

Gugel RK; Petrie GA, 1992. History, occurrence, impact, and control of blackleg of rapeseed. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(1):36-45

Hall R, 1992. Epidemiology of blackleg of oilseed rape. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(1):46-55

Hall R; Chigogora JL; Phillips LG, 1996. Role of seedborne inoculum of Leptosphaeria maculans in development of blackleg on oilseed rape. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 18(1):35-42; 37 ref.

Hall R; Peters RD; Assabgui RA, 1993. Occurrence and impact of blackleg on oilseed rape in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 15(4):305-313

Hammond KE; Lewis BG, 1986. The timing and sequence of events leading to stem canker disease in populations of Brassica napus var. oleifera in the field. Plant Pathology, 35(4):551-564

Henderson MP, 1918. The black-leg disease of cabbage caused by Phoma lingam (Tode) Desm. Phytopathology, 8:379-431.

Howlett BJ; Idnurm A; Pedras MSC, 2001. Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of blackleg disease of Brassicas. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 33(1):1-14; many ref.

Huang YJ; Toscano-Underwood C; Fitt BDL; Todd AD; West JS; Koopmann B; Balesdent MH, 2001. Effects of temperature on germination and hyphal growth from ascospores of A-group and B-group Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker of oilseed rape). Annals of Applied Biology, 139(2):193-207; 35 ref.

Humpherson-Jones FM, 1983. The occurrence of Alternaria brassicicola, Alternaria brassicae and Leptosphaeria maculans in brassica seed crops in south-east England between 1976 and 1980. Plant Pathology, 32(1):33-39

Humpherson-Jones FM, 1986. The occurrence of virulent pathotypes of Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica seed crops in England. Plant Pathology, 35(2):224-231

ISTA, 1964. Cabbage etc,. black leg, dry rot, canker. Plenodomus lingam (tode ex Fr.) Hohn. Proc. International Seed Testing Association, 30:1109.

Jacobsen BJ; Williams PH, 1971. Histology and control of Brassica oleracea seed infection by Phoma lingam. Plant Disease Reporter, 55:934-938.

Jedryczka M; Rouxel T; Balesdent MH, 1999. Rep-PCR based genomic fingerprinting of isolates of Leptosphaeria maculans from Poland. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 105(8):813-823; 42 ref.

Johnson RD; Lewis BG, 1994. Variation in host range, systemic infection and epidemiology of Leptosphaeria maculans. Plant Pathology, 43(2):269-277

Kachlicki P; Jedryczka M, 1994. Properties of Phoma lingam (Tode ex Fr.) Desm. isolates from Poland II. Secondary metabolites production. Phytopathologia Polonica, No. 19:81-86

Khangura RK; Barbetti MJ, 2001. Prevalence of blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) on canola (Brassica napus) in Western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 41(1):71-80; 25 ref.

Khangura RK; Barbetti MJ, 2002. Efficacy of Impact to manage blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) in canola. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 53(3):311-321; 24 ref.

Kharbanda PD, 1992. Control of Blackleg of Canola. Final Report, June 1992, Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville, AB, AECV92-G4.

Kharbanda PD, 1992. Performance of fungicides to control blackleg of canola. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(2):169-176

Kharbanda PD; Stevens RR, 1993. Seed Testing for Blackleg of Canola. Alberta Environment Centre, Vegreville, AB AECV93-E1.

Kharbanda PD; Yang J; Beatty P; Jensen S; Tewari JP, 1999. Biocontrol of Leptosphaeria maculans and other pathogens of canola with Paenibacillus polymyxa PKB1. In: 10th International Rapeseed Congress, Canberra, Australia, p 228.

Koch E; Song K; Osborn TC; Williams PH, 1991. Relationship between pathogenicity and phylogeny based on restriction fragment length polymorphism in Leptosphaeria maculans. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 4(4):341-349

Krüger W; Wittern I, 1985. Epidemiological investigations into root and collar rot of rape, caused by Phoma lingam.. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 113(2):125-140; [6 fig., 3 tab.]; 10 ref.

Kuusk AK; Happstadius I; Zhou L; Steventon LA; Giese H; Dixelius C, 2002. Presence of Leptosphaeria maculans group A and group B isolates in Sweden. Journal of Phytopathology, 150(6):349-356; 36 ref.

Lacoste L; Louvet J; Anselme C; Alabouvette C; Brunin B; Pierre JG, 1969. Rôle de Phoma lingam (Tode) Desm. et de sa forme parfaite, L. maculans (Desm.) Ces. et de Not. dans les épidémies de nécrose du collet de colza (Brassica napus L. var Oleifera Metzer). C. R. Hebd. Séances Acad. Agric. Fr., 55:981-989.

Lagarde F, 1995. Bilan phytosanitaire de la derniFre campagne et point sur la campagne en cours pour le colza. Retour en force du Phoma. Phytoma, 469:21-23.

Lamey HA; Hershman DE, 1993. Black leg of canola (Brassica napus) caused by Leptosphaeria maculans in North Dakota. Plant Disease, 77(12):1263

Lloyd AB, 1959. The transmission of Phoma lingam (Tode) Desm. in the seeds of swede, turnip, chou mollier, rape and kale. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 2:649-658.

MacNish GC, 1979. Role of sheep in the spread of blackleg of rapeseed. Australian Journal of Plant Pathology, 8(2):22-23.

Mannerucci GF; Gambogi P; Vannacci G, 1982. Detection of pathogenic fungi on seeds of market garden plants. Informatore Fitopatologico, 32(5):47-54

Marcroft SJ; Potter TD, 2008. The fungicide fluquinconazole applied as a seed dressing to canola reduces Leptosphaeria maculans (blackleg) severity in south-eastern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 37(4):396-401. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm

McGee DC, 1974. The application of findings from surveys of the incidence of black leg of rapeseed in Victoria. Australian Plant Pathology Society Newsletter, 3:27.

McGee DC, 1977. Black leg (Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. & de Not.) of rapeseed in Victoria: sources of infection and relationships between inoculum, environmental factors and disease severity. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 28(1):53-62

McGee DC; Petrie GA, 1978. Variability of Leptosphaeria maculans in relation to blackleg of oilseed rape. Phytopathology, 68(4):625-630

McGee DC; Petrie GA, 1979. Seasonal patterns of ascospore discharge by Leptosphaeria maculans in relation to blackleg of oilseed rape. Phytopathology, 69(6):586-589

Mengistu A; Williams PH; Hershman DE; Sippell DW, 1990. Black leg of canola (Brassica napus var. oleifera) in Kentucky. Plant Disease, 74(11):938

Michail SH; Al-Menoufi OA; Abo-Taleb EA, 1979. Seed health testing, leaf spot and damping-off of certain crucifers in Egypt. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 14(1/2):41-48

Moore WC, 1948. Diseases of crop plants (1943-1946). London, UK: Bulletin of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, No. 139.

Morales VM; Seguin-Swartz G; Taylor JL, 1993. Chromosome size polymorphism in Leptosphaeria maculans. Phytopathology, 83(5):503-509

Moreno-Rico O; Frias-Trevino AG; Luna-Ruiz JJ; Manzano-Flores DE; Romero-Cova S; STguin-Swartz G, 2001. Characterization and pathogenicity of isolates of Leptosphaeria maculans from Aguascalientes and Zacatecas, Mexico. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 23(3):270-278; 29 ref.

Müller E, 1953. Kulturversuche mit Askomyceten I. Sydowia, 7:325-334.

Müller E; Tomasevic M, 1957. Kulturversuche mit einigen arten den Gattung Leptosphaeria Ces. et de Not. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 29:287-294.

Noble M, 1966. Cabbage etc. Black leg, Dry rot, Canker. Handbook on Seed Testing, Series 3. Working Sheet, No. 31 (dated November, 1964).

Paul VH; Rawlinson CJ, 1992. Diseases and Pests of Rape. Gelsenkirchen-Buer, Germany: Verlag Th. Mann.

Péres A; Auclert B; Fernandes J; Maisonneuve C, 1997. CETIOM-Oléoscope N(38-Mars-Avril, 27-28.

Peters R; Hall R, 1987. Incidence and severity of blackleg in Ontario winter rapeseed. Phytopathology, 77:1618 (Abstract).

Petrie GA, 1978. Occurrence of a highly virulent strain of blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) on rape in Saskatchewan (1975-77). Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 58(2):21-25

Petrie GA, 1979. Prevalence of a highly virulent strain of Leptosphaeria maculans (blackleg) in seed samples of rape and turnip rape produced in Western Canada in 1976 and 1977. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 59(3):899-901

Petrie GA, 1986. Consequences of survival of Leptosphaeria maculans (blackleg) in canola stubble residue through an entire crop rotation sequence. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 8:353.

Petrie GA; Vanterpool TC, 1965. Diseases of rape and cruciferous weeds in Saskatchewan in 1965. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 45:111-112.

Petrie GA; Vanterpool TC, 1966. Diseases of rape, mustard and cruciferous weeds in the prairie provinces. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 46:117-120.

Pierre JG; Regnault Y; Péres A; Penot P; Bonnet T; Thoral N; Tiberghien G, 1982. Contribution a la mise au point d'une methode de plein champ destinée a mesurer la sensibilité des varietes de colza au Phoma. Informations Techniques CETIOM No. 81-IV, 3-18.

Platford RG; Berg CGA van den, 1989. Survey of plant diseases of canola in 1988. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 69:63.

Plummer KM; Dunse K; Howlett BJ, 1994. Non-aggressive strains of the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, are present in Australia and can be distinguished from aggressive strains by molecular analysis. Australian Journal of Botany, 42(1):1-8

Pongam P; Osborn TC; Williams PH, 1999. Assessment of genetic variation among Leptosphaeria maculans isolates using pathogenicity data and AFLP analysis. Plant Disease, 83(2):149-154; 28 ref.

Pound GS; Cheo P-C; Calvert OH; Raabe RD, 1951. Extent of transmission of certain cabbage pathogens by seed grown in western Washington. Phytopathology, 41:821-828.

Punithalingam E; Holliday P, 1972. Leptosphaeria maculans. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 331. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Purwantara A; Barrins JM; Cozijnsen AJ; Ades PK; Howle BJ, 2000. Genetic diversity of isolates of the Leptosphaeria maculans species complex from Australia, Europe and North America using amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. Mycological Research, 104(7):772-781; 31 ref.

Purwantara A; Salisbury PA; Burton WA; Howlett BJ, 1998. Reaction of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) lines to Australian isolates of Leptosphaeria maculans under glasshouse and field conditions. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104(9):895-902; 20 ref.

Rempel CB; Hall R, 1995. Effects of time and rate of application of triazole fungicides on incidence and severity of blackleg and growth and yield of canola. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 75(3):737-743; 32 ref.

Rimmer SR; Berg CGJ van den, 1992. Resistance of oilseed Brassica spp. to blackleg caused by Leptosphaeria maculans. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(1):56-66

Salisbury PA; Ballinger DJ; Wratten N; Plummer KM; Howlett BJ, 1995. Blackleg disease on oilseed Brassica in Australia: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 35(5):665-672; 65 ref.

Schramm H; Hoffmann GM, 1991. Biological bases for integrated control of Phoma lingam (teleomorph: Leptosphaeria maculans (Desmaz.) Ces & De Not.), the cause of crown and stem canker in winter rape. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 98(6):581-596

Schramm H; Hoffmann GM, 1992. Effect of fungicide applications on development of infection by Phoma lingam in winter rape. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 99(2):145-158

Shahid Ahamad; Mukesh Srivastava; Surulirajan M, 2003. Fungi associated with rapeseed-mustard seeds, pathogenicity and chemical control. Annals of Agricultural Research, 24(3):671-672.

Sherf AF, 1968. Blackleg of cabbage and other crucifers. Cornell Ext. Bull. No. 1209.

Shoemaker RA; Brun H, 2001. The teleomorph of the weakly aggressive segregate of Leptosphaeria maculans. Canadian Journal of Botany, 79(4):412-419; 30 ref.

Sippell DW; Hall R, 1995. Glucose phosphate isomerase polymorphisms distinguish weakly virulent from highly virulent strains of Leptosphaeria maculans. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 17(1):1-6

Smith HC; Sutton BC, 1964. Leptosphaeria maculans the ascogenous state of Phoma lingam. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 47:159-165.

Somda I; Renard M; Brun H, 1996. Morphology, pathogenicity and isozyme variation amongst French isolates of Leptosphaeria maculans recovered from Brassica juncea cv. Picra. Plant Pathology, 45(6):1090-1098; 24 ref.

Sosnowski M; Ramsey M; Murray G; Scott E; Wilmshurst C, 2001. Symptoms of blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) on the roots of canola in Australia. Plant Pathology, 50(6):808; 3 ref.

Sosnowski M; Scott E; Ramsey M, 2001. Investigating resistance and epidemiology of blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans). In: canola. 12th Australian Research Assembly on Brassicas, October 2001, 82-86.

Sosnowski MR; Scott ES; Ramsey MD, 2001. Pathogenic variation of South Australian isolates of Leptosphaeria maculans and interactions with cultivars of canola (Brassica napus). Australasian Plant Pathology, 30(1):45-51; 24 ref.

Stace-Smith R; Bowler G; MacKenzie DJ; Ellis P, 1993. Monoclonal antibodies differentiate the weakly virulent from the highly virulent strain of Leptosphaeria maculans, the organism causing blackleg of canola. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 15(3):127-133

Stovold GE, 1975. Infection of seedlots of rapeseed in New South Wales by the imperfect stage of the blackleg fungus. Plant Disease Survey, 19-20

Sun P; Fitt BDL; Gladders P; Welham SJ, 2000. Relationships between phoma leaf spot and development of stem canker (Leptosphaeria maculans) on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in southern England. Annals of Applied Biology, 137(2):113-125; 28 ref.

Sun P; Fitt BDL; Steed JM; Underwood CT; West JS, 2001. Factors affecting development of phoma canker (Leptosphaeria maculans) on stems of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in southern England. Annals of Applied Biology, 139(2):227-242; 19 ref.

Tahvonen R, 1979. Seed-borne fungi on cruciferous cultivated plants in Finland and their importance in seedling raising. Journal of the Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland, 51(5):327-379

Taylor JL; Borgmann I; Seguin-Swartz G, 1991. Electrophoretic karyotyping of Leptosphaeria maculans differentiates highly virulent from weakly virulent isolates. Current Genetics, 19(4):273-277

Tewari JP; Shinners TC; Briggs KG, 1997. Production of calcium oxalate crystals by two species of Cyathus in culture and in infested plant debris. Verlag der Zeitschrift f(r Naturforschung, 52c:421-425.

ThnrwStcher F; Garbe V; Hoppe HH, 1995. Studies on decision models for the control of blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans). Proceedings of the 9th International Rapeseed Congress, Cambridge, UK: 992-994.

Tode HI, 1791. Fungi Mecklenburgenses Selecti. Fasiculus 2.

Toscano-Underwood C; West JS; Fitt BDL; Todd AD; Jedryczka M, 2001. Development of phoma lesions on oilseed rape leaves inoculated with ascospores of A-group or B-group Leptosphaeria maculans (stem canker) at different temperatures and wetness durations. Plant Pathology, 50(1):28-41; 33 ref.

Turkington TK; Clayton GW; Klein-Gebbinck H; Woods DL, 2000. Residue decomposition and blackleg of canola: influence of tillage practices. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 22(2):150-154; 23 ref.

Turkington TK; Clayton GW; Woods DL, 2000. The impact of soil incorporation of canola residues and stubble application of chemicals on decomposition and inoculum production by Leptosphaeria maculans. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 22(2):155-159; 21 ref.

Vanniasingham VM; Gilligan CA, 1989. Effects of host, pathogen and environmental factors on latent period and production of pycnidia of Leptosphaeria maculans on oilseed rape leaves in controlled environments. Mycological Research, 93(2):167-174

Voigt K; Jedryczka M; W÷stemeyer J, 2001. Strain typing of Polish Leptosphaeria maculans isolates supports at the genomic level the multi-species concept of aggressive and non-aggressive strains. Microbiological Research, 156(2):169-177; 27 ref.

Voigt K; Schleier S; Wostemeyer J, Dehne HW (ed. ), Adam G (ed.), Diekmann M (ed.), Frahm J (ed.), Mauler-Machnik A (ed.), Halteren P-van, 1997. Molecular diagnosis of rape seed pathogens. Diagnosis and identification of plant pathogens. Proceedings 4th International Symposium of he European Foundation for Plant Pathology, Bonn, Germany, 9-12 September 1996. 195-198. Dordrecht; Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Wang GuoPing; Hu KaiLin; Jedryczka M, 2003. Health testing and evaluation of Leptosphaeria maculans (Phoma lingam) contamination in Brassica napus seed samples from Poland and England. Journal of South China Agricultural University. 24(4): 28-31.

West JS; Balesdent MH; Rouxel T; Narcy JP; Huang YJ; Roux J; Steed JM; Fitt BDL; Schmit J, 2002. Colonization of winter oilseed rape tissues by A/Tox and B/Tox Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) in France and England. Plant Pathology, 51(3):311-321; 29 ref.

West JS; Biddulph JE; Fitt BDL; Gladders P, 1999. Epidemiology of Leptosphaeria maculans in relation to forecasting stem canker severity on winter oilseed rape in the UK. Annals of Applied Biology, 135(2):535-546; 58 ref.

West JS; Evans N; Liu S; Hu B; Peng L, 2000. Leptosphaeria maculans causing stem canker of oilseed rape in China. Plant Pathology 49:800.

West JS; Kharbanda PD; Barbetti MJ; Fitt BDL, 2001. Epidemiology and management of Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) on oilseed rape in Australia, Canada and Europe. Plant Pathology, 50(1):10-27; Many ref.

Williams PH, 1967. Occurrence of Phoma lingam on cabbage seed from Australia after treatment in hot water. Plant Disease Reporter, 51:566-569.

Williams PH, 1974. Blackleg and blackrot-continuing threat to cabbage production. American Vegetable Grower, 22:20-22.

Williams PH, 1980. Black rot: a continuing threat to world crucifers. Plant Disease, 64(8):736-742

Williams PH, 1992. Biology of Leptosphaeria maculans. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(1):30-35

Williams RH; Fitt BDL, 1999. Differentiating A and B groups of Leptosphaeria maculans, causal agent of stem canker (blackleg) of oilseed rape. Plant Pathology, 48(2):161-175; 101 ref.

Wood PMcR; Barbetti MJ, 1977. The role of seed infection in the spread of blackleg of rape in Western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 17(89):1040-1044

Xi K; Morrall RAA, 1993. Histopathology of blackleg development in spring rapeseed. Journal of Phytopathology, 137(1):26-32

Xi K; Morrall RAA; Baker RJ; Verma PR, 1990. Relationship between incidence and severity of blackleg disease of rapeseed. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 12(2):164-169

Xi K; Morrall RAA; Gugel RK; Verma PR, 1991. Latent infection in relation to the epidemiology of blackleg of spring rapeseed. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 13(4):321-331

Yang J; Kharbanda PD; Tewari JP, 1997. Inhibitory effect of a biocontrol agent (Bacillus sp.) against Leptosphaeria maculans, in vitro and in vivo. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 19.

Zhou GuoLiang; Shang LinLin; Yu Cui; Yin LiPing; Xu DianSheng; Yi JianPing, 2010. Detection of Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa in oilseed rape samples imported from Australia. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 37(4):289-294. http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn

Zhou Y; Fitt BDL; Welham SJ; Evans N; Gladders P, 2000. Effects of stem canker (Leptosphaeria maculans) and light leaf spot (Pyrenopeziza brassicae) on yield of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in southern England. Plant Pathology, 49(4):487-497; 27 ref.

Zhou Y; Fitt BDL; Welham SJ; Gladders P; Sansford CE; West JS, 1999. Effects of severity and timing of stem canker (Leptosphaeria maculans) symptoms on yield of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in the UK. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 105(7):715-728; 30 ref.

Zhu JS; Struss D; Robbelen G, 1993. Studies on resistance to Phoma lingam in Brassica napus-Brassica nigra addition lines. Plant Breeding, 111(3):192-197

Distribution References

Agostini A, Johnson D A, Hulbert S, Demoz B, Fernando W G D, Paulitz T, 2013. First report of blackleg caused by Leptosphaeria maculans on canola in Idaho. Plant Disease. 97 (6), 842. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-12-0956-PDN

Bonman J M, Delwiche P A, Gabrielson R L, Williams P H, 1980. Leptosphaeria maculans on cabbage in Wisconsin. Plant Disease. 64 (3), 326. DOI:10.1094/PD-64-326

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cunningham G H, 1927. New Zealand Department of Agriculture Bulletin,

Eastburn D, 1989. Disease management of cabbage and broccoli - an IPM approach. Transactions of the Illinois State Horticultural Society. 32-35.

Eckert M R, Rossall S, Selley A, Fitt B D L, 2010. Effects of fungicides on in vitro spore germination and mycelial growth of the phytopathogens Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa (phoma stem canker of oilseed rape). Pest Management Science. 66 (4), 396-405. http://www.interscience.wiley.com/pestmanagementscience

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States., St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press.

Gabrielson R L, 1974. Washington's all-out attack on blackleg. American Vegetable Grower. 22 (3), 21, 25.

Gugel R K, Petrie G A, 1992. History, occurrence, impact, and control of blackleg of rapeseed. In: Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14 (1) 36-45.

Hall R, Peters R D, Assabgui R A, 1993. Occurrence and impact of blackleg on oilseed rape in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 15 (4), 305-313.

Kachlicki P, Jetail˜dryczka M, 1994. Properties of Phoma lingam (Tode ex Fr.) Desm. isolates from Poland II. Secondary metabolites production. Phytopathologia Polonica. 81-86.

LACOSTE L, LOUVET J, ANSELME C, ALABOUVETTE C, BRUNIN B, PIERRE J -G, 1969. Role of P. Ungam and of its perfect form L. maculans in epidemics of black leg of Colza (B. napus var. oleifera). (Role de Phoma Ungam (Tode) Desm. et de sa forme parfaite Leptospbaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. et de Not. dans les épidémies de nécrose du collet de Colza (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera Metzer).). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Seances de l'Academie d'Agriculture de France. 55 (14), 981-989.

Lamey H A, Hershman D E, 1993. Black leg of canola (Brassica napus) caused by Leptosphaeria maculans in North Dakota. Plant Disease. 77 (12), 1263. DOI:10.1094/PD-77-1263B

MacNish GC, 1979. Role of sheep in the spread of blackleg of rapeseed. In: Australian Journal of Plant Pathology, 8 (2) 22-23.

McGee DC, 1974. The application of findings from surveys of the incidence of black leg of rapeseed in Victoria. In: Australian Plant Pathology Society Newsletter, 3 27.

Mengistu A, Williams P H, Hershman D E, Sippell D W, 1990. Black leg of canola (Brassica napus var. oleifera) in Kentucky. Plant Disease. 74 (11), 938. DOI:10.1094/PD-74-0938C

Michail S H, Al-Menoufi O A, Abo-Taleb E A, 1979. Seed health testing, leaf spot and damping-off of certain crucifers in Egypt. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 14 (1/2), 41-48.

Tahvonen R, 1979. Seed-borne fungi on cruciferous cultivated plants in Finland and their importance in seedling raising. In: Journal of the Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland, 51 (5) 327-379.

UK, CAB International, 1978. Leptosphaeria maculans. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 73.

Xi K, Morrall R A A, Gugel R K, Verma P R, 1991. Latent infection in relation to the epidemiology of blackleg of spring rapeseed. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 13 (4), 321-331.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map