Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Leptosphaeria maculans
(stem canker)

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Datasheet

Leptosphaeria maculans (stem canker)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Leptosphaeria maculans
  • Preferred Common Name
  • stem canker
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leaf lesions on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Capitol) caused by L. maculans, showing typical pale lesions with associated pycnidia (a) and dark lesion type (b) both with leaf chlorosis.
TitleSymptoms on rape leaf
CaptionLeaf lesions on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Capitol) caused by L. maculans, showing typical pale lesions with associated pycnidia (a) and dark lesion type (b) both with leaf chlorosis.
CopyrightJonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Leaf lesions on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Capitol) caused by L. maculans, showing typical pale lesions with associated pycnidia (a) and dark lesion type (b) both with leaf chlorosis.
Symptoms on rape leafLeaf lesions on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Capitol) caused by L. maculans, showing typical pale lesions with associated pycnidia (a) and dark lesion type (b) both with leaf chlorosis.Jonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Infected stem of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing stem lesions.
TitleSymptoms on rape stem
CaptionInfected stem of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing stem lesions.
CopyrightJonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Infected stem of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing stem lesions.
Symptoms on rape stemInfected stem of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing stem lesions.Jonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Stem lesion caused by L. maculans on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing an infected petiole still attached to the stem.
TitleSymptoms on rape stem
CaptionStem lesion caused by L. maculans on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing an infected petiole still attached to the stem.
CopyrightJonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Stem lesion caused by L. maculans on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing an infected petiole still attached to the stem.
Symptoms on rape stemStem lesion caused by L. maculans on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Envol) showing an infected petiole still attached to the stem.Jonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Pycnidia on rape seed in blotter test.
TitlePycnidia on rape seed
CaptionPycnidia on rape seed in blotter test.
CopyrightISU
Pycnidia on rape seed in blotter test.
Pycnidia on rape seedPycnidia on rape seed in blotter test.ISU
Stem canker on Brassica vegetable plant.
TitleSymptoms on Brassica
CaptionStem canker on Brassica vegetable plant.
CopyrightISU
Stem canker on Brassica vegetable plant.
Symptoms on BrassicaStem canker on Brassica vegetable plant.ISU
Early symptoms of stem canker (second stem from bottom) and stem lesions (other stems) on B. napus caused by UK field isolates of L. maculans.
TitleSymptoms on B. napus stems
CaptionEarly symptoms of stem canker (second stem from bottom) and stem lesions (other stems) on B. napus caused by UK field isolates of L. maculans.
CopyrightBruce Fitt/British Society for Plant Pathology
Early symptoms of stem canker (second stem from bottom) and stem lesions (other stems) on B. napus caused by UK field isolates of L. maculans.
Symptoms on B. napus stemsEarly symptoms of stem canker (second stem from bottom) and stem lesions (other stems) on B. napus caused by UK field isolates of L. maculans.Bruce Fitt/British Society for Plant Pathology
Squashed pseudothecia of L. maculans showing a) ascospores, b) bitunicate ascus containing 8 ascospores, c) immature ascus. Scale bar = 20µm.
TitlePseudothecia
CaptionSquashed pseudothecia of L. maculans showing a) ascospores, b) bitunicate ascus containing 8 ascospores, c) immature ascus. Scale bar = 20µm.
CopyrightJonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Squashed pseudothecia of L. maculans showing a) ascospores, b) bitunicate ascus containing 8 ascospores, c) immature ascus. Scale bar = 20µm.
PseudotheciaSquashed pseudothecia of L. maculans showing a) ascospores, b) bitunicate ascus containing 8 ascospores, c) immature ascus. Scale bar = 20µm.Jonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Ascospores released from squashed pseudothecia of  L. maculans. Scale bar = 20µm.
TitlePseudothecia
CaptionAscospores released from squashed pseudothecia of L. maculans. Scale bar = 20µm.
CopyrightJonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West
Ascospores released from squashed pseudothecia of  L. maculans. Scale bar = 20µm.
PseudotheciaAscospores released from squashed pseudothecia of L. maculans. Scale bar = 20µm.Jonathan Biddulph & Jonathan West

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. & de Not.

Preferred Common Name

  • stem canker

Other Scientific Names

  • Phoma brassicae Thüm.
  • Phoma lingam (Tode) Desm.
  • Phoma oleracea Sacc.
  • Phome napobrassicae Rostr.
  • Phyllosticta brassicae (Curr.) Westend.
  • Phyllosticta napi Sacc.
  • Plenodomus lingam (Tode) Höhn.
  • Pleospora maculans (Desm.) Tul.
  • Sphaeria lingam Tode
  • Sphaeria maculans Desm.

International Common Names

  • English: black leg of cabbage; blackleg of cabbage; crucifers black leg; crucifers canker; crucifers dry rot; Phoma leaf spot
  • Spanish: pie negro de las cruciferas; podredumbre seca de las cruciferas
  • French: chancre des cruciferes; chancre du chou; chancre du colza; jambe noire des cruciferes; jambe noire du chou; necrose du collet des cruciferes; phoma des cruciferes; pied noir du chou

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fussfaeule: Kohl; Halsnekrose: Raps; Stengelfaeule: Raps; Trockenfaeule: Kohl; Umfallkrankheit: Kohl; Wurzelhalsfaeule: Raps

EPPO code

  • LEPTMA (Leptosphaeria maculans)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Leptosphaeriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Leptosphaeria
  •                                     Species: Leptosphaeria maculans

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent
South AfricaPresent
TunisiaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

ArmeniaPresent
ChinaPresent
-HenanPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-RajasthanPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
KazakhstanPresent
KyrgyzstanPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent, Widespread
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent, Widespread
TurkeyPresent, Widespread

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent, Widespread
CzechiaPresent
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent, Widespread
GreecePresent2008
HungaryPresent, Few occurrences1941
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MaltaPresent
NetherlandsPresent, Widespread
NorwayPresent, Widespread
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SpainPresent
SwedenPresent, Widespread
SwitzerlandPresent, Widespread
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent, Widespread
-EnglandPresent, Widespread
-ScotlandPresent, Widespread

North America

CanadaPresent, Widespread
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
Costa RicaPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuadeloupePresent
MexicoPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-CaliforniaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / canker on woody stem
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus polymixa Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Abuamsha R, Salman M, Ehlers RU, 2011. Effect of seed priming with Serratia plymuthica and Pseudomonas chlororaphis to control Leptosphaeria maculans in different oilseed rape cultivars. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 130(3):287-295. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Agostini A, Johnson DA, Hulbert S, Demoz B, Fernando WGD, Paulitz T, 2013. First report of blackleg caused by Leptosphaeria maculans on canola in Idaho. Plant Disease, 97(6):842. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Andreoli C, Maguire JD, 1995. Preliminary investigations on viability of the use of abscisic acid (ABA) in crucifer seed health test for detecting Phoma lingam. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 30(2):291-294

Anon., 1989. Handbook for detection of seed-borne diseases. Agriculture Canada, Laboratory Services Division.

Ansan-Melayah D, Balesdent MH, BuTe M, Rouxel T, 1995. Genetic characterization of AvrLm1, the first avirulence gene of Leptosphaeria maculans. Phytopathology, 85(12):1525-1529; 29 ref

Ansan-Melayah D, Rouxel T, Bertrandy J, Letarnec B, Mendes-Pereira E, Balesdent MH, 1997. Field efficiency of Brassica napus specific resistance correlates with Leptosphaeria maculans population structure. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(9):835-841; 28 ref

Baird RE, Phillips DV, Mullinix BG, Alt PJ, 1999. Relative longevity of Leptosphaeria maculans and associated mycobiota on canola debris. Phytoprotection, 80:1-11

Balesdent MH, Gall C, Robin P, Rouxel T, 1992. Intraspecific variation in soluble mycelial protein and esterase patterns of Leptosphaeria maculans French isolates. Mycological Research, 96(8):677-684

Ballinger DJ, Salisbury PA, 1996. Seedling and adult plant evaluation of race variability in Leptosphaeria maculans on Brassica species in Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 36(4):485-488; 21 ref

Barbetti MJ, 1975. Effects of temperature on development and progression in rape of crown canker caused by Leptosphaeria maculans. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 15(76):705-708

Barbetti MJ, Carmody P, Khangura RK, Sweetingham M, Walton G, 2000. Managing Blackleg in 2000. Perth, Western Australia: Agriculture Western Australia, Bulletin 4400

Barbetti MJ, Khangura RK, 1999. Managing blackleg in the disease-prone environment of Western Australia. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Rapeseed Congress, September 26-29, 1999, Canberra, Australia

Beatty PH, Jensen SE, 2002. Paenibacillus polymyxa produces fusaricidin-type antifungal antibiotics active against Leptosphaeria maculans, the causative agent of blackleg disease of canola. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 48(2):159-169; 47 ref

Biddulph JE, Fitt BDL, Leech PK, Welham SJ, Gladders P, 1999. Effects of temperature and wetness duration on infection of oilseed rape leaves by ascospores of Leptosphaeria maculans (stem canker). European Journal of Plant Pathology, 105(8):769-781; 12 ref

Boerema GH, 1964. Phoma herbarum Westend., the type-species of the form-genus Phoma Sacc. Persoonia, 3:9-16

Boerema GH, 1970. Additional notes on Phoma herbarum. Persoonia, 6:15-48

Boerema GH, 1976. The Phoma species studied in culture by Dr. R.W.G. Dennis. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 67(2):289-319

Boerema GH, de Gruyter J, van Kesteren HA, 1994. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) - III. I. Section Plenodomus: Taxa often with a Leptosphaeria teleomorph. Persoonia, 15(4):431-487

Boerema GH, Kesteren HA Van, 1964. The nomenclature of two fungi parasitising Brassica. Persoonia, 3:17-28

Bokor A, Barbetti MJ, Brown AGP MacNish GC, Wood PM, 1975. Blackleg of rapeseed. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia, 16(1):7-10

Bonman JM, Delwiche PA, Gabrielson RL, Williams PH, 1980. Leptosphaeria maculans on cabbage in Wisconsin. Plant Disease, 64(3):326

Bonman JM, Gabrielson RL, 1981. Localized infections of siliques and seed of cabbage by Phoma lingam. Plant Disease, 65(11):868-869

Bradley, C. A., Parks, P. S., Chen, Y., Fernando, W. G. D., 2005. First report of pathogenicity groups 3 and 4 of Leptosphaeria maculans on canola in North Dakota. Plant Disease, 89(7), 776. doi: 10.1094/PD-89-0776C

Brun H, Levivier S, Eber F, Renard M, ChFvre AM, 1997. Electrophoretic analysis of natural populations of Leptosphaeria maculans directly from leaf lesions. Plant Pathology, 46(1):147-154; 13 ref

Burton WA, Pymer SJ, Marcroft SJ, Salisbury PA, Ballinger DJ, 1999. Selection methods for blackleg resistance in Australia. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Rapeseed Congress, September 26-29, 1999, Canberra, Australia

CABI, EPPO, 2005. Leptosphaeria maculans. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 6). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 73

CABI/EPPO, 2005. Leptosphaeria maculans. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 73. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Chen, Y., Fernando, W. G. D., 2005. First report of canola blackleg caused by pathogenicity group 4 of Leptosphaeria maculans in Manitoba. Plant Disease, 89(3), 339. doi: 10.1094/PD-89-0339B

Chigogora JL, Hall R, 1995. Relationships among measures of blackleg in winter oilseed rape and infection of harvested seed by Leptosphaeria maculans. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 17(1):25-30

Crouch JH, Lewis BG, Mithen RF, 1994. The effect of A genome substitution on the resistance of Brassica napus to infection by Leptosphaeria maculans. Plant Breeding, 112(4):265-278

Cunningham GH, 1927. Dry-rot of swedes and turnips: its cause and control. New Zealand Department of Agriculture Bulletin 133

Davies JML, 1986. Diseases of oilseed rape In: Scarisbrick DH, Daniels RW, eds. Oilseed Rape. London, UK: William Collins Sons and Company Limited, 195-236

DesmaziFres J, 1849. Plant Cryptogamies. Annales des Sciences Naturelles France 3 SFries Botanique 11:280-281

Dilmaghani, A., Balesdent, M. H., Rouxel, T., Moreno-Rico, O., 2010. First report of Leptosphaeria biglobosa (blackleg) on Brassica oleracea (cabbage) in Mexico. Plant Disease, 94(6), 791. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-94-6-0791C

Djébali, N., Scott, J. K., Jourdan, M., Souissi, T., 2009. Fungi pathogenic on wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) in northern Tunisia as potential biocontrol agents. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 48(2), 205-213. http://epress.unifi.it/riviste

Eastburn D, 1989. Disease management of cabbage and broccoli an IPM approach. Transactions of the Illinois State Horticultural Society, 123:32-35

Eckert MR, Rossall S, Selley A, Fitt BDL, 2010. Effects of fungicides on in vitro spore germination and mycelial growth of the phytopathogens Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa (phoma stem canker of oilseed rape). Pest Management Science, 66(4):396-405. http://www.interscience.wiley.com/pestmanagementscience

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Evans IR, Kharbanda PD, Harrison L, Kaminski D, 1991. Blackleg of canola survey in Alberta - 1990. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 71:98-99

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp

Fernandez, M. R., 2007. Fusarium populations in roots of oilseed and pulse crops grown in eastern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 87(4), 945-952.

Fernando, W. G. D., Parks, P. S., Tomm, G., Viau, L. V., Jurke, C., 2003. First report of blackleg disease caused by Leptosphaeria maculans on canola in Brazil. Plant Disease, 87(3), 314. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.3.314C

Ferreira ME, Rimmer SR, Williams PH, Osborn TC, 1995. Mapping loci controlling Brassica napus resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans under different screening conditions. Phytopathology, 85(2):213-217

Fitt BDL, Hu BC, Li ZQ, Liu SY, Lange RM, Kharbanda PD, Butterworth MH, White RP, 2008. Strategies to prevent spread of Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) onto oilseed rape crops in China; costs and benefits. Plant Pathology, 57(4):652-664. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Gabrielson RL, 1974. Washington's all-out attack on blackleg. American Vegetable Grower, 22:21, 25

Gabrielson RL, 1983. Blackleg disease of cabbage caused by Leptosphaeria maculans (Phoma lingam) and its control. Seed Science Technology, 11:749

Gabrielson RL, Mulanax MW, Matsuoka K, Williams PH, Whiteaker GP, Maguire JD, 1977. Fungicidal eradication of seedborne Phoma lingam of crucifers. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(2):118-121

Gaetßn SA, Garbagnoli C, Irigoyen ED, 1995. Microorganisms isolated from rape seeds (Brassica napus L. subsp. oleifera (Metzg.) Sinsk.) in Argentina. Fitopatologi^acute~a, 30(2):107-117; 43 ref

Gall C, Balesdent MH, Desthieux I, Robin P, Rouxel T, 1995. Polymorphism of Tox Leptosphaeria maculans isolates as revealed by soluble protein and isozyme electrophoresis. Mycological Research, 99(2):221-229

Gladders P, 1995. Canker on winter oilseed: Occurrence in Eastern England 1977-1995 and prospects for forecasting and control. Blackleg News, 5:7-8

Gladders P, Musa TM, 1980. Observations on the epidemiology of Leptosphaeria maculans stem canker in winter oilseed rape. Plant Pathology, 29(1):28-37

Gladders P, Symonds BV, 1995. Occurrence of canker (Leptosphaeria maculans) in winter oilseed rape in eastern England 1977-1993. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 18:1-11

Gladders P, Symonds BV, Hardwick NV, Sansford CE, 1998. Opportunities to control canker (Leptosphaeria maculans) in winter oilseed rape by improved spray timing. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 21(5):111-120; 9 ref

Glpser G, 1981. Interesting disease occurrences in vegetable crops 1980. Pflanzenarzt, 34(6):61-64

Gretenkort MA, Ingram DS, 1993. A comparison of the disease reactions of stems and detached leaves of soil and in vitro grown plants and regenerants of oilseed rape to Leptosphaeria maculans and protocols for selection for novel disease resistance. Journal of Phytopathology, 137(2):89-104

Gugel RK, Petrie GA, 1992. History, occurrence, impact, and control of blackleg of rapeseed. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(1):36-45

Hall R, 1992. Epidemiology of blackleg of oilseed rape. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(1):46-55

Hall R, Chigogora JL, Phillips LG, 1996. Role of seedborne inoculum of Leptosphaeria maculans in development of blackleg on oilseed rape. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 18(1):35-42; 37 ref

Hall R, Peters RD, Assabgui RA, 1993. Occurrence and impact of blackleg on oilseed rape in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 15(4):305-313

Hammond KE, Lewis BG, 1986. The timing and sequence of events leading to stem canker disease in populations of Brassica napus var. oleifera in the field. Plant Pathology, 35(4):551-564

Henderson MP, 1918. The black-leg disease of cabbage caused by Phoma lingam (Tode) Desm. Phytopathology, 8:379-431

Howlett BJ, Idnurm A, Pedras MSC, 2001. Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of blackleg disease of Brassicas. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 33(1):1-14; many ref

Huang YJ, Toscano-Underwood C, Fitt BDL, Todd AD, West JS, Koopmann B, Balesdent MH, 2001. Effects of temperature on germination and hyphal growth from ascospores of A-group and B-group Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker of oilseed rape). Annals of Applied Biology, 139(2):193-207; 35 ref

Humpherson-Jones FM, 1983. The occurrence of Alternaria brassicicola, Alternaria brassicae and Leptosphaeria maculans in brassica seed crops in south-east England between 1976 and 1980. Plant Pathology, 32(1):33-39

Humpherson-Jones FM, 1986. The occurrence of virulent pathotypes of Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica seed crops in England. Plant Pathology, 35(2):224-231

ISTA, 1964. Cabbage etc,. black leg, dry rot, canker. Plenodomus lingam (tode ex Fr.) Hohn. Proc. International Seed Testing Association, 30:1109

Jacobsen BJ, Williams PH, 1971. Histology and control of Brassica oleracea seed infection by Phoma lingam. Plant Disease Reporter, 55:934-938

Jedryczka M, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH, 1999. Rep-PCR based genomic fingerprinting of isolates of Leptosphaeria maculans from Poland. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 105(8):813-823; 42 ref

Johnson RD, Lewis BG, 1994. Variation in host range, systemic infection and epidemiology of Leptosphaeria maculans. Plant Pathology, 43(2):269-277

Kachlicki P, Jedryczka M, 1994. Properties of Phoma lingam (Tode ex Fr.) Desm. isolates from Poland II. Secondary metabolites production. Phytopathologia Polonica, No. 19:81-86

Khangura RK, Barbetti MJ, 2001. Prevalence of blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) on canola (Brassica napus) in Western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 41(1):71-80; 25 ref

Khangura RK, Barbetti MJ, 2002. Efficacy of Impact to manage blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) in canola. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 53(3):311-321; 24 ref

Khangura, R., Aberra, M., 2006. Strains of Leptosphaeria maculans with the capacity to cause crown canker on Brassica carinata are present in Western Australia. Plant Disease, 90(6), 832. doi: 10.1094/PD-90-0832A

Kharbanda PD, 1992. Control of Blackleg of Canola. Final Report, June 1992, Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville, AB, AECV92-G4

Kharbanda PD, 1992. Performance of fungicides to control blackleg of canola. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(2):169-176

Kharbanda PD, Stevens RR, 1993. Seed Testing for Blackleg of Canola. Alberta Environment Centre, Vegreville, AB AECV93-E1

Kharbanda PD, Yang J, Beatty P, Jensen S, Tewari JP, 1999. Biocontrol of Leptosphaeria maculans and other pathogens of canola with Paenibacillus polymyxa PKB1. In: 10th International Rapeseed Congress, Canberra, Australia, p 228

Koch E, Song K, Osborn TC, Williams PH, 1991. Relationship between pathogenicity and phylogeny based on restriction fragment length polymorphism in Leptosphaeria maculans. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 4(4):341-349

Krüger W, Wittern I, 1985. Epidemiological investigations into root and collar rot of rape, caused by Phoma lingam.. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 113(2):125-140; [6 fig., 3 tab.]; 10 ref

Kuusk AK, Happstadius I, Zhou L, Steventon LA, Giese H, Dixelius C, 2002. Presence of Leptosphaeria maculans group A and group B isolates in Sweden. Journal of Phytopathology, 150(6):349-356; 36 ref

Lacoste L, Louvet J, Anselme C, Alabouvette C, Brunin B, Pierre JG, 1969. Rôle de Phoma lingam (Tode) Desm. et de sa forme parfaite, L. maculans (Desm.) Ces. et de Not. dans les épidémies de nécrose du collet de colza (Brassica napus L. var Oleifera Metzer). C. R. Hebd. Séances Acad. Agric. Fr., 55:981-989

Lagarde F, 1995. Bilan phytosanitaire de la derniFre campagne et point sur la campagne en cours pour le colza. Retour en force du Phoma. Phytoma, 469:21-23

Lamey HA, Hershman DE, 1993. Black leg of canola (Brassica napus) caused by Leptosphaeria maculans in North Dakota. Plant Disease, 77(12):1263

Li, H., Sivasithamparam, K., Barbetti, M. J., 2003. Breakdown of a Brassica rapa subsp. silvestris single dominant blackleg resistance gene in B. napus rapeseed by Leptosphaeria maculans field isolates in Australia. Plant Disease, 87(6), 752. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.6.752A

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UK, CAB International, 1978. Leptosphaeria maculans. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 73. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20056500073

Vagelas I, 2009. First report of phoma stem canker (Blackleg) of oilseed rape caused by the species complex Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa in Greece. Journal of Plant Pathology. 91 (4, Supplement), S4.98. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Xi K, Morrall R A A, Gugel R K, Verma P R, 1991. Latent infection in relation to the epidemiology of blackleg of spring rapeseed. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 13 (4), 321-331.

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