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Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Acyrthosiphon kondoi
(blue alfalfa aphid)

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Datasheet

Acyrthosiphon kondoi (blue alfalfa aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acyrthosiphon kondoi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • blue alfalfa aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji, 1938

Preferred Common Name

  • blue alfalfa aphid

International Common Names

  • English: blue pea aphid; blue-green alfalfa aphid; blue-green aphid; blue-green lucerne aphid; lucerne aphid
  • Spanish: pulgon azul; pulgon azul de la alfalfa

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: pulgao verde-azulado

EPPO code

  • ACYRKO (Acyrthosiphon kondoi)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Acyrthosiphon
  •                                         Species: Acyrthosiphon kondoi

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

South AfricaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-HeilongjiangPresentEPPO (2020)
IndiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentIngawale et al. (2005)
-RajasthanPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
IranPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
IsraelPresentNHM (Undated); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-HokkaidoPresentGonzález et al. (1979); UK, CAB International (1989)
-HonshuPresentGonzález et al. (1979); UK, CAB International (1989)
-KyushuPresentGonzález et al. (1979); UK, CAB International (1989)
North KoreaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
Saudi ArabiaPresentNHM (Undated)
South KoreaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)

Europe

RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastPresentPashchenko (2005)

North America

MexicoPresent, LocalizedPérez Domıacute˜nguez (1982); UK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-ArizonaPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-ArkansasPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentHalbert et al. (2000)
-GeorgiaPresentStoetzel (1990)
-IdahoPresentStoetzel (1990)
-IowaPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-KansasPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-KentuckyPresentStoetzel (1990)
-LouisianaPresentStoetzel (1990)
-MarylandPresentLamp et al. (1994)
-MissouriPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-NebraskaPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-NevadaPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-New MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentStoetzel (1990)
-OklahomaPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-OregonPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1989)
-UtahPresentUK, CAB International (1989)
-WashingtonPresentUK, CAB International (1989)
-WyomingPresentStoetzel (1990)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-TasmaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentCarvalho et al. (1997)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ChilePresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
PeruPresentMallqui and Cobián (2011)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphelinus asychis Parasite Nymphs
Aphelinus semiflavus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius aedyi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius colemani Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius eadyi Parasite Nymphs New Zealand legumes
Aphidius ervi Parasite Nymphs Argentina; Australia; Australia; New South Wales; New Zealand; Queensland; Tasmania; Western Australia legumes; Medicago sativa
Aphidius smithi Parasite Nymphs New Zealand legumes
Aphidius urticae Parasite Nymphs
Betasyrphus serarius Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus stigma Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella septempunctata brucki Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella transversalis Predator Adults/Nymphs Australia; New South Wales Medicago sativa
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs New Zealand Medicago sativa
Coleomegilla maculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus obscurus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Diaeretiella rapae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Diomus notescens Predator Adults/Nymphs Australia; New South Wales Medicago sativa
Ephedrus plagiator Parasite Adults/Nymphs Australia; New Zealand; Tasmania legumes
Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Erynia nouryi Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Erynia phalloides Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Erynia radicans Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Eupeodes nitens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Harmonia axyridis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia convergens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Melangyna viridiceps Predator Adults/Nymphs
Melanostoma fasciatum Predator
Micromus tasmaniae Predator Adults/Nymphs New Zealand Medicago sativa
Nabis capsiformis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nabis kinbergii Predator Adults/Nymphs Australia; New South Wales Medicago sativa
Nabis maoricus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pandora neoaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Phalangium opilio Predator Adults/Nymphs
Praon barbatum Parasite Nymphs New Zealand legumes
Praon pequodorum Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Praon volucre Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Simosyrphus grandicornis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Syrphus vitripennis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Trioxys complanatus Parasite Nymphs Hawaii
Trioxys tucumanus Parasite Adults/Nymphs

References

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Bishop AL, 1984. Damage to two varieties of lucerne by Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji in Australia. General and Applied Entomology, 16:23-26

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Brieze-Stegeman R, 1979. Blue green aphid. Journal of Agriculture, Tasmania, 50(3):82-84

Bwye A; Jones R; Proudlove W, 1995. Cucumber mosaic virus in lupins. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia, 36(4):124-130; 1 ref.

Cameron PJ; Allan DJ; Walker GP; Wightman JA, 1983. Management experiments on aphids (Acyrthosiphon spp.) and beneficial insects in lucerne. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 11(4):343-349

Cameron PJ; Walker GP, 1989. Release and establishment of Aphidius spp. (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), parasitoids of pea aphid and blue green aphid in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 32(2):281-290

Carvalho AR; Mendes S; Bueno VHP, 1997. Influencia de cortes na cultura da alfafa (Medicago sativa) sobre a flutuacao populacional de ninfas e adultos de pulgoes (Homoptera: Aphididae). Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 26(2):265-275.

CIE, 1989. Distribution Maps of Pests, No. 505. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Durr HJR, 1981. The first occurrence of Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji; (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new threat to lucerne pastures, in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 13(2):113-115

Eastop VF, 1971. Keys for the identification of Acyrthosiphon. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Entomology), 26:1-115.

Eastop VF; Hille Ris Lambers D, 1976. Survey of the World's Aphids. The Hague, Netherlands: DR. W. Junk bv Publishers.

Edwardson JR; Christie RG, 1997. Viruses infecting peppers and other solanaceous crops. Volume 1. Viruses infecting peppers and other solanaceous crops. Volume 1., 336 pp.; [^italic~University of Florida Monograph 18-I.^roman~]; many ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

González D; Miyazaki M; White W; Takada H; Dickson; Hall JC, 1979. Geographic distribution of Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji and some of its parasites and hyperparasites in Japan. Kontyu, 47(1):1-7.

Gonzalez D; White W; Hall J; Dickson RC, 1978. Geographical distribution of Aphidiidae (Hym.) imported to California for biological control of Acyrthosiphon kondoi and Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hom.: Aphididae). Entomophaga, 23(3):239-248

Gutierrez AP; Baumgprtner JU; Summers CG, 1984. III. A case study in an alfalfa ecosystem. Canadian Entomologist, 116(7):950-963

Halbert SE; Remaudière G; Webb SE, 2000. Newly established and rarely collected aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Florida and the southeastern United States. Florida Entomologist, 83(1):79-91.

Henderson NC, 1980. Studies on the predators, a parasite, and an entomophthorous fungus affecting Acyrthosiphon kondoi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the Manawatu, New Zealand. In: Crosby TK, Pottinger RP, ed. Proceedings of the 2nd Australasian conference on grassland invertebrate ecology. Palmerston North, New Zealand 22-26 May 1978. Government Printer. Wellington New Zealand, 278-282

Hughes RD, 1989. Biological control in the open field. In: Minks AK, Harrewijn P, eds. World Crop Pests. Aphids. Their biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol C, 167-198. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

Ingawale UV; Mote UN; Tambe AB, 2005. Field efficacy of natural and conventional insecticides against lucerne aphids and their impact on predators. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 30(1):46-49.

Jones RAC, 1993. Effects of cereal borders, admixture with cereals and plant density on the spread of bean yellow mosaic potyvirus into narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius). Annals of Applied Biology, 122(3):501-518

Jones RAC; Coutts BA; Cheng Y, 2003. Yield-limiting potential of necrotic and non-necrotic strains of bean yellow mosaic virus in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 54(9):849-859.

Kawada K, 1992. Production of sexuals in the aphid Acyrthosiphon kondoi in Japan (Homoptera: Aphidinea: Aphididae). Entomologia Generalis, 17(2):115-119

Kodet RT; Nielson MW, 1980. Effect of temperature and photoperiod on polymorphisms of the blue alfalfa aphid, Acyrthosiphon kondoi. Environmental Entomology, 9(1):94-96

Lamp WO; Liewehr D; Fuentes C; Dively GP, 1994. First report of the blue alfalfa aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Maryland: natural enemies and biotype. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 67(1):129-132

Lehane L, 1982. Biological control of lucerne aphids. Rural Research, 114:4-10

Mallqui KV; Cobián CV, 2011. Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) at the Callejón de Huaylas - Ancash, Perú. (Los áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae) en el Callejón de Huaylas - Ancash, Perú.) Ecología Aplicada, 10(2):93-98. http://www.lamolina.edu.pe/ecolapl/Articulo_11_No2_Vol_10.pdf

Milner RJ, 1981. Patterns of primary spore discharge of Entomophthora spp from the blue green aphid, Acyrthosiphon kondoi. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 38(3):419-425

Monajemi N; Esmaili M, 1981. Population dynamics of lucerne aphids and their natural controlling factors, in Karadj. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 6(1/2):Pe 41-63; en 53-55

Nielson MW; Lehman WF; Kodet RT, 1976. Resistance in alfalfa to Acyrthosiphon kondoi. Journal of Economic Entomology, 69(4):471-472

Oliveira PRD de; Vendramim JD; Corsi M, 1986. Blue-green aphid Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji, 1938 (Homoptera: Aphididae): a new pest of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Brazil. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 15(2):397-398

Pashchenko NF, 2005. Aphids of the genus Acyrthosiphon (Homoptera, Aphilidae, Macrosiphini) from the Russian Far East. Report 1. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 84(5):580-591.

Peck DM; Habili N; Nair RM; Randles JW; Koning CTde; Auricht GC, 2012. Bean leafroll virus is widespread in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) seed crops and can be persistently transmitted by bluegreen aphid (Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji). Crop & Pasture Science [The Australian Legume Symposium, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 8-9 February 2012.], 63(8/9):902-908. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/40.htm

Penman DR; Rohitha BH; White JGH; Smallfield BM, 1979. Control of bluegreen lucerne aphid by grazing management. In: Hartley MJ, ed. Proceedings of the thirty-second New Zealand weed and pest control conference. Southern Cross Hotel, Dunedin August 7th to 9th, 1979. Palmerston North, New Zealand: New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Inc., 186-191

Perez Domnguez JF, 1982. The presence of the blue aphid Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji (Homoptera: Aphididae) in lucerne fields in the Valle de Juarez, Chihuahua. Folia Entomologica Mexicana, No. 55:3-11

Reilly TLC; Godyn DL, 1979. Lucerne - does aphid spraying pay? Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 90(3):36-38.

Rohitha BH; Penman DR, 1986. Flight of the bluegreen aphid, Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji (Homoptera: Aphididae). III. Comparison of trapping methods for A. kondoi and natural enemies. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 13(2):215-220

Rossiter PD; Rynne KP, 1983. Systemic granular insecticides for protection of lucerne seedlings from the aphids Therioaphis trifolii (Monell) f. maculata and Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 40(1):29-34

Shinji GO; Kondo T, 1938. Aphididae of Manchouko, with the description of two new species. Kontyu, 12:55-69.

Sorensen EL; Stuteville DL; Horber EK; Skinner DZ, 1994. Registration of KS224 glandular-haired alfalfa germplasm with multiple pest resistance. Crop Science, 34(2):544; 4 ref.

Stoetzel MB, 1990. Some aphids of importance to the Southeastern United States (Homoptera: Aphididae). Florida Entomologist, 73(4):580-586

Summers CG, 1988. Cultivar and temperature influence on development, survival and fecundity in four successive generations of Acyrthosiphon kondoi (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(2):515-521

Takahashi K, 1997. Use of Coccinella septempunctata brucki Mulsant as a biological agent for controlling alfalfa aphids. JARQ, Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 31(2):101-108; 15 ref.

Takahashi K; Naito A, 1984. Seasonal occurrence of aphids and their predators (Col. Coccinellidae) in alfalfa fields. Bulletin of the National Grassland Research Institute, Japan, 29:62-66

Thackray DJ; Jones RAC; Bwye AM; Coutts BA, 2000. Further studies on the effects of insecticides on aphid vector numbers and spread of cucumber mosaic virus in narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius). Crop Protection, 19(2):121-139.

Wyman JA, 1979. Acyrthosiphon kondoi - a new vector of cucurbit viruses in southern California. Environmental Entomology, 8(3):549-551

Wynn-Williams RB; Rea MB; Purves RG; Hawthorne BT, 1991. Influence of winter treading on lucerne growth and survival. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 34(3):271-275

Zarrabi AA; Berberet RC; Caddel JL, 1995. New biotype of Acyrthosiphon kondoi (Homoptera: Aphididae) on alfalfa in Oklahoma. Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(5):1461-1465; 18 ref.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Carvalho A R, Mendes S, Bueno V H P, 1997. Influence of cutting lucerne (Medicago sativa) on the population fluctuations of nymphs and adults of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). (Influência de cortes na cultura da alfafa (Medicago sativa) sobre a flutuação populacional de ninfas e adultos de pulgões (Homoptera: Aphididae).). Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil. 26 (2), 265-275. DOI:10.1590/S0301-80591997000200007

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

González D, Miyazaki M, White W, Takada H, Dickson, Hall JC, 1979. Geographic distribution of Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji and some of its parasites and hyperparasites in Japan. In: Kontyu, 47 (1) 1-7.

Halbert S E, Remaudière G, Webb S E, 2000. Newly established and rarely collected aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Florida and the southeastern United States. Florida Entomologist. 83 (1), 79-91. DOI:10.2307/3496232

Ingawale U V, Mote U N, Tambe A B, 2005. Field efficacy of natural and conventional insecticides against lucerne aphids and their impact on predators. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 30 (1), 46-49.

Lamp W O, Liewehr D, Fuentes C, Dively G P, 1994. First report of the blue alfalfa aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Maryland: natural enemies and biotype. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 67 (1), 129-132.

Mallqui K V, Cobián C V, 2011. Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) at the Callejón de Huaylas - Ancash, Perú. (Los áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae) en el Callejón de Huaylas - Ancash, Perú.). Ecología Aplicada. 10 (2), 93-98. http://www.lamolina.edu.pe/ecolapl/Articulo_11_No2_Vol_10.pdf

NHM, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Pashchenko N F, 2005. Aphids of the genus Acyrthosiphon (Homoptera, Aphilidae, Macrosiphini) from the Russian Far East. Report 1. Zoologicheskiĭ Zhurnal. 84 (5), 580-591.

Pérez Domıacute˜nguez J F, 1982. The presence of the blue aphid Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji (Homoptera: Aphididae) in lucerne fields in the Valle de Juárez, Chihuahua. (La presencia del pulgón azul Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji (Homoptera: Aphididae) en alfalfares del Valle de Juárez, Chih.). Folia Entomológica Mexicana. 3-11.

Stoetzel M B, 1990. Some aphids of importance to the Southeastern United States (Homoptera: Aphididae). In: Florida Entomologist, 73 (4) 580-586. DOI:10.2307/3495272

UK, CAB International, 1989. Acyrthosiphon kondoi. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 505.

Distribution Maps

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