Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Longidorus
(longidorids)

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Datasheet

Longidorus (longidorids)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Longidorus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • longidorids
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Longidoridae
  •         Genus: Longidorus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Anterior end of Longidorus sp. odontostyle, odontophore, and esophageal glands as seen with differential contrast interference microscopy.
TitleAnterior end
CaptionAnterior end of Longidorus sp. odontostyle, odontophore, and esophageal glands as seen with differential contrast interference microscopy.
Copyright©U. Zunke/Nemapix Vol. 1
Anterior end of Longidorus sp. odontostyle, odontophore, and esophageal glands as seen with differential contrast interference microscopy.
Anterior endAnterior end of Longidorus sp. odontostyle, odontophore, and esophageal glands as seen with differential contrast interference microscopy.©U. Zunke/Nemapix Vol. 1
Anterior end of a Longidorus sp.
TitleAnterior end
CaptionAnterior end of a Longidorus sp.
Copyright©U. Zunke/Nemapix Vol. 1
Anterior end of a Longidorus sp.
Anterior endAnterior end of a Longidorus sp.©U. Zunke/Nemapix Vol. 1
Anterior end of Longidorus arthensis showing the amphidial pouches, anterior end of the odontostyle and the guide ring.
TitleAnterior end
CaptionAnterior end of Longidorus arthensis showing the amphidial pouches, anterior end of the odontostyle and the guide ring.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
Anterior end of Longidorus arthensis showing the amphidial pouches, anterior end of the odontostyle and the guide ring.
Anterior endAnterior end of Longidorus arthensis showing the amphidial pouches, anterior end of the odontostyle and the guide ring.Derek J.F. Brown
L. macrosoma occurring naturally in soil.
TitleLongidorus macrosoma in soil
CaptionL. macrosoma occurring naturally in soil.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
L. macrosoma occurring naturally in soil.
Longidorus macrosoma in soilL. macrosoma occurring naturally in soil.Derek J.F. Brown
Root-tip galls on P. hybrida caused by the feeding of L. macrosoma.
TitleSymptoms on Petunia hybrida
CaptionRoot-tip galls on P. hybrida caused by the feeding of L. macrosoma.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
Root-tip galls on P. hybrida caused by the feeding of L. macrosoma.
Symptoms on Petunia hybridaRoot-tip galls on P. hybrida caused by the feeding of L. macrosoma.Derek J.F. Brown
Cherry trees in Switzerland affected by cherry rosette nepovirus, which is transmitted by Longidorus arthensis. Note that a row of severely affected trees has died and been replaced by new, young trees.
TitleVirus symptoms
CaptionCherry trees in Switzerland affected by cherry rosette nepovirus, which is transmitted by Longidorus arthensis. Note that a row of severely affected trees has died and been replaced by new, young trees.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
Cherry trees in Switzerland affected by cherry rosette nepovirus, which is transmitted by Longidorus arthensis. Note that a row of severely affected trees has died and been replaced by new, young trees.
Virus symptomsCherry trees in Switzerland affected by cherry rosette nepovirus, which is transmitted by Longidorus arthensis. Note that a row of severely affected trees has died and been replaced by new, young trees. Derek J.F. Brown

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Longidorus Micoletzky, 1922 (Filipjev, 1934)

Preferred Common Name

  • longidorids

Other Scientific Names

  • Brevinema Stegarescu, 1980
  • Neolongidorus Khan, 1987

International Common Names

  • English: needle nematodes
  • Spanish: nematodos de aguja (Mexico)

EPPO code

  • LONGSP (Longidorus sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Longidoridae
  •                 Genus: Longidorus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, LocalizedLamberti et al. (1975); Ouanouki and Mitiche (1991)
BotswanaPresent, WidespreadHeyns and Coomans (1991)
CameroonPresent, WidespreadChavez and Geraert (1977); Sakwe and Coomans (1993)
Congo, Republic of thePresent, WidespreadHooper (1985)
EgyptPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
EswatiniPresentHeyns and Luc (1987)
KenyaPresent, WidespreadHooper (1985)
LibyaPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987); Brown et al. (1990)
MalawiPresent, WidespreadBrown et al. (1982)
MauritiusPresent, WidespreadHooper (1985)
MozambiquePresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Oever & Mangene, 1992
NigeriaPresent, WidespreadHooper (1985)
São Tomé and PríncipePresent, WidespreadLamberti et al. (1987); Arias et al. (1995)
SenegalPresent, LocalizedMerny and Mauboussin (1974)
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadMarais and Buckley (1993); CABI (Undated)
SudanPresent, WidespreadHooper (1985)
TunisiaPresent, LocalizedSadok and Gerini (1988)
ZimbabwePresent, WidespreadVadivelu and Muthukrishnan (1987)

Asia

BangladeshPresent, WidespreadPage et al. (1979); Maqbool (1992)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresent, WidespreadWang ShouHua et al. (1996)
-GansuPresent, WidespreadWang ShouHua et al. (1996)
-HebeiPresent, WidespreadWang ShouHua et al. (1996)
-HenanPresent, WidespreadWang ShouHua et al. (1996)
-JiangsuPresent, WidespreadXu and Hooper (1990); Wang ShouHua et al. (1996)
-SichuanPresent, WidespreadLan (1993)
-YunnanPresent, WidespreadWang ShouHua et al. (1996)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadMaqbool (1992)
-Andhra PradeshPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated);
-DelhiPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Khan et al. (1972)
-HaryanaPresent, WidespreadKaushik and Bajaj (1980); Bajaj and Bhatti (1982)
-Himachal PradeshPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Khan, 1986
-Jammu and KashmirPresent, LocalizedWaliullah (1992)
-KeralaPresent, WidespreadKoshy et al. (1977)
-MaharashtraPresent, WidespreadDarekar and Khan (1982); Javed (1983)
-OdishaPresent, WidespreadRaman and Das (1980)
-PunjabPresent, WidespreadBajaj and Bhatti (1982)
-Tamil NaduPresent, WidespreadVadivelu and Muthukrishnan (1979)
-Uttar PradeshPresent, WidespreadSingh and Misra (1975); Akhtar and Wani (1992)
-West BengalPresent, WidespreadMukherjee and Dasgupta (1979)
IranPresentSturhan and Barooti (1983)
IraqPresentLoof (1982)
IsraelPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
JapanPresent, WidespreadOhshima et al. (1971); Maqbool (1992)
-HonshuPresentHirata (1995)
JordanPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
KazakhstanPresent, WidespreadBrown et al. (1990)
LebanonPresent, WidespreadTaylor et al. (1972)
MalaysiaPresentMaqbool (1992); CABI (Undated)
NepalPresent, WidespreadAmatya and Shrestha (1969)
PakistanPresent, WidespreadMaqbool and Nasira (1995); CABI (Undated)
PhilippinesPresent, LocalizedGargantiel and Davide (1973); Maqbool (1992)
Saudi ArabiaPresent, LocalizedLoof (1982)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadTu et al. (1972)
TajikistanPresent, WidespreadBrown et al. (1990)
ThailandPresentChunram (1973); Sukapanpotharam et al. (1980)
TurkeyPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
UzbekistanPresent, WidespreadBrown et al. (1990)
VietnamPresentMaqbool (1992)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentJovani (1994)
AustriaPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
BelarusPresent, WidespreadBrown et al. (1990)
BelgiumPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
CroatiaPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
CyprusPresentBrown and Taylor (1987)
CzechiaPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
CzechoslovakiaPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
EstoniaPresent, WidespreadBrown et al. (1990)
FinlandPresent, LocalizedAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
FrancePresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
-CorsicaPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
GreecePresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
IrelandPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
MaltaPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
MoldovaPresent, WidespreadBrown et al. (1990)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
North MacedoniaPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
NorwayPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
PolandPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
PortugalPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
RomaniaPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresent, WidespreadBrown et al. (1990)
-Russia (Europe)Present, WidespreadBrown et al. (1990)
-Russian Far EastPresent, LocalizedBrown et al. (1990)
-SiberiaPresent, LocalizedBrown et al. (1990)
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987)
SloveniaPresentŠirca et al. (2007)Longidorus juvenilis and L. leptocephalus
SpainPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
SwedenPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
UkrainePresent, WidespreadBrown et al. (1990)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)
-Channel IslandsPresent, WidespreadAlphey and Taylor (1986); Brown and Taylor (1987)

North America

BarbadosPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Kasasain et al. (1978)
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-OntarioPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-Prince Edward IslandPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)
-QuebecPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
Costa RicaPresent, WidespreadGonzalez (1978); Hooper (1985)
CubaPresent, WidespreadShafiee et al. (1975)
DominicaPresent, WidespreadHooper (1985)
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadHooper (1985)
JamaicaPresent, WidespreadHutton et al. (1978); Hooper (1985)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadHooper (1985)
MexicoPresent, WidespreadEspinosa and Adam (1972); Arredondo (1992)
MontserratPresent, WidespreadHooper (1985)
PanamaPresent, WidespreadHooper (1985)
Puerto RicoPresent, WidespreadOramas and Roman (1982)
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadHooper (1985); Brown and Taylor (1987)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, WidespreadHooper (1985)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)
-AlaskaPresent, LocalizedRobbins and Brown (1991)
-ArizonaPresent, LocalizedRobbins and Brown (1991)
-ArkansasPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-ColoradoPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-ConnecticutPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-DelawarePresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-IdahoPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-IllinoisPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-IndianaPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-IowaPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-MarylandPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated b)
-MichiganPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-MinnesotaPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-NebraskaPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-New JerseyPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-New MexicoPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-New YorkPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-North CarolinaPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-OklahomaPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-OregonPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-PennsylvaniaPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-Rhode IslandPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-South CarolinaPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-South DakotaPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-TennesseePresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-TexasPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-UtahPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)
-WisconsinPresent, WidespreadRobbins and Brown (1991)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-VictoriaPresent, WidespreadHarris (1983)
New ZealandPresent, WidespreadYeates (1975); Maqbool (1992); Yeates et al. (1992)

South America

BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-PernambucoPresent, LocalizedMoura and Almeida (1982)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentLehman et al. (1976)
-Santa CatarinaPresentLehman et al. (1976)
ColombiaPresent, WidespreadHooper (1985)
UruguayPresent, LocalizedAlvarez Argudin (1970)

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Roots / galls at tip
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / swollen roots
Whole plant / dwarfing

References

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Aboul-Eid HZ, 1970. Systematic notes on Longidorus and Paralongidorus. Nematologica, 15:159-179.

Akhtar M; Wani AH, 1992. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sugarcane in U.P., India. Current Nematology, 3(2):205.

Alphey TJW; Taylor CE, 1986. European Atlas of the Longidoridae and Trichodoridae. Dundee, Scotland: Scottish Crop Research Institute.

Alvarez Argudin J, 1970. New information of nematodes of vine in Uruguay. Boletin Informativo, Ministerio de Ganaderia y Agricultura, Uruguay, No. 1342:5-6

Amatya P; Shrestha M, 1969. Preliminary survey of plant parasitic nematodes in Nepal. Nepales Journal of Agriculture, 4:17-27.

Andres M; Bello A, 1985. Influencia del suelo y metodes de cultivo sobre Longidorus profundorum nematodo fitoparasito de interes en las areas cerealistas de la Region Central. Anales de Edafologia y Agrobiologia, 43:727-734.

Andrés MF; Arias M; Bleve-Zacheo T, 1988. Cereal and leguminous host response to Longidorus belloi feeding. Nematologia Mediterranea, 16(2):201-204; 13 ref.

Antoniou M, 1989. Arrested development in plant parasitic nematodes. Helminthological Abstracts. Series B, Plant Nematology, 58(1):1-19; 6 pp. of ref.

Anwar SA; Gorsi SD; Shakoor A, 1993. Effect of Longidorus elongatus, Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus brachyurus on peanut growth. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 11(2):115-124; 20 ref.

Arias M; Lamberti F; Bello A; Radicci V; Espirito Santo SN, 1995. Agroecological study of the family Longidoridae in Sao TomT and Prfncipe. Nematologia Mediterranea, 23(1):167-175; 20 ref.

Arredondo JAR, 1992. Effect of some plant, soil and management factors on nematode populations in grape vineyards and pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita on cv. Carignane. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologia, 10(1):49-53; 15 ref.

Bajaj HK; Bhatti DS, 1982. Nematodes associated with cotton in Haryana and Punjab with description of two new leptonchid nematodes. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12(1):6-13

Barbez D, 1982. The occurrence of virusvector nematodes in hops in Poperinge (Belgium) with notes on vertical and horizontal distribution, population structure and population density. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 47(2):741-755

Bilgrami AL, 1992. Resistance and susceptibility of prey nematodes to predation and strike rate of the predators, Mononchus aquaticus, Dorylaimus stagnalis and Aquatides thornei. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 15(3):265-270; [^italic~Journal formerly called Revue de Ne^acute~matologie^roman~]; 23 ref.

Bilgrami AL; Jairajpuri M, 1988. Attraction of Mononchoides longicaudatus and M. fortidens (Nematoda: Diplogasterida) towards prey and factors influencing attraction. Revue de Nematologie, 11:195-202.

Bilgrami AL; Jairajpuri MS, 1989. Resistance of prey to predation and strike rate of the predators, Mononchoides longicaudatus and M. fortidens (Nematoda: Diplogasterida). Revue de Nématologie, 12(1):45-49; 12 ref.

Bleve-Zacheo T; Zacheo G; Melillo MT; Lamberti F; Arrigoni O, 1982. Ultrastructural response of celery root cells to Longidorus apulus. Nematologia Mediterranea, 10(2):141-155

Boag B, 1983. Effect of rotary cultivation on plant parasitic nematodes. Crop Research, 23(1):33-37

Boag B, 1985. The localised spread of virus-vector nematodes adhering to farm machinery. Nematologica, 31:234-235.

Boag B; Brown DJF, 1975a. Longidorus caespiticola. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 5, No. 63. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Boag B; Robertson WM; Ainsworth LF, 1988. Observations on the specificity of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys dasguptae (Shome & Shome) to plant-parasitic nematodes. Nematologica, 34(2):238-245; 20 ref.

Brown DJF; Boag B, 1975. Longidorus macrosoma. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 5, No. 67. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Brown DJF; Boag B, 1977. Longidorus attenuatus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes Set 7, No. 101:4 pp.

Brown DJF; Grunder J; Hooper DJ; Klingler J; Kunz P, 1994. Longidorus arthensis sp.n. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) a vector of cherry rosette disease caused by a new nepovirus in cherry trees in Switzerland. Nematologica, 40(1):133-149

Brown DJF; Hooper DJ; Saka VW, 1982. A description of a male Longidorus pisi (Nematoda: Dorylaimoidea) from Malawi with observations of females and the taxonomic status of the species. Nematologia Mediterranea, 10(1):101-106

Brown DJF; Taylor CE, 1987. Comments on the occurrence and geographical distribution of longidorid nematodes in Europe and the mediterranean region. Nematologia Mediterranea, 15:333-373.

Brown DJF; Taylor CE; Choleva B; Romanenko ND, 1990. The occurrence of Longidoridae (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) in western USSR with further comments on longidorid nematodes in Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Nematologia Mediterranea, 18(2):199-207; 123 ref.

Buser A, 1990. Untersuchungen uber die Pfeffingerkrankheit der Susskirsche und deren vektor Longidorus macrosoma (Nematoda : Longidoridae). Dissertation. Eidgenossischen Technischen Hochschule Nr. 9194, Zurich.

Chavez E; Gerprt E, 1977. Observations on some Mononchoidea and Dorylaimoidea from the Cameroons and Zaire. Revue de Zoologie Africaine, 91(3):766-780

Chen QiWen; Hooper DJ; Loof PAA; Xu JianHua, 1997. A revised polytomous key for the identification of species of the genus Longidorus Micoletzky, 1922 (Nematoda: Dorylaimoidea). Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 20(1):15-28; 106 ref.

Chunram C, 1973. Plant quarantine technical training. Nematology in relation to plant quarantine. Plant Protection Service Technical Bulletin, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand, No. 11:23 pp.

Ciancio A; Logrieco A, 1985. Microorganisms in Longidorus elongatus. Nematologia Mediterranea, 13(2):265-267

Cohn E, 1970. Observations on the feeding and symptomatology of Xiphinema and Longidorus on selected host roots. Journal of Nematology, 2:167-173.

Cohn E; Auscher R, 1971. Seasonasl occurrence of Longidorus vineacola on celery in Israel and its control. Israel Journal of Agricultural Research, 21:23-25.

Cohn E; Ausher R, 1973. Longidorus cohni and Heterodera latipons, economic nematode pests of oats in Israel. Plant Disease Reporter, 57(1):53-54

Cohn E; Krikun J; Yosraeli U, 1968. Further observations on the effect of Longidorus vineacola on onion. Plant Disease Reporter, 52:525-527.

Cohn E; Mordechai M, 1969. Investigations on the life cycles and host preference of some species of Xiphinema and Longidorus under controlled conditions. Nematologica, 15:295-302.

Cohn E; Orion D, 1970. The pathological effect of representative Xiphinema and Longidorus species on selected host plants. Nematologica, 16:423-428.

Coiro MI; Sasanelli N, 1995. Life-cycle studies of individual Longidorus athesinus (Nematoda) on S. Lucie cherry. Nematologia Mediterranea, 23(2):329-333; 5 ref.

Coomans A, 1964. Stoma structure in members of the Dorylaimida. Nematologica, 9:587-601.

Coomans A, 1975. Morphology of the Longidoridae. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, Seinhorst JW, eds., Nematode Vectors of Plant Viruses. London and New York: Plenum Press, 15-37.

Coomans A, 1996. Phylogeny of the Longidoridae. Russian Journal of Nematology, 4:51-59.

Coomans A; de Coninck L, 1963. Observations of spear formation in Xiphinema. Nematologica, 3:85-96.

Coomans AV, 1985. A phylogenetic approach to the classification of the Longidoridae (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 12:335-354.

Cotten J, 1975. Virus vector species of Xiphinema and Longidorus in relation to certification schemes for fruit and hops in England. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, Seinhorst JW, ed. Nematode vectors of plant viruses. Plenum Press. London & New York, USA UK, 283-285

Cotten J, 1976. Observations of life-cycle, population development and vertical distribution of Longidorus macrosoma on raspberry and other crops. Annals of Applied Biology, 83(3):407-412

Dalmasso A, 1970b. Influence directe de quelques facteurs ecologiques sur l'activite biologique et la distribution des especes Francaises de la famille des Longidoridae (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie, Animale, 2:163-200.

Darekar KS; Khan E, 1982. Xiphinema tugewai sp.n. and Longidorus paramirus sp.n. (Longidoroidea: Nematoda) from Maharashtra, India. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12(1):153-157

De Waele D; Coomans A, 1991. Occurrence and ecology of trichodorid nematodes in Belgium. Revue de Nematologie, 14:127-132.

Espinosa RG; Adam AV, 1972. Major diseases of pineapple in Oaxaca, Mexico, and their control. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 20(4):79-87

Eveleigh ES; Allen WR, 1982. Description of Longidorus diadecturus n.sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae), a vector of the peach rosette mosaic virus in peach orchards in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 60(2):112-115

Filipjev IN, 1934. The classification of the free-living nematodes and their relation to parasitic nematodes. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, 89:1-63.

Flegg JJM, 1968. The occurrence and depth distribution of Xiphinema and Longidorus species in southeastern England. Nematologica 14:189-196.

Gargantiel FT; Davide RG, 1973. Survey and pathogenicity tests of plant parasitic nematodes associated with sugarcane in Negros Occidental. Philippine Phytopathology, 9(1/2):59-66

Gonzalez F-L, 1978. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sugar-cane in several areas of Costa Rica. Organization of Tropical American Nematologists: Partial list of abstracts of papers presented at the X Annual Meeting of OTAN in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, 3-10 June, 1978. Nematropica, 8:10.

Halbrendt JM; Brown DJF; Robbins RT; Vrain TC, 1996. Longidorus and Xiphinema species with three juvenile developmental stages. Nematropica 26, (in Press).

Harris AR, 1983. Distribution of parasitic nematodes in vineyards in central and north-eastern Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 23(121):221-224

Harrison BD; Hooper DJ, 1962. Longevity of Longidorus elongatus (de Man) and other nematodes in soil kept in polythene bags. Nematologica, 9:158-160.

Heyns J; Coomans A, 1991. Longidoridae from Botswana (Nematoda). Phytophylactica, 23(1):29-36; 27 ref.

Heyns J; Coomans A; Hutsebaut M; Swart A, 1987. Longidorus fursti n.sp. from South Africa with a discussion of its relationships (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Revue de Nematologie, 10(4):381-385.

Heyns J; Luc M, 1987. A first report of Longidoridae from Swaziland. Phytophylactica, 19(1):41-44.

Hirata K, 1995. Descriptions of two new species of Longidorus (Dorylaimida: Longidoridae) from Nagano, Japan. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 25(1):33-43.

Hooper DJ, 1973. Longidorus elongatus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 2 (No. 30):4 pp. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Hooper DJ, 1985. Longidorus laevicapitatus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 8, No. 117.

Horner CE; Jensen HJ, 1954. Nematodes associated with mints in Oregon. Plant Disease Reporter, 38:39-41.

Hunt DJ, 1993. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics., xx + 352 pp.; 46 pp. of ref.

Hutton DG; Plummer EE; Falconer PR, 1978. The nematodes associated with plantains in Jamaica. Nematropica, 8:14

Javed R, 1983. Two new species of the superfamily Longidoroidea (Dorylaimida: Nematoda) from Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Nematology, 13(1):26-31

Jones AT; Mitchell MJ; Brown DJF, 1989. Infectibility of some new raspberry cultivars with arabis mosaic and raspberry ringspot viruses and further evidence for variation in British isolates of these two nepoviruses. Annals of Applied Biology, 115(1):57-69

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