Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Longidorus
(longidorids)

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Datasheet

Longidorus (longidorids)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Longidorus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • longidorids
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Longidoridae
  •         Genus: Longidorus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Anterior end of Longidorus sp. odontostyle, odontophore, and esophageal glands as seen with differential contrast interference microscopy.
TitleAnterior end
CaptionAnterior end of Longidorus sp. odontostyle, odontophore, and esophageal glands as seen with differential contrast interference microscopy.
Copyright©U. Zunke/Nemapix Vol. 1
Anterior end of Longidorus sp. odontostyle, odontophore, and esophageal glands as seen with differential contrast interference microscopy.
Anterior endAnterior end of Longidorus sp. odontostyle, odontophore, and esophageal glands as seen with differential contrast interference microscopy.©U. Zunke/Nemapix Vol. 1
Anterior end of a Longidorus sp.
TitleAnterior end
CaptionAnterior end of a Longidorus sp.
Copyright©U. Zunke/Nemapix Vol. 1
Anterior end of a Longidorus sp.
Anterior endAnterior end of a Longidorus sp.©U. Zunke/Nemapix Vol. 1
Anterior end of Longidorus arthensis showing the amphidial pouches, anterior end of the odontostyle and the guide ring.
TitleAnterior end
CaptionAnterior end of Longidorus arthensis showing the amphidial pouches, anterior end of the odontostyle and the guide ring.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
Anterior end of Longidorus arthensis showing the amphidial pouches, anterior end of the odontostyle and the guide ring.
Anterior endAnterior end of Longidorus arthensis showing the amphidial pouches, anterior end of the odontostyle and the guide ring.Derek J.F. Brown
L. macrosoma occurring naturally in soil.
TitleLongidorus macrosoma in soil
CaptionL. macrosoma occurring naturally in soil.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
L. macrosoma occurring naturally in soil.
Longidorus macrosoma in soilL. macrosoma occurring naturally in soil.Derek J.F. Brown
Root-tip galls on P. hybrida caused by the feeding of L. macrosoma.
TitleSymptoms on Petunia hybrida
CaptionRoot-tip galls on P. hybrida caused by the feeding of L. macrosoma.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
Root-tip galls on P. hybrida caused by the feeding of L. macrosoma.
Symptoms on Petunia hybridaRoot-tip galls on P. hybrida caused by the feeding of L. macrosoma.Derek J.F. Brown
Cherry trees in Switzerland affected by cherry rosette nepovirus, which is transmitted by Longidorus arthensis. Note that a row of severely affected trees has died and been replaced by new, young trees.
TitleVirus symptoms
CaptionCherry trees in Switzerland affected by cherry rosette nepovirus, which is transmitted by Longidorus arthensis. Note that a row of severely affected trees has died and been replaced by new, young trees.
CopyrightDerek J.F. Brown
Cherry trees in Switzerland affected by cherry rosette nepovirus, which is transmitted by Longidorus arthensis. Note that a row of severely affected trees has died and been replaced by new, young trees.
Virus symptomsCherry trees in Switzerland affected by cherry rosette nepovirus, which is transmitted by Longidorus arthensis. Note that a row of severely affected trees has died and been replaced by new, young trees. Derek J.F. Brown

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Longidorus Micoletzky, 1922 (Filipjev, 1934)

Preferred Common Name

  • longidorids

Other Scientific Names

  • Brevinema Stegarescu, 1980
  • Neolongidorus Khan, 1987

International Common Names

  • English: needle nematodes
  • Spanish: nematodos de aguja (Mexico)

EPPO code

  • LONGSP (Longidorus sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Longidoridae
  •                 Genus: Longidorus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshWidespreadPage et al., 1979; Maqbool, 1992
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianWidespreadWang et al., 1996
-GansuWidespreadWang et al., 1996
-HebeiWidespreadWang et al., 1996
-HenanWidespreadWang et al., 1996
-JiangsuWidespreadXu and Hooper, 1990; Wang et al., 1996
-SichuanWidespreadLan, 1993
-YunnanWidespreadWang et al., 1996
IndiaWidespreadMaqbool, 1992
-Andhra PradeshWidespreadPrakash and Das, 1985a; Prakash and Das, 1985b
-DelhiWidespreadKhan et al., 1972
-HaryanaWidespreadKaushik and Bajaj, 1980; Bajaj and Bhatti, 1982
-Himachal PradeshRestricted distributionKhan, 1986
-Indian PunjabWidespreadBajaj and Bhatti, 1982
-Jammu and KashmirRestricted distributionWaliullah, 1992
-KeralaWidespreadKoshy et al., 1977
-MaharashtraWidespreadDarekar and Khan, 1982; Javed, 1983
-OdishaWidespreadRaman and Das, 1980
-Tamil NaduWidespreadVadivelu and Muthukrishnan, 1979
-Uttar PradeshWidespreadSingh and Misra, 1975; Akhtar and Wani, 1992
-West BengalWidespreadMukherjee and Dasgupta, 1979
IranPresentSturhan and Barooti, 1983
IraqPresentLoof, 1982
IsraelWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
JapanWidespreadOhshima et al., 1971; Maqbool, 1992
-HonshuPresentHirata, 1995
JordanWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
KazakhstanWidespreadBrown et al., 1990
LebanonWidespreadTaylor et al., 1972
MalaysiaPresentRazak et al., 1982; Maqbool, 1992
NepalWidespreadAmatya and Shrestha, 1969
PakistanWidespreadAnwar et al., 1990; Maqbool and Nasira, 1995
PhilippinesRestricted distributionGargantiel and Davide, 1973; Maqbool, 1992
Saudi ArabiaRestricted distributionLoof, 1982
TaiwanWidespreadTu et al., 1972
TajikistanWidespreadBrown et al., 1990
ThailandPresentChunram, 1973; Sukapanpotharam et al., 1980
TurkeyWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
UzbekistanWidespreadBrown et al., 1990
VietnamPresentMaqbool, 1992

Africa

AlgeriaRestricted distributionLamberti et al., 1975; Ouanouki and Mitiche, 1991
BotswanaWidespreadHeyns and Coomans, 1991
CameroonWidespreadChavez and Geraert, 1977; Sakwe and Coomans, 1993
CongoWidespreadHooper, 1985
EgyptWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
KenyaWidespreadHooper, 1985
LibyaWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987; Brown et al., 1990
MalawiWidespreadBrown et al., 1982
MauritiusWidespreadHooper, 1985
MozambiquePresentOever & Mangene, 1992
NigeriaWidespreadHooper, 1985
Sao Tome and PrincipeWidespreadLamberti et al., 1987; Arias et al., 1995
SenegalRestricted distributionMerny and Mauboussin, 1974
South AfricaWidespreadHeyns et al., 1987; Marais and Buckley, 1993
SudanWidespreadHooper, 1985
SwazilandPresentHeyns and Luc, 1987
TunisiaRestricted distributionSadok and Gerini, 1988
ZimbabweWidespreadVadivelu and Muthukrishnan, 1987

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-OntarioWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-Prince Edward IslandWidespread
-QuebecWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
MexicoWidespreadEspinosa and Adam, 1972; Arredondo, 1992
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaWidespread
-AlaskaRestricted distributionRobbins and Brown, 1991
-ArizonaRestricted distributionRobbins and Brown, 1991
-ArkansasWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-CaliforniaWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-ColoradoWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-ConnecticutWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-DelawareWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-FloridaWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-GeorgiaWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-IdahoWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-IllinoisWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-IndianaWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-IowaWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-MarylandWidespread
-MichiganWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-MinnesotaWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-NebraskaWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-New JerseyWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-New MexicoWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-New YorkWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-North CarolinaWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-OklahomaWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-OregonWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-PennsylvaniaWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-Rhode IslandWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-South CarolinaWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-South DakotaWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-TennesseeWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-TexasWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-UtahWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991
-WisconsinWidespreadRobbins and Brown, 1991

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosWidespreadKasasain et al., 1978
Costa RicaWidespreadGonzalez, 1978; Hooper, 1985
CubaWidespreadShafiee et al., 1975
DominicaWidespreadHooper, 1985
GuadeloupeWidespreadHooper, 1985
JamaicaWidespreadHutton et al., 1978; Hooper, 1985
MartiniqueWidespreadHooper, 1985
MontserratWidespreadHooper, 1985
PanamaWidespreadHooper, 1985
Puerto RicoWidespreadOramas and Roman, 1982
Saint LuciaWidespreadHooper, 1985; Brown and Taylor, 1987
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadHooper, 1985

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-PernambucoRestricted distributionMoura and Almeida, 1982
-Rio Grande do SulPresentLehman et al., 1976
-Santa CatarinaPresentLehman et al., 1976
ColombiaWidespreadHooper, 1985
UruguayRestricted distributionAlvarez-Argudin Argudin, 1970

Europe

AlbaniaPresentJovani, 1994
AustriaWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
BelarusWidespreadBrown et al., 1990
BelgiumWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
Bosnia-HercegovinaWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
BulgariaWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
CroatiaWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
CyprusPresentBrown and Taylor, 1987
Czech RepublicWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
Czechoslovakia (former)WidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
DenmarkWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
EstoniaWidespreadBrown et al., 1990
FinlandRestricted distributionAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
FranceWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
-CorsicaWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986
GermanyWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
GreeceWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
HungaryWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
IrelandWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
ItalyWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
MacedoniaWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
MaltaWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
MoldovaWidespreadBrown et al., 1990
NetherlandsWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
NorwayWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
PolandWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
PortugalWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
RomaniaWidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaWidespreadBrown et al., 1990
-Russia (Europe)WidespreadBrown et al., 1990
-Russian Far EastRestricted distributionBrown et al., 1990
-SiberiaRestricted distributionBrown et al., 1990
SloveniaPresentSirca et al., 2007Longidorus juvenilis and L. leptocephalus
SpainWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
SwedenWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
SwitzerlandWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
UKWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
-Channel IslandsWidespreadAlphey and Taylor, 1986; Brown and Taylor, 1987
UkraineWidespreadBrown et al., 1990
Yugoslavia (former)WidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)WidespreadBrown and Taylor, 1987

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-VictoriaWidespreadHarris, 1983
New ZealandWidespreadYeates, 1975; Maqbool, 1992; Yeates et al., 1992

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Roots / galls at tip
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / swollen roots
Whole plant / dwarfing

References

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Aboul-Eid HZ, 1970. Systematic notes on Longidorus and Paralongidorus. Nematologica, 15:159-179.

Akhtar M; Wani AH, 1992. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sugarcane in U.P., India. Current Nematology, 3(2):205.

Alphey TJW; Taylor CE, 1986. European Atlas of the Longidoridae and Trichodoridae. Dundee, Scotland: Scottish Crop Research Institute.

Alvarez Argudin J, 1970. New information of nematodes of vine in Uruguay. Boletin Informativo, Ministerio de Ganaderia y Agricultura, Uruguay, No. 1342:5-6

Amatya P; Shrestha M, 1969. Preliminary survey of plant parasitic nematodes in Nepal. Nepales Journal of Agriculture, 4:17-27.

Andres M; Bello A, 1985. Influencia del suelo y metodes de cultivo sobre Longidorus profundorum nematodo fitoparasito de interes en las areas cerealistas de la Region Central. Anales de Edafologia y Agrobiologia, 43:727-734.

Andrés MF; Arias M; Bleve-Zacheo T, 1988. Cereal and leguminous host response to Longidorus belloi feeding. Nematologia Mediterranea, 16(2):201-204; 13 ref.

Antoniou M, 1989. Arrested development in plant parasitic nematodes. Helminthological Abstracts. Series B, Plant Nematology, 58(1):1-19; 6 pp. of ref.

Anwar SA; Gorsi SD; Shakoor A, 1993. Effect of Longidorus elongatus, Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus brachyurus on peanut growth. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 11(2):115-124; 20 ref.

Arias M; Lamberti F; Bello A; Radicci V; Espirito Santo SN, 1995. Agroecological study of the family Longidoridae in Sao TomT and Prfncipe. Nematologia Mediterranea, 23(1):167-175; 20 ref.

Arredondo JAR, 1992. Effect of some plant, soil and management factors on nematode populations in grape vineyards and pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita on cv. Carignane. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologia, 10(1):49-53; 15 ref.

Bajaj HK; Bhatti DS, 1982. Nematodes associated with cotton in Haryana and Punjab with description of two new leptonchid nematodes. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12(1):6-13

Barbez D, 1982. The occurrence of virusvector nematodes in hops in Poperinge (Belgium) with notes on vertical and horizontal distribution, population structure and population density. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 47(2):741-755

Bilgrami AL, 1992. Resistance and susceptibility of prey nematodes to predation and strike rate of the predators, Mononchus aquaticus, Dorylaimus stagnalis and Aquatides thornei. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 15(3):265-270; [^italic~Journal formerly called Revue de Ne^acute~matologie^roman~]; 23 ref.

Bilgrami AL; Jairajpuri M, 1988. Attraction of Mononchoides longicaudatus and M. fortidens (Nematoda: Diplogasterida) towards prey and factors influencing attraction. Revue de Nematologie, 11:195-202.

Bilgrami AL; Jairajpuri MS, 1989. Resistance of prey to predation and strike rate of the predators, Mononchoides longicaudatus and M. fortidens (Nematoda: Diplogasterida). Revue de Nématologie, 12(1):45-49; 12 ref.

Bleve-Zacheo T; Zacheo G; Melillo MT; Lamberti F; Arrigoni O, 1982. Ultrastructural response of celery root cells to Longidorus apulus. Nematologia Mediterranea, 10(2):141-155

Boag B, 1983. Effect of rotary cultivation on plant parasitic nematodes. Crop Research, 23(1):33-37

Boag B, 1985. The localised spread of virus-vector nematodes adhering to farm machinery. Nematologica, 31:234-235.

Boag B; Brown DJF, 1975a. Longidorus caespiticola. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 5, No. 63. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Boag B; Robertson WM; Ainsworth LF, 1988. Observations on the specificity of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys dasguptae (Shome & Shome) to plant-parasitic nematodes. Nematologica, 34(2):238-245; 20 ref.

Brown DJF; Boag B, 1975. Longidorus macrosoma. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 5, No. 67. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Brown DJF; Boag B, 1977. Longidorus attenuatus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes Set 7, No. 101:4 pp.

Brown DJF; Grunder J; Hooper DJ; Klingler J; Kunz P, 1994. Longidorus arthensis sp.n. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) a vector of cherry rosette disease caused by a new nepovirus in cherry trees in Switzerland. Nematologica, 40(1):133-149

Brown DJF; Hooper DJ; Saka VW, 1982. A description of a male Longidorus pisi (Nematoda: Dorylaimoidea) from Malawi with observations of females and the taxonomic status of the species. Nematologia Mediterranea, 10(1):101-106

Brown DJF; Taylor CE, 1987. Comments on the occurrence and geographical distribution of longidorid nematodes in Europe and the mediterranean region. Nematologia Mediterranea, 15:333-373.

Brown DJF; Taylor CE; Choleva B; Romanenko ND, 1990. The occurrence of Longidoridae (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) in western USSR with further comments on longidorid nematodes in Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Nematologia Mediterranea, 18(2):199-207; 123 ref.

Buser A, 1990. Untersuchungen uber die Pfeffingerkrankheit der Susskirsche und deren vektor Longidorus macrosoma (Nematoda : Longidoridae). Dissertation. Eidgenossischen Technischen Hochschule Nr. 9194, Zurich.

Chavez E; Gerprt E, 1977. Observations on some Mononchoidea and Dorylaimoidea from the Cameroons and Zaire. Revue de Zoologie Africaine, 91(3):766-780

Chen QiWen; Hooper DJ; Loof PAA; Xu JianHua, 1997. A revised polytomous key for the identification of species of the genus Longidorus Micoletzky, 1922 (Nematoda: Dorylaimoidea). Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 20(1):15-28; 106 ref.

Chunram C, 1973. Plant quarantine technical training. Nematology in relation to plant quarantine. Plant Protection Service Technical Bulletin, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand, No. 11:23 pp.

Ciancio A; Logrieco A, 1985. Microorganisms in Longidorus elongatus. Nematologia Mediterranea, 13(2):265-267

Cohn E, 1970. Observations on the feeding and symptomatology of Xiphinema and Longidorus on selected host roots. Journal of Nematology, 2:167-173.

Cohn E; Auscher R, 1971. Seasonasl occurrence of Longidorus vineacola on celery in Israel and its control. Israel Journal of Agricultural Research, 21:23-25.

Cohn E; Ausher R, 1973. Longidorus cohni and Heterodera latipons, economic nematode pests of oats in Israel. Plant Disease Reporter, 57(1):53-54

Cohn E; Krikun J; Yosraeli U, 1968. Further observations on the effect of Longidorus vineacola on onion. Plant Disease Reporter, 52:525-527.

Cohn E; Mordechai M, 1969. Investigations on the life cycles and host preference of some species of Xiphinema and Longidorus under controlled conditions. Nematologica, 15:295-302.

Cohn E; Orion D, 1970. The pathological effect of representative Xiphinema and Longidorus species on selected host plants. Nematologica, 16:423-428.

Coiro MI; Sasanelli N, 1995. Life-cycle studies of individual Longidorus athesinus (Nematoda) on S. Lucie cherry. Nematologia Mediterranea, 23(2):329-333; 5 ref.

Coomans A, 1964. Stoma structure in members of the Dorylaimida. Nematologica, 9:587-601.

Coomans A, 1975. Morphology of the Longidoridae. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, Seinhorst JW, eds., Nematode Vectors of Plant Viruses. London and New York: Plenum Press, 15-37.

Coomans A, 1996. Phylogeny of the Longidoridae. Russian Journal of Nematology, 4:51-59.

Coomans A; de Coninck L, 1963. Observations of spear formation in Xiphinema. Nematologica, 3:85-96.

Coomans AV, 1985. A phylogenetic approach to the classification of the Longidoridae (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 12:335-354.

Cotten J, 1975. Virus vector species of Xiphinema and Longidorus in relation to certification schemes for fruit and hops in England. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, Seinhorst JW, ed. Nematode vectors of plant viruses. Plenum Press. London & New York, USA UK, 283-285

Cotten J, 1976. Observations of life-cycle, population development and vertical distribution of Longidorus macrosoma on raspberry and other crops. Annals of Applied Biology, 83(3):407-412

Dalmasso A, 1970b. Influence directe de quelques facteurs ecologiques sur l'activite biologique et la distribution des especes Francaises de la famille des Longidoridae (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie, Animale, 2:163-200.

Darekar KS; Khan E, 1982. Xiphinema tugewai sp.n. and Longidorus paramirus sp.n. (Longidoroidea: Nematoda) from Maharashtra, India. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12(1):153-157

De Waele D; Coomans A, 1991. Occurrence and ecology of trichodorid nematodes in Belgium. Revue de Nematologie, 14:127-132.

Espinosa RG; Adam AV, 1972. Major diseases of pineapple in Oaxaca, Mexico, and their control. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 20(4):79-87

Eveleigh ES; Allen WR, 1982. Description of Longidorus diadecturus n.sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae), a vector of the peach rosette mosaic virus in peach orchards in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 60(2):112-115

Filipjev IN, 1934. The classification of the free-living nematodes and their relation to parasitic nematodes. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, 89:1-63.

Flegg JJM, 1968. The occurrence and depth distribution of Xiphinema and Longidorus species in southeastern England. Nematologica 14:189-196.

Gargantiel FT; Davide RG, 1973. Survey and pathogenicity tests of plant parasitic nematodes associated with sugarcane in Negros Occidental. Philippine Phytopathology, 9(1/2):59-66

Gonzalez F-L, 1978. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sugar-cane in several areas of Costa Rica. Organization of Tropical American Nematologists: Partial list of abstracts of papers presented at the X Annual Meeting of OTAN in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, 3-10 June, 1978. Nematropica, 8:10.

Halbrendt JM; Brown DJF; Robbins RT; Vrain TC, 1996. Longidorus and Xiphinema species with three juvenile developmental stages. Nematropica 26, (in Press).

Harris AR, 1983. Distribution of parasitic nematodes in vineyards in central and north-eastern Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 23(121):221-224

Harrison BD; Hooper DJ, 1962. Longevity of Longidorus elongatus (de Man) and other nematodes in soil kept in polythene bags. Nematologica, 9:158-160.

Heyns J; Coomans A, 1991. Longidoridae from Botswana (Nematoda). Phytophylactica, 23(1):29-36; 27 ref.

Heyns J; Coomans A; Hutsebaut M; Swart A, 1987. Longidorus fursti n.sp. from South Africa with a discussion of its relationships (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Revue de Nematologie, 10(4):381-385.

Heyns J; Luc M, 1987. A first report of Longidoridae from Swaziland. Phytophylactica, 19(1):41-44.

Hirata K, 1995. Descriptions of two new species of Longidorus (Dorylaimida: Longidoridae) from Nagano, Japan. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 25(1):33-43.

Hooper DJ, 1973. Longidorus elongatus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 2 (No. 30):4 pp. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Hooper DJ, 1985. Longidorus laevicapitatus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 8, No. 117.

Horner CE; Jensen HJ, 1954. Nematodes associated with mints in Oregon. Plant Disease Reporter, 38:39-41.

Hunt DJ, 1993. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics., xx + 352 pp.; 46 pp. of ref.

Hutton DG; Plummer EE; Falconer PR, 1978. The nematodes associated with plantains in Jamaica. Nematropica, 8:14

Javed R, 1983. Two new species of the superfamily Longidoroidea (Dorylaimida: Nematoda) from Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Nematology, 13(1):26-31

Jones AT; Mitchell MJ; Brown DJF, 1989. Infectibility of some new raspberry cultivars with arabis mosaic and raspberry ringspot viruses and further evidence for variation in British isolates of these two nepoviruses. Annals of Applied Biology, 115(1):57-69

Jovani V, 1994. The main parasitic nematodes on agricultural crops in Albania and their control. Bulletin OEPP, 24(2):423-427.

Kasasian L; Cunningham RK; Smith RW; Brind WD, ed. , 1978. British overseas aid. Agricultural research (crop and soil sciences) 1968-1973. Overseas Research Publication, Ministry of Overseas Development, United Kingdom, No. 25:[4+] 85 pp.

Kaushik HD; Bajaj HK, 1980. Nematodes associated with pulse crops in Haryana. Indian Journal of Nematology, 10(1):92-96

Khan E, 1987. One new genus and four new species in the superfamily Longidoridae (Nematoda). Indian Journal of Nematology, 16:185-193.

Khan E; Chawla ML; Saha M, 1976. Comments on the classification of the Longidoroidea (Nematoda) with description of three new species. Indian Journal of Nematology, 6(1):47-62

Khan E; Chawla ML; Seshadri AR, 1971. Longidorus mirus sp. nov. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from soil around the roots of maize from Delhi, India. Bulletin of Entomology, 12(2):113-117

Khan SH; Ahmad S, 1975. Longidoroidea (Thorne, 1935) n. rank. (Nematoda: Dorylaimina) with the description of Xiphinema neoamericanum n.sp. from India and proposal of a new name for X. americanum sensu Carvalho (1956) non Cobb, 1913. Nematologia Mediterranea, 3(1):23-28

Koshy PK; Sosamma VK; Premachandran D, 1977. Nematodes associated with coconut. Indian Coconut Journal, 8(3):1-2

Kurppa S; Robertson WM, 1979. Cell response to feedinmg by X. diversicaudatum and L. elongatus. Annual Report for 1978 of the Scottish Horticultural Research Institute. Dundee, Scotland: SHRI, 119-120.

Lamberti F, 1969. Morphological variations and geographical distributions of Longidorus africanus Merny (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Phytopathologia mediterranea, 8:137-141.

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