Lolium temulentum (darnel)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Lolium temulentum L.
Preferred Common Name
International Common Names
- English: poison ryegrass
- Spanish: borrachuelo; cizana embriagante; joyo; rabillo
- French: ivraie énivrante; lyvrai
- Russian: kukol
- Portuguese: alho-bravo; joio
Local Common Names
- Denmark: heyre
- Germany: Daverende-lolch; Taumel- Lolch
- India: mochni; mostaki; ryeghas; ubban
- Italy: loglio velenoso; loglio vivace
- Japan: dokumugi
- Netherlands: dolik
- Poland: kokal
- Sweden: daarrepe
- LOLTE (Lolium temulentum)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Cyperales
- Family: Poaceae
- Genus: Lolium
- Species: Lolium temulentum
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page L. temulentum has been known since ancient times as darnel and is a native of the Mediterranean region. Several varieties have been proposed in the past, including var. arvense in the Irish Republic (Farragher, 1973), var. leptochaeton (Hitchcock, 1950) and var. linicola (Bentham, 1967), but these can be regarded as a single subordinate taxon, L. temulentum f. arvense (USDA-ARS, 1999). Isoenzyme variation and species relationships in the genus Lolium are discussed by Charmet and Balfourier (1994).
DescriptionTop of page L. temulentum is an annual plant with a fibrous root system. Culms tufted, solitary, ascending, erect, 60-90 cm tall, glabrous and smooth, or rough at the top.
Leaves are lanceolated, simple with a shiny surface, leaf blades narrowly linear, not contracted at the base, acute at apex, with smooth or scabrid margins, somewhat rough above, glabrous and smooth beneath, 10-30 cm long, 3-10 mm wide, young leaves with involute margins, ligule 1-2 mm long.
Inflorescence is a terminal spike, rigidly erect, 12-30 cm long with 6-30 spikelets, dorsally placed in shallow excavations along a non-articulate rachis with a zigzag shape. Spikelets 12-30 mm in length, usually with 4-10 flowers. Outer glume of the lateral spikelets usually 2.5 cm in length, as long as or longer than the entire spikelets, 7-9-nerved, thinly coriaceous with narrow membranous margins. Flowering glumes are shorter and broader, oblong, usually obtuse with an awn as long as or longer than the glume itself. Some specimens may have awnless glumes or in rare instances the whole spikelet is without awns (Bentham, 1967). The lemmas are up to 8 mm long, obtuse with awns 6-12 mm long. Palea two-keeled. Seeds elliptic-oblong in shape, grooved.
Plant TypeTop of page Annual
Grass / sedge
DistributionTop of page Originating in the Mediterranean, L. temulentum has spread widely across temperate areas wherever wheat and cereals are grown. Its spread into tropical areas of different countries is limited by prolonged high temperature and low moisture conditions. It can grow at higher altitudes in the tropics, for example, at 2000-3000 m in Kenya (Holm et al., 1991).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Afghanistan||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|China||Widespread||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|India||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979; Chowdhry and Wadhwa, 1984|
|-Chandigarh||Restricted distribution||Introduced||Rattan and Aujla, 1989; Singh and Bedi, 1991|
|-Delhi||Restricted distribution||Introduced||Maheshwari, 1963; Verma, 1977|
|-Haryana||Restricted distribution||Introduced||Dahiya and Bhatti, 1980|
|-Himachal Pradesh||Present||Introduced||Angiras and Modgal, 1981; Angiras et al., 1991|
|-Indian Punjab||Restricted distribution||Introduced||Malik and Mary, 1974|
|-Madhya Pradesh||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Jain et al., 1980|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Restricted distribution||Introduced||Gupta, 1979|
|-West Bengal||Indigenous, localized||Introduced||Bhattacharya, 1977|
|Indonesia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Java||Present||Introduced||Backer and Bakhuisen, 1968|
|Iran||Present||Introduced||Haidari, 1975; Holm et al., 1979|
|Iraq||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|Israel||Present||Native||Holm et al., 1979; Horowitz, 1980|
|Japan||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979; Tase et al., 1996|
|Jordan||Present||Native||Holm et al., 1979|
|Korea, DPR||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|Korea, Republic of||Present||Introduced||Kang et al., 1996|
|Lebanon||Present||Native||Holm et al., 1979|
|Myanmar||Present||Introduced||Bor, 1960; Chowdhry and Wadhwa, 1984|
|Pakistan||Present||Introduced||Bor, 1960; Chowdhry and Wadhwa, 1984; Hussain and Rashid, 1989|
|Philippines||Widespread||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|Qatar||Present||Introduced||Rizk et al., 1985; Rizk and Hussiney, 1991|
|Sri Lanka||Present||Introduced||Bor, 1960; Holm et al., 1979; Chowdhry and Wadhwa, 1984|
|Turkey||Present||Native||Holm et al., 1979; Karasu et al., 1979; Arslan et al., 1988|
|Yemen||Present||Introduced||Farnworth and Said, 1983a; Farnworth and Said, 1983b|
|Egypt||Widespread||Native||Holm et al., 1979; El-Bially and El-Samie, 1996|
|Ethiopia||Widespread||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|Kenya||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|Morocco||Present||Native||Holm et al., 1979|
|South Africa||Present||Introduced||Cairns et al., 1979; Holm et al., 1979; Lawton, 1980|
|Tunisia||Widespread||Native||Holm et al., 1979|
|Canada||Present||Introduced||McKenney et al., 1995|
|USA||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979; Housley et al., 1991|
|-Alaska||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|-Hawaii||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|-Maine||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Hitchchock, 1950|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Introduced||USDA, 2004|
|-New Jersey||Present||Introduced||USDA, 2004|
|-New Mexico||Present||Introduced||USDA, 2004|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||USDA, 2004|
|-North Carolina||Present||Introduced||USDA, 2004|
|-North Dakota||Present||Introduced||USDA, 2004|
|-Rhode Island||Present||Introduced||USDA, 2004|
|-South Carolina||Present||Introduced||USDA, 2004|
|-South Dakota||Present||Introduced||USDA, 2004|
|-Texas||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Hitchchock, 1950; van and Auken Bush, 1990|
|-Washington||Present||Introduced||Wilson et al., 1991|
|-West Virginia||Present||Introduced||USDA, 2004|
|Argentina||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979; Ratera, 1983|
|Brazil||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|Chile||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|Colombia||Present||Introduced||Coral et al., 1974; Holm et al., 1979|
|Uruguay||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|Venezuela||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|Austria||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979|
|Belgium||Present||Introduced||Perilleux et al., 1994; Perilleux and Bernier, 1997|
|Czech Republic||Present||Introduced||Vacke, 1998|
|Czechoslovakia (former)||Present||Introduced||Holub, 1989|
|France||Present||Native||Holm et al., 1979; Charmet et al., 1996; Ourry et al., 1996|
|Germany||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979; Steiner and Ruckenbauer, 1995; Hammer et al., 1997|
|Greece||Present||Native||Holm et al., 1979; Scholz, 1989|
|Ireland||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Curtis et al., 1988|
|Italy||Present||Native||Holm et al., 1979; Sarno et al., 1986; Magnifico et al., 1993|
|Netherlands||Present||Introduced||Loos and Jarvis, 1992; Loos, 1993|
|Norway||Present||Introduced||Junttila et al., 1997|
|Poland||Present||Introduced||Braun, 1977; Holm et al., 1979|
|Portugal||Present||Native||Holm et al., 1979|
|Russian Federation||Present||Introduced||Butkute, 1979; Holm et al., 1979|
|Spain||Present||Native||Lopez, 1973; Holm et al., 1979|
|Switzerland||Present||Introduced||Stevens and Meyes, 1976|
|UK||Widespread||Introduced||Roderick and Thomas, 1997; Thomas et al., 1997|
|Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)||Restricted distribution||Native||Kaligaric and Jogan, 1990|
|Australia||Widespread||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979; Evans and Blundell, 1996; Bennett, 1997|
|-New South Wales||Widespread||Introduced||Bentham, 1967|
|-South Australia||Widespread||Introduced||Bentham, 1967; Aspinall et al., 1973|
|-Victoria||Widespread||Introduced||Bentham, 1967; Lush, 1976|
|-Western Australia||Widespread||Introduced||Bennett, 1997|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979; Thomas, 1979; Latch et al., 1988|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page There are no specific records for dates of introduction or spread of L. temulentum. It is seed propagated and its seeds are difficult to separate from cereal grains. It is widely distributed wherever cereals are grown suggesting that it has spread with cereal cultivation.
HabitatTop of page L. temulentum is an annual weed found mostly in winter crops, preferring locations with low temperatures (15-20°C) and high soil moisture. It requires moderate to low temperatures for germination and growth, but can tolerate extremely low temperatures. It is responsive to high N, P and K nutrition (Helm et al., 1987).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page L. temulentum is mainly a weed of wheat and small grain cereals. Other than these, this weed could be a problem in virtually every crop grown during the winter season from the subtropics to temperate regions. It can also appear in waste ground, orchards and amongst ornamental species during winter.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Allium cepa (onion)||Liliaceae||Main|
|Brassica napus var. napus (rape)||Brassicaceae||Main|
|Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)||Brassicaceae||Main|
|Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower)||Brassicaceae||Main|
|Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)||Brassicaceae||Main|
|Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera (turnip rape)||Brassicaceae||Main|
|Cicer arietinum (chickpea)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)||Cucurbitaceae||Main|
|Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)||Cucurbitaceae||Main|
|Cuminum cyminum (cumin)||Apiaceae||Main|
|Daucus carota (carrot)||Apiaceae||Main|
|Eruca vesicaria (purple-vein rocket)||Brassicaceae||Main|
|Helianthus annuus (sunflower)||Asteraceae||Main|
|Hordeum vulgare (barley)||Poaceae||Main|
|Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris (lentil)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Linum usitatissimum (flax)||Main|
|Macrotyloma uniflorum (horsegram)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Medicago sativa (lucerne)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Pisum sativum (pea)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Raphanus sativus (radish)||Brassicaceae||Main|
|Secale cereale (rye)||Poaceae||Main|
|Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Spinacia oleracea (spinach)||Chenopodiaceae||Main|
|Trifolium alexandrinum (Berseem clover)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Trifolium resupinatum (Shaftal clover)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Triticum aestivum (wheat)||Poaceae||Main|
|Vicia faba (faba bean)||Fabaceae||Main|
Biology and EcologyTop of page Genetics
L. temulentum has the diploid chromosome number 2n=14 (Naylor and Rees, 1958; Hovin et al., 1963). Electrophoretic studies have enabled clear differentiation between the inbreeding L. temulentum and the three outcrossing species, L. perenne, L. rigidum and L. multiflorum (Bennett et al., 2002). A similar study identified clear morphological differences between L. temulentum and the three outcrossing species (Bennett et al., 2000).
Physiology and Phenology
L. temulentum is a competitive C3 (Lush, 1976) and long day (Perilleux et al., 1997) grass weed of winter crops under temperate climates, reproducing mainly by seed. It requires low temperature and high soil moisture for its germination and growth. Steiner and Ruckenbauer (1995) observed that temperatures of 10-15°C and moisture levels of 3-12% for 110 years did not reduce the viability of the seed. Little dormancy is apparent, although vernalization may accelerate flowering. Overall growth of L. temulentum is more sensitive to chilling than carbon dioxide fixation (Pollock et al., 1995). The rate of net photosynthesis in L. temulentum leaves decreased with age when exposed to bright sunlight, but increased when exposed to severe shading (Woledge, 1972).
For long day induction, the critical photoperiod was between 12 and 14 hours, and >16 hours were needed for a maximal flowering responce (Perilleux et al., 1994). Flower induction was found to be optimum when phytochrome was mostly in the Pr (red light) form early in the night and in the Pfr (far red light) form later (Evans, 1976). Water stress during long day conditions can inhibit flowering by raising the concentration of abscisic acid at the shoot apex during floral evocation (King and Evans, 1977). Pharis et al. (1987) found that gibberellic acid (GA5) induced flowering, but GA1 had the opposite effect. The vernalization response in L. temulentum is similar to that of annual winter cereals, and can be transmitted from shoot apical meristem to new axillary meristems (Arumuganathan et al., 1991).
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||15||25|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Mean annual rainfall||400||1200||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page Winter
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Several cereal pathogens can also affect L. temulentum, notably Puccinia striiformis (Zhukova and Kupriyanova, 1981), P. coronata, P. graminis (Roderick and Thomas, 1997), Rathayibacter tritici (Dahiya and Bhatti, 1980), Tilletia indica (Rattan and Aujla, 1989) and Sclerophthora macrospora (Singh and Bedi, 1991).
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes||seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Roots||seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page L. temulentum is a serious weed of winter crops, especially wheat (Bor, 1960; Angiras and Modgal, 1981), winter vegetable crops (Gad and El Mahde, 1972), flax (Angiras et al., 1991; Cseresnyes et al., 1987) and sunflower (Sarno et al., 1986). According to Holm et al. (1991), it is a weed of 14 crops in 38 countries.
The seeds of L. temulentum have poisonous effects on man and animals when consumed in conjunction with wheat and other cereals (Forsyth, 1979; Ambasta, 1994). They are remarkably similar in size and weight to the grains of wheat and other small grain crops, which makes their separation difficult. When milled with wheat, it causes the flour to become grey and bitter. Toxic effects on livestock have been reported in Argentina (Ratera, 1983). The poisonous compounds are considered to be two alkaloids, temulin and loline, which are present in the seed (Bor, 1960; Smith and Bernhard, 1988), and perloline in the stem (Dannhardt and Steindl, 1985). One theory is that L. temulentum seed is only poisonous when infected by the fungus Endocladium temulentum (Bor, 1960) as it produces the narcotic alkaloid temulin (Ambasta, 1994), but Steyn (1934) reported that no toxic effects were found when large quantities of fungus-infected grains of this weed were fed to animals. Similarly, bread in South Africa often contains infected grains of L. temulentum and such bread is eaten without any ill-effects.
The competitive potential of L. temulentum has rarely been measured, but it is generaly regarded as a competitive weed. Hollies (1982) revealed that grassy weeds, such as L. temulentum, caused yield losses of up to 17% in wheat and barley, whereas net profits were reduced by 25%. Wheat infested with L. temulentum can have an impaired response to N fertilization (Farnworth and Said, 1983). Laboratory studies by Bansal and Singh (1986) revealed that root extracts of L. temulentum were more inhibitory than shoot and flower extracts on the germination and growth of rice, indicating allelopathic effects.
L. temulentum can be a host to a wide range of organisms (see Natural Enemies) and is often implicated as an important alternative host of crop diseases, such as yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis) of wheat (Zhukova and Kupriyanova, 1981), yellow spike disease in wheat caused by Rathayibacter tritici (Vacke, 1975), Oat blue dwarf virus in the Czech Republic (Vacke, 1998), crown rust (Puccinia coronata), stem rust (P. graminis), brown rust (P. recondita), and karnal bunt of wheat (Tilletia indica) (Rattan and Aujla, 1989). It has also been recorded as a host for parasitic nematodes (Meloidogyne) (Ibrahim et al., 1988) and the wainscot moth (Oria musculosa) on barley in Iran (Haidari, 1975).
Environmental ImpactTop of page No adverse environmental impacts are reported for L. temulentum.
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page The literature reports no adverse impacts on biodiversity for L. temulentum.
Social ImpactTop of page No adverse social impacts are reported for L. temulentum.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts human health
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Pest and disease transmission
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page L. temulentum can be used as a nutritive fodder plant, up to seed set (Ambasta, 1994). Natural grass sod of Avena fatua and L. temulentum can reduce soil erosion (Chisci and Martinez, 1993).
Seeds of L. temulentum contain 20% of an oil which can give more stability to flax oil due to its high tocopherol content (El-Gharbawi et al., 1980) and 1-pantene, 2,4- dimethyl (Abdallah et al., 1980). Extracts from the flowering spike of L. tremulentum contain gramine, an indole alkaloid which is highly toxic to the maize aphid (Rhopalosipheum maidis) and also acts as a feeding deterrent (Salem, 1991). Mander et al. (1995) reported that L. temulentum is a source of two families of gibberellic acids which have promising biological properties. It has been hybridized with meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) (Heszky, 1971).
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
- Erosion control or dune stabilization
- Poisonous to mammals
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page Relationships between L. temulentum and other related, self-pollinated species such as L. remotum, L. lilliaceum and L. persicum are discussed by Bulinska-Radomska and Lester (1985) and Charmet et al. (1996).
L. temulentum shares the same chromosome number (2n = 14) as L. rigidum and L. remotum (Butkute, 1979).
Although all species of Lolium are similar morphologically, L. temulentum, L. persicum and L. subulatum share an annual habit and have glumes that are as long or longer than the spikelets and spikelets that are much wider than the rachis (Hitchcock, 1950).
Prevention and ControlTop of page Cultural Control
Ferrari et al. (1984) considered that long rotations, considerable soil disturbance and high fertilizer applications reduced infestations of this weed (Ferrari et al., 1984). Preventive measures, such as sowing clean seed and preventing seed formation are important.
Handweeding twice at 30 and 60 days after sowing in wheat (Angiras and Modgal, 1981) and at 40 and 70 days after sowing in gobhi sarson (Brassica campestris var. sarson) was found effective to control grassy weeds including L. temulentum (Angiras and Rana, 1990). Small scale farmers use this practice as they can then use the weed for fodder purposes. However, handweeding can be difficult in the vegetative stages as cereals and the weed closely resemble each other. Bidirectional sowing at a row to row spacing of 15 cm has also been found effective to reduce populations of this weed (Angiras and Vinod Sharma, 1996). A stale seed bed in wheat can reduce L. temulentum populations (Deep Kumar, 1998).
Burning resulted in a a reduction of viable seeds of L. temulentum by 99.7 and 97.7% when practised in December and January, respectively (Pearce and Holmes, 1976).
Effective treatments in wheat include: a post-emergence application of methabenzthiazuron; isoproturon with and without a surfactant (Thakur and Singh, 1990; Angiras and Vinod Sharma, 1995); pre-planting application of triallate (Adams, 1985; Deep Kumar, 1998); post-emergence application of diclofop methyl (Angiras and Modgal, 1981); diclofop plus a surfactant (Angiras and Deep Kumar, 1998); metribuzin pre-emergence (Retzinger and Richard, 1983); pendimethalin pre-emergence (Cairns et al., 1979); metoxuron post-emergence (Stevens and Meyes, 1976); diclofop methyl followed by ioxynil 10 days later (Anon., 1984); quizalofop; and chlorazifop (Norris and Lardelli, 1984).
L. temulentum can effectively be controlled in barley with pre-sowing applicaion of triallate (Adams, 1985) or metoxuron (Stevens and Meyes, 1976).
In flax, applications of bromoxynil 25-28 days after sowing (El-Kassaby and El-Kalia, 1985), MCPA 30 days after sowing (El-Kassaby, 1985), isoproturon, haloxyfop methyl, and fluazifop butyl post-emergence, and oxyfluorfen or pendimathalin pre-emergence have all been found effective (Angiras et al., 1991).
Pre emergence appliction of linuron and prometryn may be used to control L. temulentum in cumin (Arslan et al., 1988).
In broccoli, trifluralin or nitrofen pre-transplanting gave effective control of L. temmulentum, whereas control of this and other grassy weeds in spinach may be obtained with a pre-planting treatment of cycloate, pre-emergence chlorbufam + cycluron (Magnifico et al., 1993).
In sunflower, effective control of L. temulentum was obtained with pre-emergence treatments of fluchloralin + metolachlor, metobromuron + prometryn and metribuzin (Sarno et al., 1986).
Fayed et al. (1989) in laboratory studies found that whereas EPTC, vernolate, pendimethalin and trifluralin resulted in the lowest germination rate, radicle and plumule length, fresh and dry weight of L. tementulum, fluometuron was more effective in reducing plumule and radicle length, as well as the fresh and dry weight of weed seedlings.
Because of the importance of L. temulentum and related species as forage grasses, there has been no serious consideration of biological control methods.
ReferencesTop of page
Abdallah MA; Fahmy AA; El-Garabawy MI, 1980. Identification of some compounds in oxidized linseed oil and oils extracted from flax weed seeds. Research Bulletin No. 1228. Cairo, Egypt: Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University.
Ambasta SP, 1994. The Useful Plants of India. New Delhi, India: Publication and Information Directorate CSIR.
Angiras NN; Badiyala D; Singh CM, 1991. Chemical weed control studies in dual type flax. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 23(3/4):19- 23.
Angiras NN; Deep Kumar, 1998. Weed Management studies in wheat with specific reference to grassy weeds. Proceedings of the First International Agronomy Congress on Agronomy, Environment and Food Security for 21st Century. New Delhi, India: Indian Society of Agronomy.
Angiras NN; Modgal SC, 1981. Control of grassy weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through promising herbicides under mid-hill conditions. Proceedings of the Eighth Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, 45-49.
Angiras NN; Vinod Sharma, 1996. Influence of row orientation, row spacing and weed-control methods on physiological performance of irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 41(1):41-47; 5 ref.
Anon., 1984. Wheat in hilly areas: these are the possibilities for post-emergence weed control. Informatore Agrario, 40:11, 64, 67-68.
Arslan N; Akbay G; Ciftci CY; Unver S; Kurcman M, 1988. The possibilities of using herbicides in the production of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) II. Post-emergence use. Doga, Turk Tarim ve Ormancilik Dergisi, 12(3):305-311
Arumuganathan K; Dale PJ; Cooper JP, 1991. Vernalization in Lolium temulentum L.: Responses of in vitro cultures of mature and immature embryos, shoot apices and callus. Annals of Botany, 67(2):173-179.
Aspinall D; Singh TN; Paleg LG, 1973. Stress metabolism. Abscisic acid and nitrogen metabolism in barley and Lolium temulentum L. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 26(2):319-327.
Auken OW van; Bush JK, 1990. Interaction of two C3 and C4 grasses with seedlings of Acacia smallii and Celtis laevigata. Southwestern Naturalist, 35(3):316-321.
Backer BA; Bakhuisen van den Brink RC, 1968. Flora of Java, vol.III, 1968.
Baile LH, 1951. Manual of Cultivated Plants. New York, USA: The MacMillan Company.
Bansal GL; Singh CM, 1986. Allelopathic effect of different plant parts of grassy weeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on the germination and growth of rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Weed Science, 18(2):108-110
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