Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Lolium temulentum



Lolium temulentum (darnel)


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Flowering plant of L. temulentum.
TitleFlowering plant
CaptionFlowering plant of L. temulentum.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Flowering plant of L. temulentum.
Flowering plantFlowering plant of L. temulentum.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Entire weed, grows to 60-90 cm.
TitleL. temulentum plant
CaptionEntire weed, grows to 60-90 cm.
CopyrightN.N. Angiras
Entire weed, grows to 60-90 cm.
L. temulentum plantEntire weed, grows to 60-90 cm.N.N. Angiras


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lolium temulentum L.

Preferred Common Name

  • darnel

International Common Names

  • English: poison ryegrass
  • Spanish: borrachuelo; cizana embriagante; joyo; rabillo
  • French: ivraie énivrante; lyvrai
  • Russian: kukol
  • Portuguese: alho-bravo; joio

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: heyre
  • Germany: Daverende-lolch; Taumel- Lolch
  • India: mochni; mostaki; ryeghas; ubban
  • Italy: loglio velenoso; loglio vivace
  • Japan: dokumugi
  • Netherlands: dolik
  • Poland: kokal
  • Sweden: daarrepe

EPPO code

  • LOLTE (Lolium temulentum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Lolium
  •                                 Species: Lolium temulentum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page L. temulentum has been known since ancient times as darnel and is a native of the Mediterranean region. Several varieties have been proposed in the past, including var. arvense in the Irish Republic (Farragher, 1973), var. leptochaeton (Hitchcock, 1950) and var. linicola (Bentham, 1967), but these can be regarded as a single subordinate taxon, L. temulentum f. arvense (USDA-ARS, 1999). Isoenzyme variation and species relationships in the genus Lolium are discussed by Charmet and Balfourier (1994).


Top of page L. temulentum is an annual plant with a fibrous root system. Culms tufted, solitary, ascending, erect, 60-90 cm tall, glabrous and smooth, or rough at the top.

Leaves are lanceolated, simple with a shiny surface, leaf blades narrowly linear, not contracted at the base, acute at apex, with smooth or scabrid margins, somewhat rough above, glabrous and smooth beneath, 10-30 cm long, 3-10 mm wide, young leaves with involute margins, ligule 1-2 mm long.

Inflorescence is a terminal spike, rigidly erect, 12-30 cm long with 6-30 spikelets, dorsally placed in shallow excavations along a non-articulate rachis with a zigzag shape. Spikelets 12-30 mm in length, usually with 4-10 flowers. Outer glume of the lateral spikelets usually 2.5 cm in length, as long as or longer than the entire spikelets, 7-9-nerved, thinly coriaceous with narrow membranous margins. Flowering glumes are shorter and broader, oblong, usually obtuse with an awn as long as or longer than the glume itself. Some specimens may have awnless glumes or in rare instances the whole spikelet is without awns (Bentham, 1967). The lemmas are up to 8 mm long, obtuse with awns 6-12 mm long. Palea two-keeled. Seeds elliptic-oblong in shape, grooved.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Grass / sedge
Seed propagated


Top of page Originating in the Mediterranean, L. temulentum has spread widely across temperate areas wherever wheat and cereals are grown. Its spread into tropical areas of different countries is limited by prolonged high temperature and low moisture conditions. It can grow at higher altitudes in the tropics, for example, at 2000-3000 m in Kenya (Holm et al., 1991).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
ChinaWidespreadIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
-QinghaiPresentIntroducedTu, 1989
IndiaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Chowdhry and Wadhwa, 1984
-ChandigarhRestricted distributionIntroducedRattan and Aujla, 1989; Singh and Bedi, 1991
-DelhiRestricted distributionIntroducedMaheshwari, 1963; Verma, 1977
-HaryanaRestricted distributionIntroducedDahiya and Bhatti, 1980
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedAngiras and Modgal, 1981; Angiras et al., 1991
-Indian PunjabRestricted distributionIntroducedMalik and Mary, 1974
-Madhya PradeshPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedJain et al., 1980
-Uttar PradeshRestricted distributionIntroducedGupta, 1979
-West BengalIndigenous, localizedIntroducedBhattacharya, 1977
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentIntroducedBacker and Bakhuisen, 1968
IranPresentIntroducedHaidari, 1975; Holm et al., 1979
IraqPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
IsraelPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; Horowitz, 1980
JapanPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Tase et al., 1996
JordanPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
Korea, DPRPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedKang et al., 1996
LebanonPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
MyanmarPresentIntroducedBor, 1960; Chowdhry and Wadhwa, 1984
NepalPresentIntroducedDangol, 1987
PakistanPresentIntroducedBor, 1960; Chowdhry and Wadhwa, 1984; Hussain and Rashid, 1989
PhilippinesWidespreadIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
QatarPresentIntroducedRizk et al., 1985; Rizk and Hussiney, 1991
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedBor, 1960; Holm et al., 1979; Chowdhry and Wadhwa, 1984
TurkeyPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; Karasu et al., 1979; Arslan et al., 1988
YemenPresentIntroducedFarnworth and Said, 1983a; Farnworth and Said, 1983b


EgyptWidespreadNativeHolm et al., 1979; El-Bially and El-Samie, 1996
EthiopiaWidespreadIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
KenyaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
MoroccoPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
South AfricaPresentIntroducedCairns et al., 1979; Holm et al., 1979; Lawton, 1980
TunisiaWidespreadNativeHolm et al., 1979

North America

CanadaPresentIntroducedMcKenney et al., 1995
-OntarioPresentIntroducedHuner, 1988
USAPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Housley et al., 1991
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-AlaskaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedHitchchock, 1950
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-DelawarePresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
-IdahoPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-IndianaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-IowaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-KansasPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-MainePresent, few occurrencesIntroducedHitchchock, 1950
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-MichiganPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-MissouriPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-MontanaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-North DakotaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-OregonPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-TennesseePresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-TexasPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedHitchchock, 1950; van and Auken Bush, 1990
-VermontPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedWilson et al., 1991
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004
-WyomingPresentIntroducedUSDA, 2004

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Ratera, 1983
BrazilPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
ChilePresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
ColombiaPresentIntroducedCoral et al., 1974; Holm et al., 1979
UruguayPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979


AustriaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
BelgiumPresentIntroducedPerilleux et al., 1994; Perilleux and Bernier, 1997
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedVacke, 1998
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentIntroducedHolub, 1989
DenmarkPresent, few occurrencesDCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Denmark, 2018
FrancePresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; Charmet et al., 1996; Ourry et al., 1996
GermanyPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Steiner and Ruckenbauer, 1995; Hammer et al., 1997
GreecePresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; Scholz, 1989
HungaryPresentIntroducedHeszky, 1972
IrelandPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedCurtis et al., 1988
ItalyPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; Sarno et al., 1986; Magnifico et al., 1993
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedLoos and Jarvis, 1992; Loos, 1993
NorwayPresentIntroducedJunttila et al., 1997
PolandPresentIntroducedBraun, 1977; Holm et al., 1979
PortugalPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
RomaniaPresentIntroducedCadar, 1983
Russian FederationPresentIntroducedButkute, 1979; Holm et al., 1979
SpainPresentNativeLopez, 1973; Holm et al., 1979
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedStevens and Meyes, 1976
UKWidespreadIntroducedRoderick and Thomas, 1997; Thomas et al., 1997
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Restricted distributionNativeKaligaric and Jogan, 1990


AustraliaWidespreadIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Evans and Blundell, 1996; Bennett, 1997
-New South WalesWidespreadIntroducedBentham, 1967
-South AustraliaWidespreadIntroducedBentham, 1967; Aspinall et al., 1973
-TasmaniaWidespreadIntroducedBentham, 1967
-VictoriaWidespreadIntroducedBentham, 1967; Lush, 1976
-Western AustraliaWidespreadIntroducedBennett, 1997
New ZealandPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Thomas, 1979; Latch et al., 1988

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page There are no specific records for dates of introduction or spread of L. temulentum. It is seed propagated and its seeds are difficult to separate from cereal grains. It is widely distributed wherever cereals are grown suggesting that it has spread with cereal cultivation.


Top of page L. temulentum is an annual weed found mostly in winter crops, preferring locations with low temperatures (15-20°C) and high soil moisture. It requires moderate to low temperatures for germination and growth, but can tolerate extremely low temperatures. It is responsive to high N, P and K nutrition (Helm et al., 1987).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page L. temulentum is mainly a weed of wheat and small grain cereals. Other than these, this weed could be a problem in virtually every crop grown during the winter season from the subtropics to temperate regions. It can also appear in waste ground, orchards and amongst ornamental species during winter.

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

L. temulentum has the diploid chromosome number 2n=14 (Naylor and Rees, 1958; Hovin et al., 1963). Electrophoretic studies have enabled clear differentiation between the inbreeding L. temulentum and the three outcrossing species, L. perenne, L. rigidum and L. multiflorum (Bennett et al., 2002). A similar study identified clear morphological differences between L. temulentum and the three outcrossing species (Bennett et al., 2000).

Physiology and Phenology

L. temulentum is a competitive C3 (Lush, 1976) and long day (Perilleux et al., 1997) grass weed of winter crops under temperate climates, reproducing mainly by seed. It requires low temperature and high soil moisture for its germination and growth. Steiner and Ruckenbauer (1995) observed that temperatures of 10-15°C and moisture levels of 3-12% for 110 years did not reduce the viability of the seed. Little dormancy is apparent, although vernalization may accelerate flowering. Overall growth of L. temulentum is more sensitive to chilling than carbon dioxide fixation (Pollock et al., 1995). The rate of net photosynthesis in L. temulentum leaves decreased with age when exposed to bright sunlight, but increased when exposed to severe shading (Woledge, 1972).

For long day induction, the critical photoperiod was between 12 and 14 hours, and >16 hours were needed for a maximal flowering responce (Perilleux et al., 1994). Flower induction was found to be optimum when phytochrome was mostly in the Pr (red light) form early in the night and in the Pfr (far red light) form later (Evans, 1976). Water stress during long day conditions can inhibit flowering by raising the concentration of abscisic acid at the shoot apex during floral evocation (King and Evans, 1977). Pharis et al. (1987) found that gibberellic acid (GA5) induced flowering, but GA1 had the opposite effect. The vernalization response in L. temulentum is similar to that of annual winter cereals, and can be transmitted from shoot apical meristem to new axillary meristems (Arumuganathan et al., 1991).

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 25


Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall4001200mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Several cereal pathogens can also affect L. temulentum, notably Puccinia striiformis (Zhukova and Kupriyanova, 1981), P. coronata, P. graminis (Roderick and Thomas, 1997), Rathayibacter tritici (Dahiya and Bhatti, 1980), Tilletia indica (Rattan and Aujla, 1989) and Sclerophthora macrospora (Singh and Bedi, 1991).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes seeds Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Growing medium accompanying plants seeds Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots seeds Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants seeds Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact Summary

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Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None


Top of page L. temulentum is a serious weed of winter crops, especially wheat (Bor, 1960; Angiras and Modgal, 1981), winter vegetable crops (Gad and El Mahde, 1972), flax (Angiras et al., 1991; Cseresnyes et al., 1987) and sunflower (Sarno et al., 1986). According to Holm et al. (1991), it is a weed of 14 crops in 38 countries.

The seeds of L. temulentum have poisonous effects on man and animals when consumed in conjunction with wheat and other cereals (Forsyth, 1979; Ambasta, 1994). They are remarkably similar in size and weight to the grains of wheat and other small grain crops, which makes their separation difficult. When milled with wheat, it causes the flour to become grey and bitter. Toxic effects on livestock have been reported in Argentina (Ratera, 1983). The poisonous compounds are considered to be two alkaloids, temulin and loline, which are present in the seed (Bor, 1960; Smith and Bernhard, 1988), and perloline in the stem (Dannhardt and Steindl, 1985). One theory is that L. temulentum seed is only poisonous when infected by the fungus Endocladium temulentum (Bor, 1960) as it produces the narcotic alkaloid temulin (Ambasta, 1994), but Steyn (1934) reported that no toxic effects were found when large quantities of fungus-infected grains of this weed were fed to animals. Similarly, bread in South Africa often contains infected grains of L. temulentum and such bread is eaten without any ill-effects.

The competitive potential of L. temulentum has rarely been measured, but it is generaly regarded as a competitive weed. Hollies (1982) revealed that grassy weeds, such as L. temulentum, caused yield losses of up to 17% in wheat and barley, whereas net profits were reduced by 25%. Wheat infested with L. temulentum can have an impaired response to N fertilization (Farnworth and Said, 1983). Laboratory studies by Bansal and Singh (1986) revealed that root extracts of L. temulentum were more inhibitory than shoot and flower extracts on the germination and growth of rice, indicating allelopathic effects.

L. temulentum can be a host to a wide range of organisms (see Natural Enemies) and is often implicated as an important alternative host of crop diseases, such as yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis) of wheat (Zhukova and Kupriyanova, 1981), yellow spike disease in wheat caused by Rathayibacter tritici (Vacke, 1975), Oat blue dwarf virus in the Czech Republic (Vacke, 1998), crown rust (Puccinia coronata), stem rust (P. graminis), brown rust (P. recondita), and karnal bunt of wheat (Tilletia indica) (Rattan and Aujla, 1989). It has also been recorded as a host for parasitic nematodes (Meloidogyne) (Ibrahim et al., 1988) and the wainscot moth (Oria musculosa) on barley in Iran (Haidari, 1975).

Environmental Impact

Top of page No adverse environmental impacts are reported for L. temulentum.

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page The literature reports no adverse impacts on biodiversity for L. temulentum.

Social Impact

Top of page No adverse social impacts are reported for L. temulentum.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult/costly to control


Top of page L. temulentum can be used as a nutritive fodder plant, up to seed set (Ambasta, 1994). Natural grass sod of Avena fatua and L. temulentum can reduce soil erosion (Chisci and Martinez, 1993).

Seeds of L. temulentum contain 20% of an oil which can give more stability to flax oil due to its high tocopherol content (El-Gharbawi et al., 1980) and 1-pantene, 2,4- dimethyl (Abdallah et al., 1980). Extracts from the flowering spike of L. tremulentum contain gramine, an indole alkaloid which is highly toxic to the maize aphid (Rhopalosipheum maidis) and also acts as a feeding deterrent (Salem, 1991). Mander et al. (1995) reported that L. temulentum is a source of two families of gibberellic acids which have promising biological properties. It has been hybridized with meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) (Heszky, 1971).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed


  • Erosion control or dune stabilization


  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Relationships between L. temulentum and other related, self-pollinated species such as L. remotum, L. lilliaceum and L. persicum are discussed by Bulinska-Radomska and Lester (1985) and Charmet et al. (1996).

L. temulentum shares the same chromosome number (2n = 14) as L. rigidum and L. remotum (Butkute, 1979).

Although all species of Lolium are similar morphologically, L. temulentum, L. persicum and L. subulatum share an annual habit and have glumes that are as long or longer than the spikelets and spikelets that are much wider than the rachis (Hitchcock, 1950).

Prevention and Control

Top of page Cultural Control

Ferrari et al. (1984) considered that long rotations, considerable soil disturbance and high fertilizer applications reduced infestations of this weed (Ferrari et al., 1984). Preventive measures, such as sowing clean seed and preventing seed formation are important.

Handweeding twice at 30 and 60 days after sowing in wheat (Angiras and Modgal, 1981) and at 40 and 70 days after sowing in gobhi sarson (Brassica campestris var. sarson) was found effective to control grassy weeds including L. temulentum (Angiras and Rana, 1990). Small scale farmers use this practice as they can then use the weed for fodder purposes. However, handweeding can be difficult in the vegetative stages as cereals and the weed closely resemble each other. Bidirectional sowing at a row to row spacing of 15 cm has also been found effective to reduce populations of this weed (Angiras and Vinod Sharma, 1996). A stale seed bed in wheat can reduce L. temulentum populations (Deep Kumar, 1998).

Burning resulted in a a reduction of viable seeds of L. temulentum by 99.7 and 97.7% when practised in December and January, respectively (Pearce and Holmes, 1976).

Chemical Control

Effective treatments in wheat include: a post-emergence application of methabenzthiazuron; isoproturon with and without a surfactant (Thakur and Singh, 1990; Angiras and Vinod Sharma, 1995); pre-planting application of triallate (Adams, 1985; Deep Kumar, 1998); post-emergence application of diclofop methyl (Angiras and Modgal, 1981); diclofop plus a surfactant (Angiras and Deep Kumar, 1998); metribuzin pre-emergence (Retzinger and Richard, 1983); pendimethalin pre-emergence (Cairns et al., 1979); metoxuron post-emergence (Stevens and Meyes, 1976); diclofop methyl followed by ioxynil 10 days later (Anon., 1984); quizalofop; and chlorazifop (Norris and Lardelli, 1984).

L. temulentum can effectively be controlled in barley with pre-sowing applicaion of triallate (Adams, 1985) or metoxuron (Stevens and Meyes, 1976).

In flax, applications of bromoxynil 25-28 days after sowing (El-Kassaby and El-Kalia, 1985), MCPA 30 days after sowing (El-Kassaby, 1985), isoproturon, haloxyfop methyl, and fluazifop butyl post-emergence, and oxyfluorfen or pendimathalin pre-emergence have all been found effective (Angiras et al., 1991).

Pre emergence appliction of linuron and prometryn may be used to control L. temulentum in cumin (Arslan et al., 1988).

In broccoli, trifluralin or nitrofen pre-transplanting gave effective control of L. temmulentum, whereas control of this and other grassy weeds in spinach may be obtained with a pre-planting treatment of cycloate, pre-emergence chlorbufam + cycluron (Magnifico et al., 1993).

In sunflower, effective control of L. temulentum was obtained with pre-emergence treatments of fluchloralin + metolachlor, metobromuron + prometryn and metribuzin (Sarno et al., 1986).

Fayed et al. (1989) in laboratory studies found that whereas EPTC, vernolate, pendimethalin and trifluralin resulted in the lowest germination rate, radicle and plumule length, fresh and dry weight of L. tementulum, fluometuron was more effective in reducing plumule and radicle length, as well as the fresh and dry weight of weed seedlings.

Biological Control

Because of the importance of L. temulentum and related species as forage grasses, there has been no serious consideration of biological control methods.


Top of page

Abdallah MA, Fahmy AA, El-Garabawy MI, 1980. Identification of some compounds in oxidized linseed oil and oils extracted from flax weed seeds. Research Bulletin No. 1228. Cairo, Egypt: Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University

Adams JC, 1985. Suppression of persian darnel with granular triallate and yield response in spring cereal grains. Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, 38:161-162

Ambasta SP, 1994. The Useful Plants of India. New Delhi, India: Publication and Information Directorate CSIR

Angiras NN, Ajay Sharma, 1995. Herbicide economy with surfactants to control weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 40(3):420-424; 5 ref

Angiras NN, Badiyala D, Singh CM, 1991. Chemical weed control studies in dual type flax. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 23(3/4):19- 23

Angiras NN, Deep Kumar, 1998. Weed Management studies in wheat with specific reference to grassy weeds. Proceedings of the First International Agronomy Congress on Agronomy, Environment and Food Security for 21st Century. New Delhi, India: Indian Society of Agronomy

Angiras NN, Modgal SC, 1981. Control of grassy weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through promising herbicides under mid-hill conditions. Proceedings of the Eighth Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, 45-49

Angiras NN, Rana MC, 1990. Weed and phosphorus management in gobhi sarson (Brassica napus) under mid-hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 22(1-2):57-64

Angiras NN, Vinod Sharma, 1996. Influence of row orientation, row spacing and weed-control methods on physiological performance of irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 41(1):41-47; 5 ref

Anon., 1984. Wheat in hilly areas: these are the possibilities for post-emergence weed control. Informatore Agrario, 40:11, 64, 67-68.

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Baile LH, 1951. Manual of Cultivated Plants. New York, USA: The MacMillan Company

Bansal GL, Singh CM, 1986. Allelopathic effect of different plant parts of grassy weeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on the germination and growth of rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Weed Science, 18(2):108-110

Bennett SJ, 1997. A phenetic analysis and lateral key of the genus Lolium (Gramineae). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 44(1):63-72

Bennett SJ, Hayward MD, Marshall DF, 2000. Morphological differentiation in four species of the genus Lolium. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 47(3):247-255

Bennett SJ, Hayward MD, Marshall DF, 2002. Electrophoretic variation as a measure of species differentiation between four species of the genus Lolium. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 49(1):59-66

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS) source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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