Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Livistona chinensis
(Chinese fan palm)

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Datasheet

Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Livistona chinensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Chinese fan palm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Livistona chinensis is a palm tree that has been widely introduced into tropical and warm temperate regions of the world to be used as ornamental. It has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in distu...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit on steep gulch wall. Hamakua Coast, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit on steep gulch wall. Hamakua Coast, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit on steep gulch wall. Hamakua Coast, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
Invasive habitLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit on steep gulch wall. Hamakua Coast, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2009.
HabitLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fronds. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.
TitleFronds
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fronds. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fronds. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.
FrondsLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fronds. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, showing fronds. Lapohoehoe Point, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, showing fronds. Lapohoehoe Point, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, showing fronds. Lapohoehoe Point, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
HabitLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, showing fronds. Lapohoehoe Point, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fronds. Huelo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleFronds
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fronds. Huelo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fronds. Huelo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
FrondsLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fronds. Huelo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); armed, 'thorny' stems. Holiday Inn Express, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
TitleStems
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); armed, 'thorny' stems. Holiday Inn Express, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); armed, 'thorny' stems. Holiday Inn Express, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
StemsLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); armed, 'thorny' stems. Holiday Inn Express, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); wilding habit in Eucalyptus understory. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleWilding habit
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); wilding habit in Eucalyptus understory. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); wilding habit in Eucalyptus understory. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Wilding habitLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); wilding habit in Eucalyptus understory. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fruiting habit. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2009.
TitleFruiting habit
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fruiting habit. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fruiting habit. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2009.
Fruiting habitLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fruiting habit. Kahanu Gardens NTBG Kaeleku Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fruits. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2001.
TitleFruits
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fruits. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2001.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2001 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fruits. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2001.
FruitsLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); fruits. Waikapu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2001.©Forest & Kim Starr-2001 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); unripe fruits. Harrington Sound Road, Hamilton Parish, Bermuda. July 2009.
TitleUnripe fruits
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); unripe fruits. Harrington Sound Road, Hamilton Parish, Bermuda. July 2009.
Copyright©Sam Fraser-Smith/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); unripe fruits. Harrington Sound Road, Hamilton Parish, Bermuda. July 2009.
Unripe fruitsLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); unripe fruits. Harrington Sound Road, Hamilton Parish, Bermuda. July 2009.©Sam Fraser-Smith/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, planted as an ornamental. Madeira, Portugal. July 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, planted as an ornamental. Madeira, Portugal. July 2010.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Zureks/via wikipedia - CC0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, planted as an ornamental. Madeira, Portugal. July 2010.
HabitLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, planted as an ornamental. Madeira, Portugal. July 2010.Public Domain - Released by Zureks/via wikipedia - CC0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, planted as an ornamental. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, planted as an ornamental. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, planted as an ornamental. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.
HabitLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, planted as an ornamental. Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, planted as an ornamental. Holiday Inn Express Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, planted as an ornamental. Holiday Inn Express Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, planted as an ornamental. Holiday Inn Express Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
HabitLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); habit, planted as an ornamental. Holiday Inn Express Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); artefact made from fronds, a Chinese fan.
TitleArtefact
CaptionLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); artefact made from fronds, a Chinese fan.
Copyright©WikiCantona/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); artefact made from fronds, a Chinese fan.
ArtefactLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm); artefact made from fronds, a Chinese fan.©WikiCantona/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) R. Br. ex C. Mart.

Preferred Common Name

  • Chinese fan palm

Other Scientific Names

  • Chamaerops biroo Siebold ex Mart.
  • Latania chinensis Jacq.
  • Livistona japonica Nakai ex Masam.
  • Livistona oliviformis (Hassk.) Mart.
  • Livistona subglobosa (Hassk.) Mart.
  • Saribus chinensis (Jacq.) Blume
  • Saribus oliviformis Hassk.
  • Saribus subglobosus Hassk.

International Common Names

  • English: Chinese fountain palm; fountain palm
  • Spanish: livistona de China; palma abanico; palma china
  • French: palmier éventail de Chine
  • Chinese: pu kui
  • Portuguese: falsa-latânia; palmeira-leque-da-China

Local Common Names

  • French Polynesia: palmier fontaine
  • Italy: palma da capelli
  • Japan: biro

EPPO code

  • LIVCH (Livistona chinensis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Livistona chinensis is a palm tree that has been widely introduced into tropical and warm temperate regions of the world to be used as ornamental. It has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in disturbed sites, but also in undisturbed natural areas. L. chinensis produces a large amount of fruits and has high germination rates. It grows by forming dense thickets that can crowd out and overshadow native species. Currently, it is listed as invasive in Hawaii, Florida, Bermuda, Mauritius, Reunion and New Caledonia. In Florida, L. chinensis is listed as a category II invasive plant, a category designed for species with the potential to disrupt native plant communities.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Arecales
  •                         Family: Arecaceae
  •                             Genus: Livistona
  •                                 Species: Livistona chinensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Arecaceae includes 188 genera and 2585 species of perennial climbers, shrubs and trees (commonly known as palm trees) distributed across the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world (Stevens, 2012). The genus Livistona is included in the subfamily Coryphoideae and is one of the most ecologically diverse and widespread genera of palms. Livistona is distributed across Africa and southern Arabia, southeastern and eastern Asia, Malesia and Australia. Because of this extensive distribution, Livistona has received uneven taxonomic attention at the species level. Livistona is also a genus of major horticultural and economic importance, and thus many species have been moved by humans over long distances (Dowe, 2001; 2009; Starr et al., 2003).

Description

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Stems to 15 m tall, 20-30 cm in diameter, rough with leaf scars. Leaves are palmate; petioles to 1.8 m, with green or black recurved spines along margins, spines denser proximally, fewer distally on petioles; hastula to 3 cm; blades almost circular in outline, 1.2-1.8 m wide, green on both surfaces, regularly divided to c. half their length into 50-90 segments, these split and pendulous at apices. Inflorescences are 1-1.2 m, branched to three orders, with six or seven partial inflorescences; rachillae 10-18 cm; flowers hermaphroditic, borne in clusters of 4-7, white or yellow, 2-2.5 mm. Fruits are green or blue-green, globose to ellipsoid or pear-shaped, 1.5-2.6 x 0.9-1.8 cm (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

Distribution

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L. chinensis is native to Eastern Asia including China, Japan (i.e., Ryukyu Islands, Bonin Islands) and Taiwan (USDA-ARS, 2016). The species is widely cultivated as an ornamental and can be found naturalized in the West Indies, tropical America and on many islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans (Wagner et al., 1999; Meyer et al., 2008; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; Govaerts, 2016; PIER, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentNativeBased on regional distribution
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001Cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedBased on regional distribution
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedBased on regional distribution
-JavaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
JapanPresentNativeBased on regional distribution
-KyushuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentNativeYoshida et al., 2000; USDA-ARS, 2016
-ShikokuPresentNativeYoshida et al., 2000; USDA-ARS, 2016
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al., 2009Cultivated
TaiwanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
VietnamPresentIntroducedPalmweb, 2016

Africa

MauritiusPresentIntroduced Invasive Meyer et al., 2008
RéunionPresentIntroduced Invasive Meyer et al., 2008
South AfricaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced Invasive Bermuda DENR, 2016
USAPresentIntroduced Invasive Based on regional distribution
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive FLEPPC, 2015
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedHoldridge and Poveda, 1975
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedBerendsohn et al., 2012Cultivated
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedJørgensen et al., 2015Cultivated
ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdárraga et al., 2011

Oceania

FijiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFlorence et al., 2013
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
KiribatiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
NauruPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Meyer et al., 2008
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

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In Mauritius, L. chinensis was introduced in 1785 and is now widely naturalized and invasive in native and secondary forests across the island (Meyer et al., 2008). In Hawaii, it was probably introduced in the 1800s and is cultivated as an ornamental tree, persisting after cultivation, and sparingly naturalized in areas where previously cultivated (Wagner et al., 1999).

Risk of Introduction

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Because L. chinensis is widely commercialized as an ornamental palm in the horticultural trade, the risk of new introductions of this species is very high. It has the potential to escape from cultivation and become naturalized in disturbed sites, but also in undisturbed natural forests (Wagner et al., 1999; Starr et al., 2003; Meyer et al., 2008; ISSG, 2016).

Habitat

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L. chinensis grows in coastal and secondary moist forests at elevations between 1 and 600 m (Starr et al., 2003; Dowe, 2009; Palmweb, 2016). In China, it grows in coastal forests, often on sandy soils (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). In Florida, it can be found growing on disturbed hammocks and mesic woodlands (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016). In Mauritius, it is widely naturalized in native and secondary forests, and in Reunion it has spread in streambeds, shady understorey of disturbed secondary forests and coastal areas (Meyer et al., 2008). In Hawaii, it is especially prolific in moist areas, where numerous seedlings are often observed in ditches, waterways, streambeds, gulches and shady understory of disturbed secondary forests (Starr et al., 2003). It is also spreading across Bermuda, where it grows forming dense thickets in areas near cultivation, along roadsides and in disturbed forests and coastal areas (Bermuda DENR, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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L. chinensis negatively impacts Acanthophoenix rubra, a critically endangered palm endemic to Mauritius (Maunder et al., 2001).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number of L. chinensis is 2n = 36 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016; Palmweb, 2016).

 

Reproductive Biology

As other palm species, L. chinensis is probably pollinated by wind and a variety of insects and animals such as beetles, bees, flies, ants and bats (Dehgan, 1998). This species is hermaphrodite and predominantly autogamous, while an evolutionary trend towards dioecy is displayed in other members of the genus (Dowe, 2009).

 

Physiology and Phenology

In Asia, L. chinensis flowers from February to April and fruits from April to September (Dowe, 2009). In Florida and Bermuda, it has been recorded flowering during the spring and summer (Gilman and Watson, 1993).

 

Environmental Requirements

L. chinensis grows in any moist area at elevations below 600 m. Plants are adapted to a wide range of soil conditions including clay, loam, sand, acidic and alkaline soils, but it prefers well-drained soils. Seedlings and young plants can thrive in open sunny areas, as well as in dense shady forested areas (Starr et al., 2003; Dowe, 2009; Palmweb, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 14 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall1800 mm>3000 mmmm; lower/upper limits

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aleurotrachelus atratus
Candidatus Phytoplasma palmae Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific Dehgan, 1998
Paysandisia archon
Raoiella indica Pathogen
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

Notes on Natural Enemies

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L. chinensis appears to be susceptible to lethal yellowing disease caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma palmi (Dehgan, 1998) and some other pathogens.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

L. chinensis spreads by seeds. Fruits fall to the ground and sprout below the parent tree. Fruits can also be spread by birds and other animals (Bermuda DENR, 2016). In Hawaii, it is possible that plants are also spread in water, as seedlings are often observed germinating along ditches (Starr et al., 2003). Dispersal by sea currents has been suggested for the northerly spread of L. chinensis (as var. subglobosa) from the Ryukyu Archipelago to Shikoku, Japan (Yoshida et al., 2000). 

 

Intentional Introduction

L. chinensis is primarily spread over long distances by humans. It is often planted as ornamental and used in landscaping (Starr et al., 2003; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

L. chinensis is listed as invasive in Hawaii, Florida, Bermuda, Mauritius, Reunion and New Caledonia, where it negatively impacts vegetation on coastal areas, mesic woodlands and secondary moist forests (Starr et al., 2003; Meyer et al., 2008; FLEPPC, 2015; Bermuda DENR, 2016; ISSG, 2016; PIER, 2016).

 

Impact on Biodiversity

L. chinensis produces a large number of fruits and has high germination rates. Fallen berries germinate at the base of the parent tree, forming dense thickets that smother and outcompete native vegetation (Bermuda DENR, 2016). In Mauritius, it has become invasive and is threatening the critically endangered endemic palm Acanthophoenix rubra (Maunder et al., 2001).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Acanthophoenix rubraCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)MauritiusCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading; Competition - smotheringMaunder et al., 2001 IUCN critically endangered species

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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L. chinensis is widely planted as an ornamental throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is often planted in gardens, parking lots, parks and avenues (Gilman and Watson, 1993; USDA-ARS, 2016). In Asia, leaves are used for making hats, fans, brooms and raincoats (Dowe, 2009; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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L. chinensis looks similar to the Bermuda endemic palm Sabal bermudana, but can be distinguished by the following traits (Bermuda DENR, 2016): L. chinensis has thorns on the leaf stem, while S. bermudana never has thorns; and L. chinensis has a uniformly green leaf, hard oval grey-blue berries and the leaf meets the stem in a ‘C’ shape when viewed from above.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control         

Physical/mechanical control

Seedlings of L. chinensis can be pulled by hand. Larger saplings are more difficult to pull and can be dug out with a fork, but will re-grow if broken. Larger plants can be cut back to ground level (Bermuda DENR, 2016; ISSG, 2016).

 

Chemical control

In Bermuda, the herbicide glyphosate has been used to control L. chinensis. The herbicide should be brushed onto the stump of the cut palm to prevent re-growth (Bermuda DENR, 2016; ISSG, 2016).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, No. 98. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 1192 pp.

Berendsohn WG, Gruber AN, Salomón JM, Molina JG, 2012. Nova Silva Cuscatlanica. Native and introduced trees of El Salvador, Part 2: Angiospermae - Families M to P and Pteridophyta. (Nova Silva Cuscatlanica. Árboles nativos e introducidos de El Salvador, Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta). Englera No. 29(2). Berlin-Dahlem, Germany: Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum, 300 pp.

Bermuda DENR, 2016. List of invasive plant species. Paget, Bermuda: Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). http://environment.bm/

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp.

Dehgan B, 1998. Landscape plants for subtropical climates. Gainesville, USA: University of Florida Press, 638 pp.

Dowe JL, 2001. Studies in the genus Livistona (Coryphoideae: Arecaceae). PhD Thesis. Queensland, Australia: James Cook University.

Dowe, J. L., 2009. A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae)., Gardens' Bulletin (Singapore), 60(2):185-344

FLEPPC, 2015. List of Invasive Plant Species. Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA: Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council. http://www.fleppc.org/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachussets, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP)). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Gilman EF, Watson DG, 1993. Livistona chinensis, Chinese fan palm. Fact Sheet ST-365. Gainesville, USA: Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. http://hort.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/tree_fact_sheets/livchia.pdf

Govaerts R, 2016. World Checklist of Arecaceae. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Holdridge LR, Poveda LJ, 1975. Trees of Costa Rica. (Arboles de Costa Rica). San Jose, Costa Rica: Centro Cientifica Tropical.

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11/01/17 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA

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