Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Lipaphis erysimi
(mustard aphid)

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Datasheet

Lipaphis erysimi (mustard aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lipaphis erysimi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mustard aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Apterous viviparous females of L. erysimi are oval, 1.4-2.4 mm in length.
TitleAdults
CaptionApterous viviparous females of L. erysimi are oval, 1.4-2.4 mm in length.
CopyrightClive Lau
Apterous viviparous females of L. erysimi are oval, 1.4-2.4 mm in length.
AdultsApterous viviparous females of L. erysimi are oval, 1.4-2.4 mm in length.Clive Lau

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach

Preferred Common Name

  • mustard aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphis erysimi Kaltenbach
  • Aphis indobrassicae (Das)
  • Aphis mathiolella Theobald
  • Aphis pseudobrassicae Davis
  • Hyadaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach)
  • Hyadaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis)
  • Lipaphis indobrassicae (Das)
  • Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis)
  • Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Kaltenbach)
  • Rhopalosiphon pseudobrassicae (Davis)
  • Rhopalosiphum erysimi (Kaltenbach)
  • Rhopalosiphum indobrassicae (Das)
  • Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae (Davis)
  • Siphocoryne indobrassicae Das
  • Siphocoryne pseudobrassicae (Davis)

International Common Names

  • English: false cabbage aphid; safflower aphid; turnip aphid
  • Spanish: afido del repollo; pulgón del nabo
  • French: puceron du navet

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: turnipsbladlus
  • Finland: lutukkakirva; retiisikirva; rypsikirva
  • Germany: Senf-Blattlaus
  • Japan: nise-daikon-aburamusi
  • Netherlands: Loodkleurige bladluis

EPPO code

  • LIPAER (Lipaphis erysimi)
  • RHOPPS (Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Lipaphis
  •                                         Species: Lipaphis erysimi

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
CameroonPresent
EgyptPresent, LocalizedNative
EritreaPresent
EthiopiaPresent, LocalizedNative
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent, LocalizedNative
MadagascarPresent, Widespread
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent, Widespread
NigeriaPresent, Widespread
Sierra LeonePresent, LocalizedNative
South AfricaPresent, LocalizedNative
SudanPresent, LocalizedNative
TanzaniaPresent, LocalizedNative
UgandaPresent, Widespread
ZambiaPresent, LocalizedNative
ZimbabwePresent, Widespread

Asia

BangladeshPresent, Widespread
BhutanPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Raychaudhuri and (1980)
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresent, Widespread
-GansuPresent, Widespread
-GuangdongPresent, Widespread
-HebeiPresent, Widespread
-HenanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent, Widespread
-JiangsuPresent, Widespread
-LiaoningPresent, Widespread
-NingxiaPresent, Widespread
-ShandongPresent, Widespread
-SichuanPresent, Widespread
-YunnanPresent, Widespread
-ZhejiangPresent, Widespread
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Arunachal PradeshPresentOriginal citation: Raychaudhuri and (1980)
-AssamPresentOriginal citation: Raychaudhuri and (1980)
-BiharPresentOriginal citation: Raychaudhuri and (1980)
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-JharkhandPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresentOriginal citation: Raychaudhuri and (1980)
-MeghalayaPresentOriginal citation: Raychaudhuri and (1980)
-NagalandPresentOriginal citation: Raychaudhuri and (1980)
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresentOriginal citation: Raychaudhuri and (1980)
-SikkimPresentOriginal citation: Raychaudhuri and (1980)
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresentOriginal citation: Raychaudhuri and (1980)
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent, LocalizedNative
IraqPresent, LocalizedNative
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
-ShikokuPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent, Widespread
PakistanPresent, Widespread
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent, LocalizedNative
YemenPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CyprusPresent
DenmarkPresent, Widespread
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentOriginal recorded location: Former USSR-in-Europe
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresentOriginal citation: Parrine & Rumine, 1989
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresentOriginal citation: Ilharco, 1976
-AzoresPresentOriginal citation: Ilharco, 1976
RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastPresent
-SiberiaPresent
SwedenPresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

BermudaPresent
CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent, LocalizedNative
-ManitobaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent, LocalizedNative
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent, Widespread
-QuebecPresent, LocalizedNative
-SaskatchewanPresent, LocalizedNative
CubaPresent
MexicoPresent, LocalizedNative
NicaraguaPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresent
-AlaskaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent2014
-NebraskaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
FijiPresent
GuamPresent
New ZealandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent, LocalizedNative
BrazilPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
GuyanaPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Stems / distortion
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphelinus Parasite
Aphidius colemani Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius gifuensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Manipur Brassica napus
Coccinella transversalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus thromboides Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Cycloneda ancoralis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Diaeretiella rapae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Diglyphus isaea Parasite
Entomophthora Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Episyrphus alterans
Episyrphus alternans Predator Adults/Nymphs Punjab mustard
Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Eristalis obscuritarsus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Eristalis tenax Predator Adults/Nymphs
Erynia neoaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Erynia nouryi Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Eupeodes confrater Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Punjab mustard
Eupeodes latilunulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Punjab mustard
Fusarium pallidoroseum Pathogen Adults/Nymphs India; Tamil Nadu cabbages; cauliflowers
Glomerella cingulata Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Harmonia axyridis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia tredecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia variegata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Ischiodon scutellaris Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Punjab mustard
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Leucopis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Micromus timidus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Motacilla caspica Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius minutus Predator Adults/Nymphs China apples; Astragalus sinicus
Orius sauteri Predator Adults/Nymphs
Propylea japonica Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scaeva latimaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Punjab mustard
Scaeva pyrastri Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria indiana Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Punjab mustard
Verticillium lamellicola Pathogen Adults/Nymphs

References

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Agarwala BK, Bhaumik AK, Gilbert FS, 1989. Relative development and voracity of six species of aphidophagous syrphids in cruciferous crops. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Animal Sciences, 98(4):267-274

Agarwala BK, Dutta S, Raychaudhuri DN, 1983. An account of syrphid (Diptera: Syrphidae) predators of aphids available in Darjeeling District of West Bengal and Sikkim. Pranikee, 4:238-244.

Agarwala BK, Raychaudhuri DN, 1981. Note on some aphids affecting economically important plants in Sikkim. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 51(9):690-692

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Awasthi CJ, 1993. Incidence of mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.) in arid zone. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology, 13(1):31-32

Bakhetia DRC, Ghorbandi AW, 1989. Relationship between the parameters of aphid population per plant and percentage of plants infested by Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) in Indian mustard crop. Journal of Aphidology, 3(1-2):119-124

Bakhetia DRC, Sekhon BS, Brar KS, Ghorbandi AW, 1989. Determination of economic threshold of Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) on Indian mustard. Journal of Aphidology, 3(1-2):125-134

Bakhetia DRC, Sidhu SS, 1983. Effect of rainfall and temperature on the mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach). Indian Journal of Entomology, 45(2):202-205

Bakhetia DRC, Sohi AS, 1980. Taxonomic status of the mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Entomological Research, 4(1):105-106

Balraj Singh, Rajwant Singh, Mahal MS, 1983. Assessment of loss in yield of Brassica juncea by Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.). II. Economics of aphid control. Indian Journal of Ecology, 10(2):279-284

Baral K, Dasgupta B, Ghosh RK, Chatterjee BN, 1986. Chemical control of mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt). Pesticides, 20(6):13-14

Bath DS, Darshan Singh, 1989. Studies on the economic threshold level of mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) on the radish seed crop in India. Tropical Pest Management, 35(2):154-156

Begum M, Husain M, Talukder FA, 1991. Relative effectiveness of some granular insecticides against mustard aphid. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 18(1):49-52

Bhadauria NS, Bahadur J, Dhamdhere SV, Jakhmola SS, 1992. Effect of different sowing dates of mustard crop on infestation by the mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.). Journal of Insect Science, 5(1):37-39

Bhadauria NS, Bahadur J, Dhamdhere SV, Jakhmola SS, 1992. Screening of some mustard cultivars for resistance to mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.). Journal of Insect Science, 5(2):185-186

Bishnoi OP, Singh H, Singh R, 1992. Incidence and multiplication of mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) in relation to meteorological variables. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 62(10):710-712

Blackman RL, Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Blackman RL, Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Blackman RL, Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Blackman RL, Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Bodenheimer FS, Swirski E, 1957. Weizmann Sci. Pr. Israel. Jerusalem, 5 + ] 378 pp.

Buntin GD, Raymer PL, 1994. Pest status of aphids and other insects in winter canola in Georgia. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(4):1097-1104.

Butani DK, 1974. Effect of various insecticides on the mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) and yield of rape, Brassica campestris Linn. Indian Journal of Entomology, 36(3):243-246

Cottier W, 1953. Aphids of New Zealand. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin, 106:307-311.

Daiber CC, 1971a. Cabbage aphids in South Africa: their field populations during the year. Phytophylactica, 3(1):15-28.

Darshan Singh, Hari Singh, 1987. Effectiveness of granular and foliar application of systemic insecticides in controlling mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi. Indian Journal of Entomology, 49(3):453-456

Deepak Gauraha, Shaw SS, Sahu RK, Bhandarkar S, 2002. Effect of abiotic factors on population build up of Lipaphis erysimi Kalt on mustard Brassica juncea. Journal of Applied Zoological Researches, 13(2/3):154-155.

Dhiman SC, Kumar V, 1986. Biological control of mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt) by using the parasitoid Aphidius (Dipretiella) rapae (Curtis). I. Influence of parasitism on aphids. Proceedings of a national symposium on pesticide residues and environmental pollution, Muzaffarnagar, India, 2-4 October, 1985 Muzaffarnagar, India; Sanatan Dharm College, 219-222

DiFonzo CD, Ragsdale DW, Radcliffe EB, Gudmestad NC, Secor GA, 1997. Seasonal abundance of aphid vectors of potato virus Y in the Red River Valley of Minnesota and North Dakota. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(3):824-831; 32 ref.

Dutta SK, 1992. Economic injury level of mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in toria crop (Brassica campestris var. toria). New Agriculturist, 3(2):193-198

Eastop VF, Hille Ris Lambers D, 1976. Survey of the World's Aphids. The Hague, Netherlands: DR. W. Junk bv Publishers.

Fang HS, Nee HH, Chiang JK, Chu C, 1984. Alate aphids as field vectors of tobacco vein-banding mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus in the Spring crop of tobacco in Pingtung. Bulletin of the Tobacco Research Institute, Taiwan Tobacco & Wine Monopoly Bureau, No.21:49-57

Ghosh MR, Chaudhri DNR, 1989. Biology of Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach). Bulletin of Entomology (New Delhi), 30(1):7-12

Ghosh MR, Mitra A, 1983. Incidence pattern and population composition of Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) on mustard and radish. Pranikee, 4:43-51

Ghosh MR, Raychaudhuri DN, 1983. aerial activity of some aphids in Kalimpong, West Bengal. Pranikee, 4:1-10

Godoy KB, Cividanes FJ, 2001. Thermal requirements and prediction of populational peaks of Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Homoptera: Aphididae). (Exigências térmicas e previsão de picos populacionais de Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Homoptera: Aphididae).) Neotropical Entomology, 30(3):369-371.

Hamid S, Ahmad S, 1980. Biological assessment of three different insecticides sprayed against Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) on winter oil-seed crops. Proceedings of the 1st Pakistan Congress of Zoology, 30 April -- 1 May, 1980, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad Zoological Society of Pakistan ?Islamabad Pakistan, 283-290

Harvir Singh, Rohilla HR, Kharub SS, 1987. Integration of chemical control of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) and safety of pollinators. Annals of Biology, 3(1):105-106

He JL, Sun XQ, Ye WJ, Shen LJ, Cai Y, Li ZH, 1992. Preliminary studies on the bionomics of Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Shanghai. Journal of Shanghai Agricultural College, 10(1):35-43; 9 ref.

Heie OE, 1992. The Aphidoidea (Hemiptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark, New York. Scandinavian Science Press Ltd., 111-112.

Hou YM, Liu SY, 1994. A study on the injury equivalent and compound action threshold of rape aphids. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 21(1):47-51

Ilharco FA, 1979. 1st Addition to the Catalogue of the aphids of continental Portugal (Homoptera, Aphidoidea). Agronomia Lusitana, 39(4):253-294

Islam N, Bhuiyah MIM, Begum A, Karim MA, 1991. Effect of dates of sowing on abundance of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach on the infestation and yield of mustard. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 19(1):95-100

Islam N, Bhuiyah MIM, Karim MA, 1990. Field evaluation of some insecticides for the control of the mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 18(2):261-262

Kalra VK, 1988. Population dynamics of various predators associated with mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt). Journal of Biological Control, 2(2):77-79

Kanth RH, Shah MH, Bali AS, 2000. Effect of different sowing dates on heat-unit requirement for different phenophases of brown sarson (Brassica campestris) varieties and dynamics of aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) population. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 45(1):170-173.

Katole SR, Nimbalkar SA, Yadgirwar PV, Kadu NR, Kolhe AV, 1998. Note on parasitization of Diaeretiella rapea M. Intosh on mustard aphids, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. PKV Research Journal, 22(2):214-216; 6 ref.

Kawada K, Murai T, 1979. Apterous males and holocyclic reproduction of Lipaphis erysimi in Japan. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 26(3):343-345

Kher S, Rataul HS, 1992. Screening of some Brassica species and their strains for resistance to mustard aphid. I. Based on aphid infestation index. Indian Journal of Entomology, 54(3):255-261

Kher S, Rataul HS, 1992a. Screening technique in Brassica crops for aphid resistance. Indian Journal of Entomology, 54(2):181-189.

Kumar A, Kapoor VC, Mahal MS, 1988. Population build-up and dispersion of immature stages of aphidophagous syrphids (Syrphidae; Diptera) on raya, brassicae juncea Coss. Journal of Insect Science, 1(1):39-48

Kumar V, Singh D, Kamboj MC, Pundir SR, Naveen Chandra, 1994. Genetics of resistance to mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt), in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss) at different stages of crop. Crop Research (Hisar), 7(2):256-262

Lal MN, Singh SS, Singh VP, 1999. Reaction of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) to morphological characters of mustard, Brassica juncea L. Journal of Entomological Research, 23(3):221-223; 8 ref.

Lal OP, Singh B, 1993. Outbreak of the painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on mustard in northern India. Journal of Entomological Research, 17(2):155-157

Laurence GA, 1980. The aphid pests of Trinidad and Tobago. Journal of the Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago, 80(1):33-34, 36-37

Lee HS, 1988. Action thresholds for turnip aphid and green peach aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on cabbage, Chinese cabbage and leaf mustard. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 37(1):91-99

Malik RS, 1988. Comparative aphid tolerance in cultivated species of Brassica. New Botanist, 165(2-3):113-116

Malik RS, 1989. Seed yield and oil contents of cultivated species of Brassica in relation to aphid and white rust infestation. Annals of Agricultural Research, 10(2):178-181

Malik YP, Bhagwan Deen, 1998. Impact of aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) intensity on plant growth and seed characters of Indian mustard. Indian Journal of Entomology, 60(1):36-42; 6 ref.

Mathur YK, Upadhayat KD, 1980. Evaluation and economics of some modern insecticides against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. Pesticides, 14(1):14-15

Misra HP, 1993. Evaluation of some synthetic insecticides and oils against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach. Indian Journal of Entomology, 55(1):58-61

Miyazaki M, 1971. A revision of the tribe Macrosphini of Japan (Homoptera:Aphididae, Aphidinae). Insecta Matsumarana, 34(1):188.

Mondal N, Alam MS, Ahsan F, Das DC, 1992. Effect of food on larval development periods of Lipaphis erysimi Kalt and Aphis citricola Van Der Goot. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 20(2):297-300

Mussury RM, Fernandes WD, 2002. Occurrence of Diaretiella rapae (Mc'Intosh, 1855) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) parasitising Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach, 1843) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L. 1758) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Brassica napus in Mato Grosso do Sul. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 45(1):41-46.

Nagalingam B, Jayaraj S, 1986. First record of Fusarium semitectum Berk and Rav as an entomophagous fungus. Current Science, India, 55(7):377-378; [1 fig.]; 3 ref.

Naik BG, Shashi-Verma, Phadke KG, Verma S, 1993. Effect of insecticides on plant characters and yield of rape seed in relation to mustard aphid. Lipaphis erysimi kalt. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 21(1):51-54.

Paddock FB, 1915. The turnip louse. Bulletin of Texas Agricultural Experimental Station, 180:7-77.

Pandey KP, Kumar A, Shanker S, Tripathi CPM, 1985. First record of Pachyneuron aphidis (Bouche) (Pteromalidae: Hymenoptera), a hyperparasitoid of Dipretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Aphidiidae: Hymenoptera) from India. Current Science, India, 54(14):710

Pandey KP, Kumar A, Tripathi CPM, 1986. Population ecology of Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. on Brassica campestris. Bulletin of the Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, 25(2):125-128

Parrini C, Rumine P, 1989. Diseases and pests of greenhouse-grown snapdragon and stock. Colture Protette, 18(12):29-38; 27 ref.

Phadke KG, 1982. Life table and growth rate studies on Lipaphis erysimi in relation to Brassica varieties. Indian Journal of Entomology, 44(2):136-144

Phadke KG, Prasad SK, 1984. Yield losses due to mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in promising genotypes of Brassica juncea. Indian Journal of Entomology, 46(4):486-487

Phadke KG, Prasad SK, 1987. Effect of sowing date on aphid incidence and yield in some varieties of rapseed and mustard. Journal of Aphidology, 1(1-2):23-28

Prasad SK, 1978. Chemical control of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach). Indian Journal of Entomology, 40(3):328-332

Prasad SK, 1978. Control of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kaltebach. Indian Journal of Entomology, 40(4):401-404

Prasad SK, 1992. Relative efficacy of some synthetic pyrethroids and phosphamidon against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. Annals of Agricultural Research, 13(2):137-140

Prasad SK, Padke KG, 1984. Yield loss in some improved varieties of rapeseed and mustard by aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. Indian Journal of Entomology, 46(2):250-253

Prasad SK, Phadke KG, 1980. Population dynamics of Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) on different varieties of Brassica species. Indian Journal of Entomology, 42(1):54-63.

Prasad SK, Phadke KG, 1982. Yield-infestation relationship and economic injury level of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach infesting rapeseed crop. Journal of Entomological Research, 6(2):117-122

Prasad SK, Phadke KG, Mehrotra KN, 1984. Forecasting of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach on rapeseed crop. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, B, 50(2):146-153

Rahman MM, Uddin MM, Khan MR, 1989. Influence of seeding date on the occurrence of aphids (Lipaphis pseudobrassicae Davis) and seed yield of mustard and rape seed. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 24(1-4):116-122

Raj D, Devi N, Chandel YS, Desh Raj, 1992. Relative susceptibility of crucferous oilseeds to mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach. Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research, 18(1-2):13-15.

Ram S, Gupta MP, 1987. Effect of weather conditions and time of sowing on the incidence of mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.). Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhana Patrika, 2(1):29-34

Ram S, Gupta MP, 1992. Role of fertilizer (N, P & K) in insect pest management of mustard meant for fodder production. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 26(1):35-39

Raychaudhuri DN, ed. , 1980. Aphids of north-east India and Bhutan. Aphids of north-east India and Bhutan. The Zoological Society. Calcutta India, viii + 521 pp.

Rohilla HR, Harvir-Singh, Kalra VK, Kharub SS, 1987. Losses caused by mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt) in different Brassica genotypes. In: The International rapeseed Congress, Poznan, Poland. 11-14 May 1987, 46.

Roy DC, Pande YD, 1991. Biology and seasonal incidence of Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Aphididae: Homoptera) on cabbage in Tripura. Bioved, 2(1):37-42

Roy P, 1975. Population dynamics of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) (Aphididae: Hemiptera) in West Bengal. Indian Journal of Entomology, 37(3):318-321

Rup PJ, Kalra PK, Sohal SK, 1998. Influence of neem seed kernel extract on the development of Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.). Environment and development., 205-211; 23 ref.

Saharia D, 1981. Biology of Coccinella repanda Thunb. an important predator of mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kltb.) in Assam. Journal of Research, Assam Agricultural University, 2(1):66-73

Saharia D, 1984. The population dynamics of the mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kltb.) in Assam. Journal of Research, Assam Agricultural University, 5(1):79-83

Saucke H, 1996. Biological and integrated control of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) and Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in different cabbage-growing regions of Papua New Guinea. Biologische und integrierte Bekämpfung von Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) und Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in verschiedenen Kohlanbaugebieten Papua Neuguineas., 131 pp.; 24 pp. of ref.

Sekhon SS, Sajjan SS, Kanta U, 1980. Chemical control of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi on seed crop of radish. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 8(2):151-153

Sharma PK, Kashyap NP, 1998. Estimation of losses in three different cruciferous oilseed Brassica crops due to the aphid complex in Himachal Pradesh (India). Journal of Entomological Research, 22(4):337-342; 11 ref.

Shekh AM, Patel JR, Ratanpara HC, 1993. Effect of temperature, vapour pressure and thermal time on populations of cabbage aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach infesting cabbage. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 18(2):56-61

Shubhada Rahalkar, Anju Tiwari, 2007. Effect of time of sowing on the incidence of aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) and yield in mustard. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 35(2):348-349.

Shukla AN, Singh R, Tripathi CPM, 1990. Effect of predation period on the functional response of Coccinella septempunctata Linn. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Journal of Advanced Zoology, 11(1):27-32

Singh D, Singh H, 1994. Predatory potentiality of coccinellids, Coccinella septempunctata Linn. and Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) over mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.). Crop Research (Hisar), 7(1):120-124

Singh D, Singh H, 1994. Predatory potentiality of immature stages of lacewing, Chrysopa sp. and syrphid, Episyrphus balteatus (Degears) over mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.). Crop Research (Hisar), 7(1):116-119

Singh H, Singh B, Gupta SK, Singh H, 1993. Response of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) to different cultivars of Brassica under protected and unprotected conditions. Journal of Insect Science, 6(1):117-118

Singh H, Singh Z, Yadava TP, 1990. Influence of abiotic factors on alate production in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach). Journal of Aphidology, 4(1-2):71-74; 8 ref.

Singh PK, 2006. Control of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) with combination of insecticides and neem oil and their safety to foraging bee. Indian Journal of Entomology, 68(4):329-333.

Sinha RP, Yazdani SS, Verma GD, 1990. Population dynamics of mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kact. (Homoptera: Aphididae) in relation to ecological parameters. Indian Journal of Entomology, 52(3):387-392

Sonkar UB, Desai BD, 1999. Effect of sowing dates on the incidence of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. on mustard. Shashpa, 6(1):41-44; 2 ref.

Sreekanth M, Babu TR, 2001. Evaluation of certain new insecticides against the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) on cabbage. International Pest Control, 43(6):242-244.

Srivastava A, Singh H, Thakur HL, 1996. Assessment of avoidable yield loss caused by green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer and mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in Brassica. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 24(1/2):115-116; 5 ref.

Suri SM, Singh D, 1993. Estimation of losses in yield of brown sarson due to aphids in Kangra Valley. II. Effect of insecticides at different crop growth stages. Journal of Insect Science, 6(1):78-81

Taylor LR, Palmer JMP, Dupuch, Cole J, Taylor MS, 1984. A Handbook for Aphid Identification. Harpenden, UK: Rothamsted Experimental Station, 171 pp.

Thomas J, Phadke KG, 1992. Field efficacy of chlorpyriphos and quinalphos EC and dusts as compared to oxydemeton-methyl EC against aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt) on rapeseed crop. Indian Journal of Entomology, 54(2):150-163; 8 ref.

Thomas J, Phadke KG, 1993. Residual toxicity and persistence of chlorpyriphos, quinalphos and oxydemeton-methyl to aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.). Indian Journal of Entomology, 55(3):275-280

Tripathi NLM, Sachan GC, Verma SK, Pathak PK, 1986. Developmental behaviour of Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) on different parts/stages of Brassica campestris var. toria. Indian Journal of Entomology, 48(3):295-300

UK CAB International, 1965. Lipaphis erysimi. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, December. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 203.

Uttam SK, Mohan K, Tripathi RA, 1993. Studies on population dynamics of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 1(1):34-37

Varma GC, Vyas RS, Brar KS, 1990. Occurrence of Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) on different aphid species. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 27(4):611-614

Veda OP, Shaw SS, 1988. Population dynamics of mustard aphids, Lipaphis erysimi K. and its parasite, Diaretus rapae M'Intosh Agricultural Science Digest (Karnal), 8(4):189-190

Vekaria MV, Patel GM, 1998. Studies on the number of generations of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) under laboratory conditions. Pest Management and Economic Zoology, 6(2):163-165; 4 ref.

Verma SN, Singh OP, 1987. Estimation of avoidable losses to mustard by the aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 15(1):87-89

Wang LY, Sun Q, Lin ZW, Jiang SJ, Zhong XZ, Xin HP, 1997. Study on the infestation of aphids on rape and their control threshold. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 24(1):25-28.

Wang ZZ, Lin KH, Faan HC, 1992. Spatial distribution of aphid vectors of Chinese-small-cabbage mosaic. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 13(1):30-35

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Yadav LS, Kalra VK, 1990. Incidence of Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) on mustard in the south-western regions of Haryana. Journal of Aphidology, 4(1-2):65-66; 6 ref.

Zhang GX, Zhong TS, 1983. 11. Callaphididae. The book of economic insects in China. Volume 25. Homoptera. Aphides (a) [edited by Academia Sinica, Editorial Board of Chinese Fauna] China; Science Publishers, 156-183

Zhao HY, Wang SZ, 1990. Effect of temperature on the development of Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach). Insect Knowledge, 27(2):93-95

Zhao HY, Wang SZ, Zhang WJ, 1990. Effects of temperature on reproductive characteristics of turnip aphid. Insect Knowledge, 27(6):339-342

Distribution References

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Misra H P, 1993. Evaluation of some synthetic insecticides and oils against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach. Indian Journal of Entomology. 55 (1), 58-61.

Miyazaki M, 1971. A revision of the tribe Macrosphini of Japan (Homoptera:Aphididae, Aphidinae). In: Insecta Matsumarana, 34 (1) 188.

Mussury R M, Fernandes W D, 2002. Occurrence of Diaretiella rapae (Mc'Intosh, 1855) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) parasitising Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach, 1843) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L. 1758) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Brassica napus in Mato Grosso do Sul. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 45 (1), 41-46. DOI:10.1590/S1516-89132002000100007

NHM, 1923. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1926. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1930. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1932. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1934. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1935. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1936. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1937. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1939. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1943. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1945. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1947. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1950. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1951. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1952. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1953. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1954. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1955. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1956. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1957. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1958. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1959. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1960. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1961. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1962. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1963. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1963a. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1963b. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1964. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1965. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, Undated a. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

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Shekh A M, Patel J R, Ratanpara H C, 1993. Effect of temperature, vapour pressure and thermal time on populations of cabbage aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach infesting cabbage. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal. 18 (2), 56-61.

Shubhada Rahalkar, Anju Tiwari, 2007. Effect of time of sowing on the incidence of aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) and yield in mustard. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 35 (2), 348-349.

Singh H, Singh Z, Yadava T P, 1990. Influence of abiotic factors on alate production in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach). Journal of Aphidology. 4 (1-2), 71-74.

Singh P K, 2006. Control of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) with combination of insecticides and neem oil and their safety to foraging bee. Indian Journal of Entomology. 68 (4), 329-333.

Sreekanth M, Babu T R, 2001. Evaluation of certain new insecticides against the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) on cabbage. International Pest Control. 43 (6), 242-244.

Sunil Joshi, Sangma R H Ch, 2015. Natural enemies associated with aphids and coccids from Sikkim, India. Journal of Biological Control. 29 (1), 3-7. http://journalofbiologicalcontrol.com/index.php/jbc/article/view/75778/59026

Thomas J, Phadke K G, 1993. Residual toxicity and persistence of chlorpyriphos, quinalphos and oxydemeton-methyl to aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.). Indian Journal of Entomology. 55 (3), 275-280.

UK, CAB International, 1965. Lipaphis erysimi. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 203. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20056600203

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Yadav R S, Dharmendra Kumar, Singh D K, Singh S K, 2014. Insect-pests complex of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Annals of Agri Bio Research. 19 (1), 93-96.

Zhang G X, Zhong T S, 1983. 11. Callaphididae. In: The book of economic insects in China. Volume 25. Homoptera. Aphides (a). [ed. by Academia Sinica Editorial Board of Chinese Fauna]. China: Science Publishers. 156-183.

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