Linepithema humile (Argentine ant)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868)
Preferred Common Name
- Argentine ant
Other Scientific Names
- Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr, 1868)
International Common Names
- Spanish: hormiga Argentina; hormiga invasora (Argentina)
- French: fourmi d'Argentine
- Portuguese: formiga Argentina; formiga-Argentina
Local Common Names
- Argentina: hormiga invasora
- Denmark: argentinsk myre
- Germany: Argentinische Ameise
- Sweden: argentinsk myra
- IRIDHU (Iridomyrmex humilis)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
L. humile is one of the most invasive and problematic ant species in the world according to the Invasive Species Specialist Group (www.issg.org/database). Native to South America, it has spread worldwide in areas with Mediterranean-type climates usually associated with disturbed habitats as a result of human commercial activities. Its capacity to tolerate a wide range of abiotic conditions, its generalist dietary requirements and its unicolonial organization, which lead to the formation of large supercolonies, allow the species to spread easily and occupy a wide range of areas. In these areas, L. humile has impacted native ant faunas leading to changes in arthropod communities, ant-vertebrate interactions and ant-plant relationships. Its presence has also had economic effects, such as damage to infrastructure, and negative effects on crops and plantations due to its mutualistic interactions with hemipterans, which can affect the growth and production of the host plant.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Hymenoptera
- Family: Formicidae
- Genus: Linepithema
- Species: Linepithema humile
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Prior to Shattuck’s revision in 1992 (Shattuck, 1992), the species was included in the genus Iridomyrmex under the Latin name of Iridomyrmex humilis.
DescriptionTop of page
The workers of L. humile are small (2-3 mm long), brown and monomorphic. Their body surface is free of erect hairs on the dorsum, thorax and head. Their petiole is small and composed of a single segment (Newell and Barber, 1913).
DistributionTop of page
L. humile is native to the Paraná River drainage basin in subtropical South America (between northern Argentina, southern Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay) (Suarez et al., 2001; Tsutsui and Suarez, 2003; Wild, 2004). In Argentina both native and invasive colonies have been reported.
The distribution map includes records based on specimens of L. humile from collections in the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (LACM), California, USA; Museo Argentina de Ciencias Naturales (MACN), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP), São Paulo, Brazil; Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Tallahassee, Florida; Entomology Museum, Oregon Department of Agriculture; and The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|United Arab Emirates||Present||Introduced||Invasive|
|Belgium||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland|
|Norway||Present||Introduced||Original citation: Gómez et al. (2005)|
|El Salvador||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County|
|Mexico||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County|
|-Florida||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Tallahassee, Florida|
|-Nevada||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County|
|-Oregon||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: Entomology Museum, Oregon Department of Agriculture|
|-New South Wales||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois|
|New Zealand||Present, Localized||Introduced||2000||Invasive|
|-Goias||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo|
|-Mato Grosso do Sul||Present|
|-Minas Gerais||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo|
|-Rio de Janeiro||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present|
|Chile||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County|
|-Easter Island||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County|
|Colombia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County|
|Ecuador||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Original citation: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
In Hawaii, L. humile has frequently been intercepted in goods shipped from California. In Honolulu its establishment was first reported in 1940 (Zimmerman, 1941). It reached Maui by 1950 (Wilson and Taylor, 1967) and Haleakala National Park by 1967 (Huddleston and Fluker, 1968). The date when L. humile reached the island of Hawaii remains unknown.
According to Newell and Barber (1913), L. humile is supposed to have been introduced into New Orleans by means of the coffee ships passing back and forth between that city and Brazilian ports, as this was the only way of communication between New Orleans and the areas native to the species, and because the ants were first noticed near the areas where these ships unloaded their cargoes.
The date at which L. humile reached the Iberian Peninsula also remains unknown, but the first reported observations of the species in this area were in Oporto (the western part of the Peninsula) and date back to 1894 (Martins, 1907). This means that the first introduction of the ant would probably have been much earlier, perhaps in the 1800s, as a result of the intense commercial shipping between the Iberian Peninsula and the Río de la Plata region, the native area of this species (Tsutsui et al., 2001).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|New Zealand||1990||Yes||No||Green (1990)||Accidental introduction|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
L. humile has two main dispersion processes: diffusion dispersal through budding and long-distance jump dispersion through human-mediated transport (Suarez et al., 2001). The former is the mechanism used by the ant to extend the invasion to contiguous habitats and is characterized by a low rate of spread (Suarez et al., 2001). The latter is the process responsible for its worldwide dispersion outside its natural range and may involve anything from a few to a thousand kilometres. Jump-dispersal linked to human-mediated transport is nowadays the main factor behind the expansion of the invasion to new areas. It means that, in global terms, the risk of the introduction of the species into new areas is extremely high, since preventing its accidental transport is almost impossible.
HabitatTop of page
L. humile appears to be more successful in subtropical and Mediterranean climates than in extremely cold, arid or tropical climates (Hölldobler and Wilson, 1990; Passera, 1994). Where it has been introduced, this species is mainly found in close association with humans, with a preference for anthropogenically disturbed areas, but it also has the capacity to invade natural ecosystems around the world (Holway, 1995; Human and Gordon, 1996; Suarez et al., 2001; Gomez et al., 2003; Carpintero et al., 2005).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Buildings||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Scrub / shrublands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Nearly all of the effects of L. humile on crops or plantations are due to its mutualistic interactions with hemipterans, which are protected from their natural enemies by the ant, thereby producing a large increase in their populations and so affecting the host plant (Newell and Barber, 1913; Ness and Bronstein, 2004).
Biology and EcologyTop of page
In native populations of L. humile, workers from different nests compete aggressively for resources. The introduced populations of the species are characterized by a lack of aggressive behaviour between workers from different nests, leading to the formation of unicolonies. These unicolonies can consist of cooperative interconnected nests ranging over thousands of kilometres, as is the case of the so-called European supercolonies (Giraud et al., 2002), with high densities of workers leading to a numerical dominance over native ant species (Holway et al., 2002a). This lack of a capacity of workers in introduced populations to distinguish between workers from other nests seems to be related to a lower level of genetic diversity compared with the native populations. This has resulted in the elimination of the mechanisms required for workers to recognize workers from a different nest (Tsutsui et al., 2000).
Once virgin queens are fertilized, workers cut off their wings. This allows ovarian maturation and consequent production of eggs (Passera and Aron, 1993). Fertilized eggs (also known as diploid eggs) will develop into females (workers and queens), and the non-fertilized ones (also known as haploid eggs) will develop into males.
Queens lay eggs during most of the year except in winter, due to a physiological rest period. There are two periods during the remainder of the year when egg laying is at its maximum: one in spring and the other, to a lesser extent, in autumn (Benois, 1973). In June and July there is a strong demographic increase in males and workers, respectively, and virgin queens appear in the nest from June to August (Benois, 1973).
L. humile is an omnivorous species. Its diet is basically composed of liquid food (Markin, 1970b; Abril et al., 2007), but it also contains a small percentage of solid food, mainly insects (Abril et al., 2007). The collection of liquid food is related to the feeding of males and workers which feed mainly on carbohydrates, the principal nutrient of the liquid food collected. This, for the most part, consists of honeydew or nectar. The collection of solid food is linked to the feeding of larvae and queens. Due to its high protein content, this is the main nutrient consumed by these individuals for their development and egg-laying, respectively (Markin, 1970a; Abril et al., 2007).
ClimateTop of page
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
There are no recorded cases of natural enemies of L. humile in its introduced range (Orr et al., 2001).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)
The dispersion of L. humile worldwide is produced via accidental transportation by means of human commercial activities. This means of dispersion is commonly known as long-distance jump dispersion (Suarez et al., 2001) and allows dispersion from a few to thousands of kilometres. There is also evidence of accidental dispersion of small fragments of colonies by means of road vehicles (Hee et al., 2000).
There are no recorded instances of the intentional introduction of L. humile.
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
L. humile produces negative economic effects when invading crops and plantations because of its mutualistic interactions with hemipterans, which can affect the growth and production of the host plant (Buckley, 1987; Ness and Bronstein, 2004).
There is also evidence of its capacity to transfer the pathogenic fungus Phytophthora citricola to Persea americana plantations, with a resulting serious economic impact (El-Hamalawi and Menge, 1996).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Biodiversity
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
Social ImpactTop of page
There is no relevant information on any negative social impact of this ant species.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Is a habitat generalist
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
- Highly mobile locally
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Has high reproductive potential
- Altered trophic level
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Infrastructure damage
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts forestry
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition (unspecified)
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult/costly to control
Detection and InspectionTop of page
The easiest way to detect L. humile on the crop is by searching for foraging workers on the trunk or the stem of the plant, because they associate closely with honeydew-producing hemipterans while searching out honeydew.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
L. humile is easily distinguishable from other species of ants by its extremely fast movements and high number of recruitment workers. The workers, when crushed between the fingers, give off no perceptible odour, and this characteristic allows the species to be distinguished from other similar ants like Iridomirmex analis, as well as from other similar ant species from the genus Tapinoma.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Cultural control and sanitary measures
Baits can be used to control L. humile invasions by using workers as a vehicle for transmitting toxins through tropholaxis to larvae and queens. Baits consist of an active toxic ingredient and an attractant in the form of a food resource (Rust, 2001). This method has resulted in significant reductions in L. humile numbers in infected areas (Forschler, 1997; Vega and Rust, 2003). One example of this is the reduction of the invasion in the Haleakala National Park, Hawaii, by using granular baits (Krushelnycky et al., 2004). However, this method is only successful temporarily, as suspension of the treatment leads to regeneration of the ant population and renewed expansion of the invasion (Krushelnycky et al., 2004).
BibliographyTop of page
AntWeb, 2006. Linepithema humile http://antweb.org/getComparison.do?rank=species&genus=linepithema&name=humile&project=&project=
Cammell, M. E., Way, M. J. and Paiva, M. R. 1996. Diversity and structure of ant communities associated with oak, pine, eucalyptus and arable habitats in Portugal. Insectes Sociaux, 43: 37-46.
Carney, S.E., Byerley, M.B. and Holway, D.A. 2003. Invasive Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) do not replace native ants as seed dispersers of Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae) in California, USA, Oecologia 135: 576–582.
Christian, C. E. 2001. Consequences of a biological invasion reveal the importance of mutualism for plant communities. Nature 413: 635-639.
Commonwealth of Australia. 2006a. Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pubs/tramp-ants.pdf
Commonwealth of Australia. 2006b. Background document for the threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pubs/tramp-ants-background.pdf
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de información sobre especies invasoras en México. Especies invasoras - Insectos. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso. http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Insectos
Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2005. Draft Threat Abatement Plan for for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories
Earlham College. 2002. Introduced Species in Hawaii (Senior Seminar 2002) http://www.earlham.edu/~biol/hawaii/ants.htm
Fluker, S. S. 1969. Sympatric associations among selected ant species and some effects of ants on sugarcane mealybugs in Hawaii. Ph.D. thesis, University of Hawaii, 96 pp.
Fluker, S. S. and Beardsley, J. W. 1970. Sympatric associations of three ants: Iridomyrmex humilis, Pheidole megacephala, and Anoplolepis longipes in Hawaii. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63: 1290-96.
Forschler, B. T. and Evans, G. M. 1994. Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) foraging activity response to selected containerized baits. J. Entomol. Sci. 29(2): 209-214.
Green, C. 2005. Argentine ant update, Dawn Chorus 60: 8. Supporters of Tiritiri Matangi.
Haney, P. 1984. A different approach to the Argentine ant problem. Citrograph 69(6): 140-146.
Harris, R. J. 2002. Potential impact of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) in New Zealand and options for its control. Science for Conservation 196. 36 pp. http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/SFC196.pdf
Harris, R.; Abbott, K.; Barton, K.; Berry, J.; Don, W.; Gunawardana, D.; Lester, P.; Rees, J.; Stanley, M.; Sutherland, A.; Toft, R. 2005: Invasive ant pest risk assessment project for Biosecurity New Zealand. Series of unpublished Landcare Research contract reports to Biosecurity New Zealand. BAH/35/2004-1. http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/Ants/ant_pest_risk.asp
Harris, R.J., 2001. Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and other adventive ants in New Zealand. DOC Internal Series 7 http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/DSIS7.pdf
Hartley, Stephen, Harris, Richard & Lester, Philip J., 2006. Quantifying uncertainty in the potential distribution of an invasive species: climate and the Argentine ant. Ecology Letters 9 (9), 1068-1079.
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) Project. 2005. Haleakala Field Station. U.S. Geological Survey (Biological Resources Division /Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center). http://www.hear.org/usgs-brd-pierc-hfs/index.html#Projects
Holway, D. A. 1998. Effect of Argentine ant invasions on ground-dwelling arthropods in northern California riparian woodlands. Oecologia 116: 252-258.
Holway, D. A., L. Lach, A. V. Suarez, N. D. Tsutsui, and T. J. Case. 2002. The ecological causes and consequences of ant invasions. Annual review of ecology and systematics 33:181-233.
Holway, D.A., Lach, L., Suarez, A.V., Tsutsui, N.D. and Case, T.J. 2002a. The Causes and Consequences of Ant Invasions, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33: 181-233.
Hooper, L. M. 1995. The biology of the Southern Fire Ant, Solenopsis xyloni (McCook) and its predation of the California Least Tern, Sterna antillarum browni (Mearns). MSc Thesis, University of California Riverside.
Hooper-Bui, L. and Rust, M. K. 2000. Oral toxicity of abamectin, boric acid, fipronil, and hydramethylnon to laboratory colonies of Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Economic Entomology 93(3): 858-864.
Human, K. G. and Gordon, D. M. 1997. Effects of Argentine ants on invertebrate biodiversity in northern California. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1242-1248.
Krushelnycky, P. D. and Joe, S. M. 1997. Harmful Non-Indigenous Species report on Argentine ant. Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk website. http://www.hear.org/hnis/reports/HNIS-LinHum.pdf
Krushelnycky, P. D. and Reimer, N. J. 1998. Bait preference by the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. Environmental Entomology 27: 1482-1487.
Krushelnycky, P. D. and Reimer, N. J. 1998. Efficacy of Maxforce bait for control of the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. Environmental Entomology 27: 1473-1481.
Krushelnycky, P. D., Hodges, C. S. N., Medeiros, A. C. and Loope, L. L. 2001. Interaction between the Hawaiian dark-rumped petrel and the Argentine ant in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. Studies in Avian Biology 22: 243-246.
Krushelnycky, P. D.; E. Van Gelder, L. L. Loope, and R. Gillespie., 2002. The status of invasive ant control in the conservation of island systems. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 406 - 414. IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.
Lieberburg, I., Kranz, P. M. and Seip, A. 1975. Bermudian ants revisited: the status and interaction of Pheidole megacephala and Iridomyrmex humilis. Ecology 56: 473–478.
Majer, J. D. 1994. Spread of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), with special reference to Western Australia. In Williams D. F. (ed.) Exotic ants: Biology, impact and control of introduced species: 163-173.
Markin, G. P. 1968. Nest relationship of the Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 41(4): 511-516.
Markin, G. P. 1970. The seasonal life cycle of the Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in southern California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 63(5): 1238-1243.
McGlynn, T.P. 1999. The Worldwide Transfer of Ants: Geographical Distribution and Ecological Invasions, Journal of Biogeography 26(3): 535-548.
Monash University, March 2005. Argentine ant researcher recognised for her work. Newsline http://www.monash.edu.au/news/newsline/story/336
Nishida, G. M. and Evenhuis, N. L. 2000. Arthropod pests of conservation significance in the Pacific: A preliminary assessment of selected groups. In Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 115-142.
O’Dowd, D.J., Green, P.T. and Lake, P.S. 1999. Status, Impact, and Recommendations for Research and Management of Exotic Invasive Ants in Christmas Island National Park. Centre for the Analysis and Management of Biological Invasions: Clayton (Victoria, Australia).
Pacific Ant Prevention Programme, March 2004. Pacific Invasive Ant Group (PIAG) on behalf of the IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).
Rizo, J. L. F. 1995. Reflexiones sobre las hormigas "vagabundas" de Cuba. Cocuyo 3: 11-22.
Robertson, H. G. Argentine ant bibliography.
Sarnat, E. M. (December 4, 2008) PIAkey: Identification guide to ants of the Pacific Islands, Edition 2.0, Lucid v. 3.4. USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology and University of California — Davis. http://www.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/PIAkey/index.html
Stanley, M. C. 2004. Review of the efficacy of baits used for ant control and eradication. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0405/044. Prepared for: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/ants/BaitEfficacyReport.pdf
Suarez, A. V., Bolger, D. T. and Case, T. J. 1998. Effects of fragmentation and invasion on native ant communities in coastal southern California. Ecology 79(6): 2041-2056.
Tasman District Council (TDC) & Biosecurity New Zealand Summary of proceedings: New Zealand Invasive Ant Workshop: Argentine Ant (Linepithema humile) & Darwin Ant (Doleromyrma darwiniana) 29th April 2005 http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biosecurity/stowaways/Ants/documents/NZInvasiveantworkshopApril2005.pdf
Tsutsui, N. D. and T. J. Case. 2001. Population genetics and colony structure of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) in its native and introduced ranges. Evolution 55:976-985.
van Schagen, J. J., Davis, P. R. and Widner, M. A. 1994. Ant pests of Western Australia, with particular reference to the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). In Williams, D. F. (ed.) Exotic Ants: Biology, Impact and Control of Introduced Species: 174-180.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom. http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660
Walker, K. 2006. Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 29/08/2006 12:06:40 PM. http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=615
Ward, P. S. 1987. Distribution of the introduced Argentine ant (Iridomyrmex humilis) in natural habitats of the Lower Sacramento Valley and its effects on the indigenous ant fauna. Hilgardia 55(2): 1-16.
Wilson, E. O. 1951. Variation and adaptation in the imported fire ant. Evolution 5: 68-79.
ReferencesTop of page
Abril S, Oliveras J, Gómez C, 2007. Foraging activity and dietary spectrum of the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in invaded natural areas of the northeast Iberian Peninsula. Environmental Entomology, 36(5):1166-1173.
Abril S, Oliveras J, Gómez C, 2008. Effect of temperature on the oviposition rate of Argentine ant queens (Linepithema humile Mayr) under monogynous and polygynous experimental conditions. Journal of Insect Physiology, 54(1):265-272. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00221910
Benois A, 1973. [English title not available]. (Incidence des facteurs écologiques sur le cycle annuel et l'activité saisonnière de la fourmi d'Argentine, Iridomyrmex humilis Mayr (Hymenoptera, Fomicidae), dans la région d'Antibes) Insectes Sociaux, 20:267-295.
Blancafort X, Gómez C, 2005. Consequences of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), invasion on pollination of Euphorbia characias (L.) (Euphorbiaceae). Acta Oecologica, 28(1):49-55. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1146609X
Carpintero S, Reyes-López J, Arias de Reyna L, 2005. Impact of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) on an arboreal ant community in Doñana National Park, Spain. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14(1):151-163. http://www.springerlink.com/content/t8hx3thm352645pn/fulltext.pdf
Center for Urban Structural Entomology, 2008. Argentine Ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr). Department of Entomology, Center for Urban & Structural Entomology, Texas A&M University. http://urbanentomology.tamu.edu/ants/argentine.cfm. http://urbanentomology.tamu.edu/ants/argentine.cfm
Costa HS, Greenberg L, Klotz J, Rust MK, 2001. Monitoring the effects of granular insecticides for Argentine ant control in nursery settings. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 18(1):13-22.
Dale WE, 1974. [English title not available]. (Hormigas en viviendas y jardines de Lima metropolitana: Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr) y Monomorium pharaonis (L.)) Revista Peruana de Entomología, 17(1):126-127.
Davis PR, Schagen JJ van, Widmer MA, Craven TJ, 1998. The trial eradication of Argentine ants in Bunbury, Western Australia. Internal Report, Social Insect Research Section, Agriculture Western Australia.
El-Hamalawi ZA, Menge JA, 1996. The role of snails and ants in transmitting the avocado stem canker pathogen, Phytophthora citricola. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 121(5):973-977; [3 pl., 1 fig.].
Ferrer J, 2000. [English title not available]. (Linepitheme humile (Mayr, 1868) fourmi argentine, présente dans le Midi de la France, découverte au Zimbabwe (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie NS, 17:289-290.
Forshcler BT, Evans GM, 1994. Perimeter treatment strategy using containerized baits to manage Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 29(2):264-267.
Giraud T, Pedersen JS, Keller L, 2002. Evolution of supercolonies: the Argentine ants of southern Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(9):6075-6079.
Gómez K, Espadaler X, 2005. [English title not available]. (La Hormiga Argentina (Linepithema humile) en las Islas Baleares. Listado Preliminar de las Hormigas de las Islas Baleares.) Documentos Técnicos de Conservación, II, época, 13. Conselleria de Medi Ambient., 68pp.
Holway DA, Suarez AV, Case TJ, 2002. Role of abiotic factors in governing susceptibility to invasion: a test with Argentine ants. Ecology, 83(6):1610-1619. http://www.esajournals.org/esaonline/?request=get-abstract&issn=0012-9658&volume=083&issue=06&page=1610
Keller L, Passera L, Vargo EL, 1989. [English title not available]. (Le remplacement des reines dans les colonies orphelines de la fourmi d'Argentine Iridomyrmex humilis Mayr. Mecanismes et consequences) Actes des Colloques Insectes Sociaux, 5:117-120.
Krushelnycky PD, Joe SM, Medeiros AC, Daehler CC, Loope LL, 2005. The role of abiotic conditions in shaping the long-term patterns of a high-elevation Argentine ant invasion. Diversity and Distributions, 11(4):319-331. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ddi
Menke SB, Holway DA, 2006. Abiotic factors control invasion by Argentine ants at the community scale. Journal of Animal Ecology, 75(2):368-376. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=jae
Okaue M, Yamamoto K, Touyama Y, Kameyama T, Terayama M, Sugiyama T, Murakami K, Ito F, 2007. Distribution of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, along the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan: result of surveys in 2003-2005. Entomological Science, 10(4):337-342. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1479-8298.2007.00228.x
Orr MR, Seike SH, Benson WW, Dahlsten DL, 2001. Host specificity of Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) parasitoids that attack Linepithema (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in South America. Environmental Entomology, 30:742-747.
Passera L, Aron S, 1993. Factors controlling dealation and egg laying in virgin queens of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr) (= Iridomyrmex humilis). Psyche (Cambridge, Mass), 100(1-2):51-63.
Roca J, 2004. [Effects of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on the reproduction and physical condition of the blue tit (Parus caeruleus)]. (Efectes de la formiga argentina (Linepithema humile) en la reproduccio i condicio fisica de la mallerenga blava (Parus caeruleus)). DEA thesis. Girona, Spain: Universitat de Girona.
Rust MK, Knight RL, 1990. Controlling Argentine ants in urban situations. In: Applied Myrmecology: A world perspective [ed. by Meer Van der RK, Jaffe K, Cedeno A] Boulder CO, USA: Westview Press, 663-670.
Schagen JJ van, Davis PR, Widner MA, 1994. Ant pests of Western Australia, with particular reference to the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). In: Exotic Ants: Biology, impact and control of introduced Species [ed. by Williams DF] Boulder, Colorado, USA: Westview Press, 174-180.
Shorey HH, Gaston LK, Gerber RG, Phillips PA, Wood DL, 1992. Disruption of foraging by Argentine ants, Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in citrus trees through the use of semiochemicals and related chemicals. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 18(1):2131-2142.
Shorey HH, Gaston LK, Gerber RG, Sisk CB, Phillips PA, 1996. Formulating farnesol and other ant-repellent semiochemicals for exclusion of Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from citrus trees. Environmental Entomology, 25(1):114-119.
Silva Dias JC, 1955. [English title not available]. (Biologia e ecologia da formiga argentina (Iridomyrmex humilis Mayr) - Notas para o seu estudo em Portugal) Separata do Boletim da Junta Nacional das Frutas, Lisboa:1-117.
Smith LM II, Appel AG, Mack TP, Keever GJ, Benson EP, 1995. Comparative effectiveness of an integrated pest management system and an insecticidal perimeter spray for control of smokybrown cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(4):907-917.
Soeprono AM, Rust MK, 2004. Strategies for controlling Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology, 44(3):669-682. http://www.csuchico.edu/biol/Sociobiology/volume/sociobiologyv44n32004.html#2
Suarez AV, Holway DA, Case TJ, 2001. Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: insights from Argentine ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98:1095-1100.
Tsutsui ND, Suarez AV, Holway DA, Case TJ, 2000. Reduced genetic variation and the success of an invasive species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(11):5948-5953.
Tsutsui ND, Suarez AV, Holway DA, Case TJ, 2001. Relationships among native and introduced populations of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and the source of introduced populations. Molecular Ecology, 10(9):2151-2161.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. In: Recovery Plan for the Pacific Coast Population of the Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 292 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/070924.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Coastal California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica californica). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 51 pp.. http://www.fws.gov/ecos/ajax/docs/five_year_review/doc3571.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Proposed Rule. 77(191) US Fish and Wildlife Service, 60238-60276. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-02/pdf/2012-23843.pdf
Vega SY, Rust MK, 2003. Determining the foraging range and origin of resurgence after treatment of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in urban areas. Journal of Economic Entomology, 96(3):844-849.
Visser D, Wright MG, Giliomee JH, 1996. The effect of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on flower-visiting insects of Protea nitida Mill. (Proteaceae). African Entomology, 4(2):285-287.
Way MJ, Cammell ME, Paiva MR, Collingwood CA, 1997. Distribution and dynamics of the Argentine ant Linepithema (Iridomyrmex) humile (Mayr) in relation to vegetation, soil conditions, topography and native competitor ants in Portugal. Insectes Sociaux, 44(4):415-433.
Benois A, 1973. [English title not available]. (Incidence des facteurs écologiques sur le cycle annuel et l'activité saisonnière de la fourmi d'Argentine, Iridomyrmex humilis Mayr (Hymenoptera, Fomicidae), dans la région d'Antibes). Insectes Sociaux. 267-295.
Berville L, Blight O, Renucci M, Hefetz A, Provost E, 2013. A peaceful zone bordering two Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) supercolonies. Chemoecology. 23 (4), 213-218. DOI:10.1007/s00049-013-0135-0
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Cooling M, Hartley S, Sim D A, Lester P J, 2012. The widespread collapse of an invasive species: Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in New Zealand. Biology Letters. 8 (3), 430-433. DOI:10.1098/rsbl.2011.1014
Dale W E, 1974. [English title not available]. (Hormigas en viviendas y jardines de Lima metropolitana: Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr) y Monomorium pharaonis (L.)). Revista Peruana de Entomologia. 17 (1), 126-127.
Ferrer J, 2000. [English title not available]. (Linepitheme humile (Mayr, 1868) fourmi argentine, présente dans le Midi de la France, découverte au Zimbabwe (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie NS. 289-290.
Forshcler B T, Evans G M, 1994. Perimeter treatment strategy using containerized baits to manage Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Entomological Science. 29 (2), 264-267.
Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD), Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database
Lee HeungSik, Kim DongEon, Lyu DongPyeo, 2020. Discovery of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology. 59 (1), 71-72. DOI:10.5656/KSAE.2020.02.0.012
Okaue M, Yamamoto K, Touyama Y, Kameyama T, Terayama M, Sugiyama T, Murakami K, Ito F, 2007. Distribution of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, along the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan: result of surveys in 2003-2005. Entomological Science. 10 (4), 337-342. DOI:10.1111/j.1479-8298.2007.00228.x
Schagen J J van, Davis P R, Widner M A, 1994. Ant pests of Western Australia, with particular reference to the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). In: Exotic Ants: Biology, impact and control of introduced Species. [ed. by Williams D F]. Boulder, Colorado, USA: Westview Press. 174-180.
Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435
Suarez A V, Holway D A, Case T J, 2001. Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: insights from Argentine ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. 1095-1100.
USA, Center for Urban, Structural Entomology, Texas A&M University, 2008. Argentine Ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr). In: Argentine Ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr). Texas, USA: Department of Entomology, Center for Urban & Structural Entomology, Texas A&M University. http://urbanentomology.tamu.edu/ants/argentine.cfm
Wild A L, 2004. Taxonomy and distribution of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 97 (6), 1204-1215. DOI:10.1603/0013-8746(2004)097[1204:TADOTA]2.0.CO;2
ContributorsTop of page
29/04/08 Original text by:
Crisanto Gómez, Universitat de Girona, Dept Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Ciències, Campus de Montilivi7071- Girona, Spain
Silvia Abril, Universitat de Girona, Dept Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Ciències7071- Girona, Spain
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/