Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ligustrum japonicum
(Japanese privet)

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Datasheet

Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ligustrum japonicum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Japanese privet
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ligustrum japonicum is a shrub to small tree listed as invasive in the USA, Chile and Brazil. In the USA, it is listed as naturalized in 12 of the southeastern states, being considered as invasive in some states including Tennessee, Alaba...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. November 2006.
TitleHabit
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. November 2006.
Copyright©José Luis Gálvez/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. November 2006.
HabitLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. November 2006.©José Luis Gálvez/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. April 2019.
TitleHabit
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. April 2019.
Copyright©Zinogre/via iNaturalist - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. April 2019.
HabitLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. April 2019.©Zinogre/via iNaturalist - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Flowering habit. American Plant Garden Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. May 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Flowering habit. American Plant Garden Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. May 2007.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Flowering habit. American Plant Garden Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. May 2007.
Flowering habitLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Flowering habit. American Plant Garden Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. May 2007.©David J. Stang/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Foliage and developing fruit. Cary, North Carolina, USA. June 2018.
TitleFoliage and developing fruit
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Foliage and developing fruit. Cary, North Carolina, USA. June 2018.
Copyright©Ashwin Srinivasan/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Foliage and developing fruit. Cary, North Carolina, USA. June 2018.
Foliage and developing fruitLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Foliage and developing fruit. Cary, North Carolina, USA. June 2018.©Ashwin Srinivasan/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Flower buds. Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. April 2019.
TitleFlower buds
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Flower buds. Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. April 2019.
Copyright©Zinogre/via iNaturalist - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Flower buds. Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. April 2019.
Flower budsLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Flower buds. Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. April 2019.©Zinogre/via iNaturalist - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Inflorescence. Osaka-fu, Japan. June 2007.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Inflorescence. Osaka-fu, Japan. June 2007.
Copyright©KENPEI/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.1 JP
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Inflorescence. Osaka-fu, Japan. June 2007.
InflorescenceLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Inflorescence. Osaka-fu, Japan. June 2007.©KENPEI/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.1 JP
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Inflorescence. Batumi Botanical Garden, Georgia. May 2016.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Inflorescence. Batumi Botanical Garden, Georgia. May 2016.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Inflorescence. Batumi Botanical Garden, Georgia. May 2016.
InflorescenceLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Inflorescence. Batumi Botanical Garden, Georgia. May 2016.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Infloresence. American Plant Garden Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. May 2007.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Infloresence. American Plant Garden Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. May 2007.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Infloresence. American Plant Garden Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. May 2007.
InflorescenceLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Infloresence. American Plant Garden Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. May 2007.©David J. Stang/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Fruit. Calderstones Park, Liverpool, UK. April 2020.
TitleFruit
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Fruit. Calderstones Park, Liverpool, UK. April 2020.
Copyright©Stephen James McWilliam/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Fruit. Calderstones Park, Liverpool, UK. April 2020.
FruitLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Fruit. Calderstones Park, Liverpool, UK. April 2020.©Stephen James McWilliam/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Jardin de los olfatos, Coëx, France. July 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Jardin de los olfatos, Coëx, France. July 2009.
Copyright©Oroussei/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Jardin de los olfatos, Coëx, France. July 2009.
HabitLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Jardin de los olfatos, Coëx, France. July 2009.©Oroussei/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Marriott Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Marriott Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Marriott Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
HabitLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Marriott Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Osaka-fu, Japan. June 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Osaka-fu, Japan. June 2007.
Copyright©KENPEI/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.1 JP
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Osaka-fu, Japan. June 2007.
HabitLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Habit. Osaka-fu, Japan. June 2007.©KENPEI/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.1 JP
Ligustrum japonicum var. Texanum (Japanese privet); Leaves. Home Depot Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
TitleLeaves
CaptionLigustrum japonicum var. Texanum (Japanese privet); Leaves. Home Depot Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum var. Texanum (Japanese privet); Leaves. Home Depot Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
LeavesLigustrum japonicum var. Texanum (Japanese privet); Leaves. Home Depot Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Leaves. Marriott Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
TitleLeaves
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Leaves. Marriott Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Leaves. Marriott Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
LeavesLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Leaves. Marriott Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Leaves. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
TitleLeaves
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Leaves. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Leaves. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
LeavesLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Leaves. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Bark. November 2006.
TitleBark
CaptionLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Bark. November 2006.
Copyright©José Luis Gálvez/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Bark. November 2006.
BarkLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet); Bark. November 2006.©José Luis Gálvez/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.

Preferred Common Name

  • Japanese privet

Other Scientific Names

  • Ligustridum japonicum (Thunb.) Spach
  • Ligustrum amamianum Koidz.
  • Ligustrum coriaceum Carrière
  • Ligustrum glabrum Decne.
  • Ligustrum kellerianum Vis.
  • Ligustrum latifolium Thunb.
  • Ligustrum macrophyllum Decne.
  • Ligustrum ovatum Dippel.
  • Ligustrum rotundifolium (Blume) Carrière
  • Ligustrum sieboldii Decne.
  • Ligustrum syringiflorum Decne.
  • Ligustrum syringifolium Decne.
  • Ligustrum taquetii H.Lév.

International Common Names

  • English: Japanese wax-leaf privet
  • French: tröène du Japon

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: ligustro
  • Chile: ligustrino
  • China: nü zhen; nü zhen shi
  • Cuba: privet del Japón
  • Germany: Japanischer Liguster
  • Italy: ligustro del Giappone
  • Japan: nezumi-mochi; tama-tsubatei
  • Korea, Republic of: gwang-na-mu
  • Puerto Rico: privet japonés
  • South Africa: Japanese liguster
  • USA: wax-leaf privet

EPPO code

  • LIGJA (Ligustrum japonicum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Ligustrum japonicum is a shrub to small tree listed as invasive in the USA, Chile and Brazil. In the USA, it is listed as naturalized in 12 of the southeastern states, being considered as invasive in some states including Tennessee, Alabama and South Carolina. L. japonicum is not considered as invasive in Texas but as an F3 species, defined as ‘being repeatedly introduced or long-persisting in some areas, or as an incipient invasive’. In Georgia, it is listed as a Category 2 species which is defined as 'a moderate exotic plant problem in natural areas, invading native plant communities and displacing native species, but to a lesser degree than Category 1 species’. L. japonicum is listed as potentially invasive in Cuba, being categorized as a species that is naturalized with a tendency to proliferate. This species invades lowlands and uplands, fence rows, abandoned pastures, intermittent streambeds and woodlands. It colonizes areas by root sprouting and through animal dispersal. It forms dense thickets in fields and forest understoreys, shading and displacing many native species in the process. It is difficult to eradicate once established.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Oleales
  •                         Family: Oleaceae
  •                             Genus: Ligustrum
  •                                 Species: Ligustrum japonicum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Ligustrum, a member of the family Oleaceae, consists of about 45 species from Asia, Australia and Europe (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020). The genus name comes from the Latin word for privet and was first used by Pliny the Elder for L. vulgare (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018). The specific epithet ‘japonicum’ means from Japan (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018). Of the synonyms reported for the species, L. latifolium is an illegitimate name (World Flora Online, 2020).

Description

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The following description is from PIER (2018):

Evergreen shrub, 3-4.5 m tall, usually glabrous. Leaf petioles 5-10 mm long; blades elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 32-83 mm long, 15 mm wide, ±leathery, base acute or slightly rounded, apex ±obtuse, veins indistinct, inflorescence ±openly pyramid-shaped, 5-15 cm tall, glabrous or minutely hairy when young. Flowers creamy white, fragrant; calyx tiny, cup-shaped, entire; corolla tube longer than lobes, anthers projecting; ovary rounded, style 4 mm long. Fruit ellipsoid, 7-8 mm long, blue-black.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Shrub
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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Ligustrum japonicum is a shrub to small tree native to Japan and South Korea and used as an ornamental throughout its distribution range (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020). It is reported from Asia, North America, the Caribbean, South America, Europe and Oceania (See Distribution Table for details: Maccioni, 1929; Hsieh et al., 1998; Sobrino et al., 2002; Jalili et al., 2010; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Uzzell, 2017;PIER, 2018; ; Barcham Trees, 2020; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; I3N-Brasil, 2020; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020; USDA-NRCS, 2020).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroduced1927

Asia

ChinaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-HenanPresent
IranPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedBotanical Garden
Japan
-HonshuPresentNative
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNative
-ShikokuPresentNative
South KoreaPresentNativeChungcheongnam-do, Jeollabuk-do, Jeollanam-do, Gyeongsangnam-do and Jeju-do
TaiwanPresentNative
TurkeyPresent

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroduced
FrancePresentIntroduced
ItalyPresentIntroduced
NorwayPresentIntroduced1998
SpainPresentIntroducedTarragona
United KingdomPresentIntroduced1845South of UK

North America

CubaPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroducedNuevo Le?n
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced1845Invasive in some regions
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-DelawarePresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroducedInvasive
-NevadaPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OregonPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentInvasive
-TennesseePresentIntroducedInvasive
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced1843
-VictoriaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedBuda Garden
GuamPresentIntroduced
New ZealandPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced
BrazilPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ParanaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive and cultivated at Robinson Crusoe Island
EcuadorPresentIntroducedPichincha
UruguayPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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Ligustrum japonicum is used as an ornamental worldwide (Maddox et al., 2010). It was introduced in the USA in 1845 from Japan and Korea (Munger, 2003; Maddox et al., 2010). The attractive, glossy leaves and abundant, showy, white flowers have led to its widespread cultivation and it is now found throughout the Southeast and Midwest (Smith, 2008). It has since escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in the southeastern USA (Munger, 2003). It is also reported as introduced in the UK since 1845 (Barcham Trees, 2020). This species spreads by root and stem sproutings and dispersal by birds (Maddox et al., 2010).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
USA Japan 1845 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Maddox et al. (2010)
Korea, DPR USA 1845 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Maddox et al. (2010)
UK 1845 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Barcham (2020)

Risk of Introduction

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Ligustrum japonicum is a species with a high risk of introduction into subtropical and temperate areas with mild winter temperatures. It is available for sale at nurseries and various internet sites worldwide (Gilman and Watson, 1993; Dave’s Garden, 2020). L. japonicum is reported as escaping from cultivation and forming dense thickets in fields and forests understoreys where it outcompetes native species. It is also considered difficult to eradicate (Swearingen and Bargeron, 2020).

Habitat

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Ligustrum japonicum is a shrub to small tree reported from thickets, forest edges, damp forests, gallery forests, disturbed sites and as cultivated in urban areas (Sobrino et al., 2002; I3N-Brasil, 2020; North Carolina Invasive Plant Council, 2021; Texas Invasives, 2020).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Germplasm collections of L. japonicum are available at USDA facilities (USDA-ARS, 2020). Various cultivars have been developed and are available as ornamentals (Gilman and Watson, 1993). Research for developing sterile or seedless tetraploids have been made by Fetouh et al. (2016), to reduce or eliminate the species invasive potential. The chromosome number reported for this species is 2n = 22, 44, 46 (Sugiura, 1936; Hsu, 1967; Somego, 1974; Kumar, 1987). Many cultivars are available (Gilman et al. 2018).

Reproductive Biology

Ligustrum japonicum is mainly propagated by cuttings and seeds (Dave’s Garden, 2020). Pollinators reported for this species are butterflies [Lepidoptera] and honeybees (Camillo and Garófalo, 1989; Dave’s Garden, 2020). Birds are reported as seed dispersers (Gilman and Watson, 1993; Witmer, 1996). Nearly all seed germination occurs during the next year’s growing season (Uzzell, 2017). L. japonicum usually produces numerous volunteers in gardens and will resprout from the roots (Dave’s Garden, 2020; Swearingen and Bargeron, 2020).

Physiology and Phenology

Ligustrum japonicum grows fast when young but then slows down with age (Gilman and Watson, 1993). Flowering is reported from July to October and fruiting in autumn (Gilman and Watson, 1993). In Korea, flowering occurs from June to July and fruiting from October to November (Jang et al., 2020). This species is not adapted to hot weather and the foliage will scorch at high temperatures (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018). Munger (2003) reports that L. japonicum will resprout after fires. No allelopathic effects are known for this species (HEAR, 2017).

Longevity

Ligustrum japonicum is a perennial shrub to small tree (Maddox et al., 2010).

Environmental Requirements

Ligustrum japonicum is a perennial shrub to small tree that grows best in temperate climates, in full sun to partial shade and in a wide range of well-drained soils with a pH from 6.1 to 7.8 (Gilman and Watson, 1993; Maddox et al., 2010; Dave’s Garden, 2020). Although this species is reported as surviving temperatures down to -17°C (Dave’s Garden, 2020), there are also reports that L. japonicum will not survive freezing temperatures (Jalili et al., 2010). It  is reported as being salt intolerant and unable to grow when exposed to direct salt spray (Gilman and Watson, 1993). It is also listed as growing in coastal coral sands of the Pacific (PIER, 2018). L. japonicum is drought tolerant (Gilman and Watson, 1993) and pollution resistant (North Carolina State Extension, 2020).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
50 44

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -17
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 5.5 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration9752400number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Asphondylia sphaera Herbivore Fruits|pods; Plants|Inflorescence not specific Uechi and Yukawa (2006)
Glomerella cingulata Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific Shen et al. (2017)
Hishimonus hamatus Herbivore Plants|Leaves not specific Seljak (2013)
Macrophomina phaseolina Pathogen Plants|Whole plant not specific Alfieri and Stokes (1971)
Meloidogyne javanica Parasite Plants|Whole plant not specific Alfieri and Stokes (1971)
Nezara viridula Herbivore Plants|Whole plant not specific Panizzi et al. (1996)

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Thrips and mites can cause discolouration of the leaves of L. japonicum and nematodes can be a problem in sandy soils (Gilman et al., 2018).

Pests reported as affecting L. japonicum include Atta texana (Waller, 1989), Macrodactylus sp. (Aragón-García et al., 2010), Ochyromera ligustri (Wray, 1961; Johnson and Lyon, 1991), Palpita quadristigmalis (Villegas-Luján et al., 2019), Asphondylia sphaera (Ohsako et al., 1981Uechi and Yukawa, 2006), Hishimonus hamatus (Seljak, 2013) and Tuckerella pavoniformis (De Leon, 1955), as well as various scale species such as Phalacrococcus howertoni and Fiorinia phantasma (Wray, 1961; McDaniel, 1974; Hodges and Hodgson, 2010; Ahmed et al., 2021). Pathogens causing disease in L. japonicum include Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [Glomerella cingulata] (Shen et al., 2017), Pseudomonas savastanoi (Bottalico and Ercolani, 1971), Puccinia klugkistiana (Lee et al., 2019), Pseudocercospora lilacis (Andrianova and Minter, 2014), Macrophomina phaseolina (Alfieri and Stokes, 1971), Meloidogyne javanica (Alfieri and Stokes, 1971) and Microsphaera syringae [Erysiphe syringae] (Falacy and Glawe, 2003).

Ligustrum japonicum is reported to be a novel food plant of the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula in Parana, Brazil (Panizzi et al., 1996).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Ligustrum japonicum is dispersed by birds that feed on the fruits (Maddox et al., 2010).

Intentional Introduction

Ligustrum japonicum is widely planted as an ornamental throughout its distribution (Maddox et al., 2010).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosBotanical garden collections Yes Yes Jalili et al. (2010)
Breeding and propagationPropagated for its cultivation and to produce various cultivars Yes Yes Gilman and Watson (1993); Fetouh et al. (2016)
Digestion and excretionEaten and dispersed by birds Yes Gilman and Watson (1993); Witmer (1996)
DisturbanceAt disturbed areas Yes Maddox et al. (2010)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeOrnamental escaped from cultivation Yes Maddox et al. (2010)
ForageFruits eaten by birds Yes Witmer (1996); Maddox et al. (2010)
Garden waste disposalPossible from its cultivation although no details available Yes
Hedges and windbreaksUsed as hedges, living fences and windbreak Yes Gilman and Watson (1993); Maddox et al. (2010)
HorticultureUsed as an ornamental species Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Internet salesAvailable at various internet sites Yes Yes
Landscape improvementUsed in various gardens, on highways and in parking lots Yes Gilman and Watson (1993)
Medicinal useSome possible medicinal uses reported Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2018); PFAF (2020)
Nursery tradeAvailable at nurseries and internet sites Yes Yes
Off-site preservation Collections available at USDA facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Ornamental purposesUsed as an ornamental species Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
ResearchResearch to produce cultivars with less invasive potential Yes Fetouh et al. (2016)
Seed tradeSeeds available at various internet sites Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesPossible from its cultivation although no details available Yes
GermplasmCollections available at USDA facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
MailSeeds and plants available for sale at nurseries and internet sites Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelPossible from its cultivation although no details available Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Ligustrum japonicum can form dense patches and outcompete native flora (I3N-Brasil, 2020). It invades both lowland and upland habitats and can also invade forest gaps where birds often disperse the seeds. This species can readily expand its range along fence rows and roadsides (Smith, 2008).

Impact: Biodiversity

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Ligustrum japonicum competes with native species and can be dominant in disturbed areas (I3N-Brasil, 2020). It can form dense thickets in fields and forest understoreys, shading and displacing native species (Munger, 2003; Miller et al., 2015; PIER, 2018; Swearingen and Bargeron, 2020; Texas Invasives, 2020). According to Munger (2003), in natural areas around Austin, Texas, L. japonicum has invaded intermittent stream bed and mesic woodland habitats.

Social Impact

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The leaves and fruits of L. japonicum can be harmful if ingested by humans, cats, dogs and horses; in humans, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, weakness, low blood pressure and clammy skin have been observed up to 72 h after ingestion (Uzzell, 2017; American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 2020).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

Ligustrum japonicum is a shrub to small tree used as an ornamental and is available for sale at nurseries and over the internet, mainly in temperate areas worldwide (Gilman and Watson, 1993; Dave’s Garden, 2020).

Social Benefit

The principal use of L. japonicum is as an ornamental shrub to small tree (USDA-ARS, 2020). It is used for hedges, fences, windbreaks, in containers, above ground-planters, parking plots, highways, sidewalks, near decks and as a bonsai (Gilman and Watson, 1993; Gilman et al., 2018).

The seeds are used as famine food and as a coffee substitute (Dave’s Garden, 2020; PFAF, 2020). The fruit is used to produce a nutrient tonic and plant extracts have anti-bacterial, anti-ulcer and hypotensive activities (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018; PFAF, 2020).

Environmental Services

Melliferous bees [Apidae] and butterflies [Lepidoptera] are reported as pollinators of L. japonicum (Camillo and Garófalo, 1989; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018). L. japonicum is an important species for the western tiger swallowtail butterfly (Papilio rutulus), which has become quite dependent on alien plant species for its subsistence in urban and suburban areas in California, USA (Shapiro, 2002). The berries are eaten by birds (Gilman and Watson, 1993; Witmer, 1996). In Japan L. japonicum is one of the species that serves as a habitat for the spider, Agelena limbata (Tanaka, 1991).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Wildlife habitat
  • Windbreak

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Emergency (famine) food
  • Seeds

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Christmas tree
  • Cut flower
  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Ligustrum japonicum is distinguished from other Ligustrum species by its large leaves and usually glabrous stems. The leaves of L. japonicum snap when bent while those of L. lucidum are more flexible and will not break. The corolla tube is shorter than the corolla lobes in L. lucidum while in L. japonicum the corolla tube is longer than the lobes (Carolina Nature, 2015).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

SPS Measures

Since species of Ligustrum are prolific seed producers and dispersed by birds, the recommendation is to not plant any of the species as ornamentals, especially to prevent re-infestation of treated sites (Maddox et al., 2010).

Public Awareness

There are various publications available on L. japonicum, its invasiveness and how to manage, control and eradicate the species (Smith, 2008; Miller et al., 2015; Alabama Forestry Commission, 2020).

Eradication

Smith (2008) proposes the eradication of the species in areas invaded using  a combination of mechanical removal with chemical treatments, and followed up the next year to control re-infestation.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

It is important to manage and frequently monitor recently treated areas for the eradication of the species to prevent the resprouting of L. japonicum (Munger, 2003). Planting native species to accelerate the recuperation of the habitats is also recommended (I3N-Brasil, 2020).

Physical/Mechanical Control

Physical controls such as shading are ineffective in the removal of Ligustrum species. Hand pulling the young seedlings is recommended, combined with chemical control or when herbicides are not permitted (Maddox et al., 2010).

Biological Control

There are no biological methods used to control or eradicate L. japonicum. Munger (2003) suggests the use of goats to provide some control in areas colonized by the species. Fetouh et al. (2016) showed that tetraploids can be readily induced in L. japonicum which could then be used for producing new selections or cultivars with reduced invasive potential.

Chemical Control

The chemicals used to control Ligustrum species include 2,4-D + 2,4-DP, imazapyr + metsulfuron methyl, metsulfuron methyl, fosamine ammonium, glyphosate, imazapyr, imazapyr + glyphosate, metsulfuron methyl and triclopyr (Maddox et al., 2010).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Detailed information on the effects of L. japonicum on habitats or native species is needed. More information on the possible use of tetraploids to control seed production is also needed.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

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Camillo, E., Garófalo, C. A., 1989. Analysis of the niche of two sympatric species of Bombus (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in southeastern Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 5, 81-92. doi: 10.1017/S0266467400003242

Carolina Nature, 2015. Japanese privet (Ligustrum japonicum). In: Carolina Nature. Trees, shrubs and woody vines of North Carolina , USA: Carolina Nature.https://www.carolinanature.com/trees/lija.html

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Falacy, J. S., Glawe, D. A., 2003. First report of powdery mildew of Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet) caused by Microsphaera syringae (Erysiphe syringae) in North America. Plant Health Progress, (December), 1-2. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/brief/2003/privet/

Fetouh, M. I., Kareem, A., Knox, G. W., Wilson, S. B., Deng ZhaNao, 2016. Induction, identification, and characterization of tetraploids in Japanese privet (Ligustrum japonicum). HortScience, 51(11), 1371-1377. doi: 10.21273/HORTSCI11138-16

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Gilman, E. F., Watson, D. G., Klein, R. W., Koeser, A. K., Hilbert, D. R., McLean, D. C., 2018. Ligustrum japonicum: Japanese Privet. ENH-511. Gainesville, Florida, USA: Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension.4 pp. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/ST/ST35200.pdf

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Hsieh ChangFu, Chen ZuengSang, Hsu YuehMei, Yang KuohChieng, Hsieh TsungHsin, 1998. Altitudinal zonation of evergreen broad-leaved forest on Mount Lopei, Taiwan. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9(2), 201-212. doi: 10.2307/3237119

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Jang, JE, Oh, SH, Choi, MJ, Lee, JH, Chung, GY , Choi, HJ, 2020. A taxonomic revision of Ligustrum (Oleaceae) in Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 13(3), 406-429. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2020.03.016

Johnson, W. T., Lyon, H. H., 1991. Insects that feed on trees and shrubs, (2nd edition) . Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press.556 pp.

Kumar, V., 1987. Chromosome atlas of flowering plants of the Indian subcontinent, volumes 1 and 2, Kolkata, India: Botanical Survey of India.

Lee, S. H., Seo, S. T., Lee, S. K., Lee, C. K., Shin, H. D., 2019. First report of rust caused by aecial stage of Puccinia klugkistiana on Ligustrum japonicum in Korea. Plant Disease, 103(1), 160. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-18-1233-PDN

Maccioni, M, 1929. (Note sui danni arrecati dal gelo alle piante da orto e ornamentali nell'inverno scorso). Bullettino della R. Società Toscana di Orticultura 4.a Serie, 14(5-8), 14-19.

Maddox, V., Byrd, J., Jr., Serviss, B., 2010. Identification and control of invasive privets (Ligustrum spp.) in the middle southern United States. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 3(4), 482-488. doi: 10.1614/IPSM-D-09-00060.1

McDaniel, B., 1974. The armored scale insects of Texas (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Part VII. The Southwestern Naturalist, 18(4), 417-442 .

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. In: Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Munger, G. T., 2003. Ligustrum spp. In: Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) . Fort Collins, Colorado, USA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/ligspp/all.html

North Carolina Invasive Plant Council, 2021. North Carolina Invasive Plants. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: North Carolina Invasive Plant Council.http://nc-ipc.weebly.com/nc-invasive-plants.html

North Carolina State Extension, 2020. North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox – Ligustrum japonicum. Raleigh, North Carolina, USA: North Carolina State Extension.https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants/ligustrum-japonicum/

Ohsako, S., Yukawa, J., Horikiri, M., 1981. New data on the life history of the ligustrum fruit midge. Asphondylia sphaera Monzen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 27, 116-119.

Panizzi, A., Vivan, L. M., Corrêa-Ferreira, B. S., Foerster, L. A., 1996. Performance of southern green stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs and adults on a novel food plant (Japanese privet) and other hosts. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 89(6), 822-827. doi: 10.1093/aesa/89.6.822

PFAF, 2020. Plants For A Future Database. In: Plants For A Future Database Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future.http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

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Seljak, G., 2013. Hishimonus hamatus Kuoh (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): a new alien leafhopper in Europe. Acta Entomologica Slovenica, 21(2), 123-130. http://www2.pms-lj.si/biblioteka/acta_entomologica.html

Shapiro, A. M., 2002. The Californian urban butterfly fauna is dependent on alien plants. Diversity and Distributions, 8(1), 31-40. doi: 10.1046/j.1366-9516.2001.00120.x

Shen, J., Dong, L. K., Wang, Z. H., Yu, J. Y., Zou, F. L., 2017. First report of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Ligustrum japonicum in China. Plant Disease, 101(7), 1329. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-12-16-1826-PDN

Smith, C., 2008. Invasive exotic plants of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA: North Carolina Department of Transportation.185 pp. https://www.se-eppc.org/northcarolina/NCDOT_Invasive_Exotic_Plants.pdf

Sobrino, E., Sanz-Elorza, M., Dana, E. D., González-Moreno, A., 2002. Invasibility of a coastal strip in NE Spain by alien plants. Journal of Vegetation Science, 13(4), 585-594. doi: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2002.tb02085.x

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Uzzell, L, 2017. Plant Risk Evaluator (PRE) Evaluation Report - Ligustrum japonicum 'Recurvifolium' - Georgia. USA: 2017 Farm Bill PRE Project.19 pp. https://pretool.org/sites/default/files/pdf/farm_bill/PRE-5979.pdf

Villegas-Luján, R., Felipe-Victoriano, M., Keegan, K., Solis, M. A., Sánchez-Peña, S. R., 2019. Identity and first report of the four-spotted moth Palpita quadristigmalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) as a pest of Japanese privet, Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. (Oleaceae) in Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 121(2), 290-298. doi: 10.4289/0013-8797.121.2.290

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Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Aguilar-Luna J M E, Loeza-Corte J M, García-Villanueva E, Hernández-Fernández L A, 2018. Arboreal vegetation structure and diversity in the gallery forest of the Xaltatempa river, Puebla, Mexico. Madera y Bosques. 24 (3), e2431616. http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-04712018000300220&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Barcham Trees, 2020. Ligustrum japonicum., Ely, UK: Barcham Trees. https://www.barcham.co.uk/store/products/ligustrum-japonicum

Cuffley P, 2000. Buda Garden. Australian Garden History. 11 (4), 9-20.

Dave's Garden, 2020. Dave's Garden. In: Dave's Garden, El Segundo, California, USA: Internet Brands. http://davesgarden.com

Estrada AR, Cepeda TET , Del Consuelo González de la Rosa MA, Lozano SJM, Vázquez MAA, 1998. (Flora ornamental en plazas y jardines publicos del area metropolitana de Monterrey, Mexico). SIDA, Contributions to Botany. 18 (2), 579-586.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China, St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Hsieh ChangFu, Chen ZuengSang, Hsu YuehMei, Yang KuohChieng, Hsieh TsungHsin, 1998. Altitudinal zonation of evergreen broad-leaved forest on Mount Lopei, Taiwan. Journal of Vegetation Science. 9 (2), 201-212. DOI:10.2307/3237119

I3N-Brasil, 2020. I3N Brazil invasive alien species database., Florianopolis - SC, Brazil: Horus Institute for Environmental Conservation and Development. http://bd.institutohorus.org.br/www/

Jalili A, Jamzad Z, Thompson K, Araghi M K, Ashrafi S, Hasaninejad M, Panahi P, Hooshang N, Azadi R, Tavakol M S, Palizdar M, Rahmanpour A, Farghadan F, Mirhossaini S G, Parvaneh K, 2010. Climate change, unpredictable cold waves and possible brakes on plant migration. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 19 (5), 642-648. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/geb

Jang JE, Oh SH, Choi MJ, Lee JH, Chung GY , Choi HJ, 2020. A taxonomic revision of Ligustrum (Oleaceae) in Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity. 13 (3), 406-429. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2020.03.016.

Keçe A F Ç, Ulusoy M R, 2017. Armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Diaspididae) on ornamental plants in Adana, Turkey. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi. 41 (3), 333-346. https://dergipark.org.tr/download/article-file/354688

Lee S H, Seo S T, Lee S K, Lee C K, Shin H D, 2019. First report of rust caused by aecial stage of Puccinia klugkistiana on Ligustrum japonicum in Korea. Plant Disease. 103 (1), 160. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-18-1233-PDN

Maccioni M, 1929. (Note sui danni arrecati dal gelo alle piante da orto e ornamentali nell'inverno scorso). Bullettino della R. Società Toscana di Orticultura 4.a Serie. 14 (5-8), 14-19.

Maddox V, Byrd J Jr, Serviss B, 2010. Identification and control of invasive privets (Ligustrum spp.) in the middle southern United States. Invasive Plant Science and Management. 3 (4), 482-488. http://www.wssa.net DOI:10.1614/IPSM-D-09-00060.1

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

MNHN & OFB, 2020. National inventory of natural heritage (INPN). (Inventaire National du Patrimoine Naturel (INPN))., Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. https://inpn.mnhn.fr.

North Carolina Invasive Plant Council, 2021. North Carolina Invasive Plants., Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: North Carolina Invasive Plant Council. http://nc-ipc.weebly.com/nc-invasive-plants.html

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Shen J, Dong L K, Wang Z H, Yu J Y, Zou F L, 2017. First report of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Ligustrum japonicum in China. Plant Disease. 101 (7), 1329. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-16-1826-PDN

Sobrino E, Sanz-Elorza M, Dana E D, González-Moreno A, 2002. Invasibility of a coastal strip in NE Spain by alien plants. Journal of Vegetation Science. 13 (4), 585-594. DOI:10.1111/j.1654-1103.2002.tb02085.x

Swearingen J, Bargeron C, 2020. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. In: Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States, Tifton, Georgia, USA: University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. http://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/

USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2020. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

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19/03/2020 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

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