Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Lagenaria siceraria
(bottle gourd)

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Datasheet

Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 26 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lagenaria siceraria
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bottle gourd
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Lagenaria siceraria is a vine species, probably originating from tropical Africa, that has been transported and cultivated by humans since ancient times mainly for its fruit. This species is considered one of t...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, showing flowers, leaves, and tendrils. India. October 2019.
TitleHabit
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, showing flowers, leaves, and tendrils. India. October 2019.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, showing flowers, leaves, and tendrils. India. October 2019.
HabitLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, showing flowers, leaves, and tendrils. India. October 2019.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, with a fruit. India. October 2019.
TitleHabit
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, with a fruit. India. October 2019.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, with a fruit. India. October 2019.
HabitLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, with a fruit. India. October 2019.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, as a planted crop. Resort Management Group Nursery Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, as a planted crop. Resort Management Group Nursery Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, as a planted crop. Resort Management Group Nursery Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.
HabitLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, as a planted crop. Resort Management Group Nursery Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, with leaves and flower. Resort Management Group Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, with leaves and flower. Resort Management Group Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, with leaves and flower. Resort Management Group Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.
HabitLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); habit, with leaves and flower. Resort Management Group Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); leaf and flower. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleLeaf and flower
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); leaf and flower. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); leaf and flower. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Leaf and flowerLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); leaf and flower. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); leaf and flower. Resort Management Group Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.
TitleFlower
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); leaf and flower. Resort Management Group Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); leaf and flower. Resort Management Group Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.
FlowerLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); leaf and flower. Resort Management Group Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); flower. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. October 2019.
TitleFlower
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); flower. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. October 2019.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); flower. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. October 2019.
FlowerLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); flower. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. October 2019.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit and leaves. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleFruit and leaves
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit and leaves. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit and leaves. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Fruit and leavesLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit and leaves. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit, the ‘bottle gourd'. Bergianska Trädgården, Stockholm, Sweden. July 2012.
TitleFruit
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit, the ‘bottle gourd'. Bergianska Trädgården, Stockholm, Sweden. July 2012.
Copyright©Christer Johansson/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit, the ‘bottle gourd'. Bergianska Trädgården, Stockholm, Sweden. July 2012.
FruitLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit, the ‘bottle gourd'. Bergianska Trädgården, Stockholm, Sweden. July 2012.©Christer Johansson/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit. Seoul, Soth Korea. July 2012.
TitleFruit.
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit. Seoul, Soth Korea. July 2012.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Hyunjung Kim/via wikipedia/PixaBay - CC0 1.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit. Seoul, Soth Korea. July 2012.
Fruit.Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit. Seoul, Soth Korea. July 2012.Public Domain - Released by Hyunjung Kim/via wikipedia/PixaBay - CC0 1.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2010.
TitleFruit
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2010.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2010.
FruitLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2010.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit diversity. A local variety of bottle gourd from northern Mozambique, with early maturity and good palatability. Not used to make household utensils, but as food, especially important as one of the earliest foods produced in the "hungry gap". Mozambique. February 2012.
TitleFruit diversity
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit diversity. A local variety of bottle gourd from northern Mozambique, with early maturity and good palatability. Not used to make household utensils, but as food, especially important as one of the earliest foods produced in the "hungry gap". Mozambique. February 2012.
Copyright©Ton Rulkens/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit diversity. A local variety of bottle gourd from northern Mozambique, with early maturity and good palatability. Not used to make household utensils, but as food, especially important as one of the earliest foods produced in the "hungry gap". Mozambique. February 2012.
Fruit diversityLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); fruit diversity. A local variety of bottle gourd from northern Mozambique, with early maturity and good palatability. Not used to make household utensils, but as food, especially important as one of the earliest foods produced in the "hungry gap". Mozambique. February 2012.©Ton Rulkens/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); dried fruits. Argentina. October 2013.
TitleDried fruits
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); dried fruits. Argentina. October 2013.
Copyright©Sergio Andres Segovia/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); dried fruits. Argentina. October 2013.
Dried fruitsLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); dried fruits. Argentina. October 2013.©Sergio Andres Segovia/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); seeds. Pukalani Plant Company, Pulehu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2010
TitleSeeds
CaptionLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); seeds. Pukalani Plant Company, Pulehu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2010
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); seeds. Pukalani Plant Company, Pulehu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2010
SeedsLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd); seeds. Pukalani Plant Company, Pulehu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2010©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.

Preferred Common Name

  • bottle gourd

Other Scientific Names

  • Cucumis bicirrha J.R.Forst. ex Guill.
  • Cucumis lagenaria (L.) Dumort.
  • Cucumis mairei H.Lév.
  • Cucurbita idolatrica Willd.
  • Cucurbita idololatrica Willd.
  • Cucurbita lagenaria L.
  • Cucurbita leucantha Duchesne
  • Cucurbita pyriformis M.Roem.
  • Cucurbita siceraria Molina
  • Cucurbita vittata Blume
  • Lagenaria bicornuta Chakrav.
  • Lagenaria idolatrica (Willd.) Ser. ex Cogn.
  • Lagenaria leucantha (Duchesne) Rusby
  • Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.

International Common Names

  • English: calabash gourd; calabash; gourd (bottle); white-flower gourd; white-flowered gourd
  • Spanish: calabazo; calabaza; calabaza de peregrinos; calabaza mate; calabaza vinatera; guiro; guiro amargo; porongo
  • French: calabassier; calebasse; calebasser; courge bouteille; gourde; gourde bouteille
  • Chinese: hu lu
  • Portuguese: cabaco

Local Common Names

  • Bolivia: mate; porongo; tari
  • Brazil: abobora d’agua; cabaceiro-amargoso
  • Cambodia: khlôôk
  • Dominican Republic: bangaña; güiro
  • Germany: Flaschenkürbis; Kalebassenkuerbis
  • Haiti: gourde trompette; calebase courant; calebasse franc; calebasse longue; calebasse musquée; congourde; gourde des pelerins; gros calabasse
  • Hungary: Iopótök
  • India: dudhi; jati-lao; pani-lao
  • Indonesia: kukuk; labu air; labu putih
  • Italy: zucca bottiglia; zucca lunga
  • Japan: hyōtan
  • Korea, Republic of: bag
  • Laos: namz taux
  • Lesser Antilles: calebasse douce; calebasse musquée; courge; gourde; longe; sweet calabash
  • Malaysia: labu botol
  • Mexico: acocote; tarro; tecomate; tecomatillo
  • Netherlands: kalebas, fles-
  • Panama: tule de mate
  • Papua New Guinea: botol wara; sel kambang
  • Philippines: kalubay ; tabungaw; upo
  • Puerto Rico: calabozo; candungo amargo; carracho; güícharo; marimbo
  • South Africa: iselwa; kalbas; moraka; segwana
  • Thailand: khi-luu-saa; manamtao; namtao
  • Turkey: uzun kabak
  • Vietnam: bâù

EPPO code

  • LGNSI (Lagenaria siceraria)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Lagenaria siceraria is a vine species, probably originating from tropical Africa, that has been transported and cultivated by humans since ancient times mainly for its fruit. This species is considered one of the most widely distributed plants in the world due to its long history of domestication. Plants can grow up to 5 m long and are shallow-rooted with an extensive lateral root system. Even where this species is known almost exclusively in cultivation, it often escapes from cultivation and can be found naturalized along riversides, roadsides, dry thickets, savannahs and in areas near villages. L. siceraria is a species of environmental concern because it is a vigorous and fast-growing vine that often grows over other plant species, displacing and outcompeting them for water, nutrients and sunlight.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Violales
  •                         Family: Cucurbitaceae
  •                             Genus: Lagenaria
  •                                 Species: Lagenaria siceraria

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Cucurbitaceae comprises 98 genera and about 1,000 species of climbers, lianas and vines distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world; it is especially diverse in drier parts of Africa (Stevens, 2017). The genus Lagenaria includes 6 species, probably all originally Old World and mainly African (Welman, 2005; Stephens, 2015; PROSEA, 2018). 

The species Lagenaria siceraria is one of the most widely distributed plants in the world with a long history of domestication and use in both the Old and New World (Bisognin, 2002). L. siceraria is extremely variable with numerous forms and cultivars available after being in cultivation for such a long time (Decker-Walters et al., 2001). Currently, two morphologically distinct subspecies of L. siceraria are recognised: L. siceraria subsp. siceraria (the African gourds) and L. siceraria subsp. asiatica (the Asian gourds) (Decker-Walters et al., 2001; Clarke et al., 2006; PROSEA, 2018).

Description

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The following description is based on PROTA (2018). Monoecious, annual, climbing or trailing herb, with proximally bifid tendrils. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules absent; petiole 2.5–12.5 cm long, pubescent, with a pair of tiny glands at apex; blade broadly ovate to kidney-shaped in outline, 3–33 cm × 4.5–33 cm, undivided or shortly palmately 5–9-lobed, cordate at base, shallowly sinuate-dentate, palmately veined. Flowers unisexual (rarely bisexual), solitary in leaf axils, regular, 5-merous, up to 15 cm in diameter; receptacle tube obconic-cylindrical, 1–1.5 cm long, lobes remote; petals free, white; male flowers on long pedicels 7–31 cm long, with 3 free stamens inserted on the receptacle tube, connectives broad; female flowers on short pedicels 2–10 cm long, with inferior, densely hairy ovary, stigma 3-lobed, thick, each lobe 2-lobed. Fruit a berry, very variable in size and shape, often globular, bottle- or club-shaped, up to 1 m long, white-yellow to dark green when young, sometimes whitish speckled, usually brown when mature and dried, with hard, durable rind, flesh white and soft, many-seeded. Seeds oblong, compressed, up to 2 cm long, emarginate at base, with 2 flat facial ridges, smooth, sometimes rugose, whitish to brownish.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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Lagenaria siceraria is probably native to tropical Africa but now has a pantropical distribution. Archaeological records show that L. siceraria has been cultivated since pre-Columbian times in both the Old and New World (PROSEA, 2018). This species is known almost exclusively in cultivation, and most records and collections are from cultivated plants or plants that escaped from cultivation, but in 1992 a wild population was discovered in a remote region of southeastern Zimbabwe (Decker-Walters et al., 2004). Currently, L. siceraria can be found cultivated and naturalized across tropical and temperate Asia, Africa, the Americas, the West Indies, Australia and on many islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans (GRIIS, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 26 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
AngolaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
BeninPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
BotswanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDepartment of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (2016)Cultivated
Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
BurundiPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
CameroonPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
ChadPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
Congo, Republic of thePresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
EgyptPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
EritreaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
EswatiniPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDepartment of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (2016)Cultivated
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
GabonPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
GambiaPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
GhanaPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
GuineaPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
KenyaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
LiberiaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
LibyaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
MadagascarPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
MalawiPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
MauritiusPresentKeraudren-Aymonin (1993)
-RodriguesPresentKeraudren-Aymonin (1993)
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
NamibiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDepartment of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (2016)Cultivated
NigeriaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
RéunionPresentKeraudren-Aymonin (1993)
RwandaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
SenegalPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
SeychellesPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
SomaliaPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
South AfricaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDepartment of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (2016)Cultivated
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
TogoPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
UgandaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
ZambiaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)Cultivated
ZimbabwePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
CambodiaPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)Cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)Cultivated
-AssamPresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)Cultivated
-BiharPresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)Cultivated
-GujaratPresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)Cultivated
-KeralaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)Cultivated
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)Cultivated
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)Cultivated
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)Cultivated
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
JapanPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
PakistanPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
SingaporePresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
TaiwanPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
ThailandPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
TurkeyPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018)
VietnamPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
YemenPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)

Europe

CroatiaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
FrancePresentIntroducedCABI (2020)
-CorsicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveDAISIE (2018)
GreecePresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018)
HungaryPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018)
ItalyPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018)
Portugal
-AzoresPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018)
SerbiaPresentIntroducedMladenović et al. (2012)Cultivated
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
SpainPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018)

North America

AnguillaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BarbadosPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BelizePresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto and González-Oliva (2015)
DominicaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)Cultivated
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)Cultivated
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)Cultivated
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveRed de Herbarios del Noroeste de México (2017)Cultivated
Netherlands AntillesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)Cultivated
PanamaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)Cultivated
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
United StatesPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-MissouriPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
FijiPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
New ZealandPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated
VanuatuPresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)Cultivated

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)Cultivated
BoliviaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedJørgensen et al. (2014)Cultivated
BrazilPresentIntroducedGomes-Klein et al. (2015)Cultivated
-BahiaPresentIntroducedGomes-Klein et al. (2015)Cultivated
-Distrito FederalPresentIntroducedGomes-Klein et al. (2015)Cultivated
-GoiasPresentIntroducedGomes-Klein et al. (2015)Cultivated
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedGomes-Klein et al. (2015)Cultivated
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedGomes-Klein et al. (2015)Cultivated
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedGomes-Klein et al. (2015)Cultivated
ColombiaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedJørgensen and León-Yánez (1999)
French GuianaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)Cultivated. Escaped
GuyanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)Cultivated. Escaped
ParaguayPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)
PeruPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)
SurinamePresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)Cultivated. Escaped
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)Cultivated. Escaped

History of Introduction and Spread

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It is generally accepted that L. siceraria is indigenous to Africa and that it reached temperate and tropical areas in Asia and the Americas about 10,000 years ago, with human help or probably as a wild species whose fruits were carried by ocean currents. Fruits are known to float in the sea for many months without the seeds losing their viability. Independent domestications from wild populations are believed to have occurred in both the Old and New World (Erickson et al., 2005; Welman, 2005; Clarke et al., 2006; Stephens, 2015; Kistler et al., 2014; PROTA, 2018).

From Africa, L. siceraria apparently travelled to India, where it evolved into numerous varieties and cultivars, and from India to China, Indonesia and as far as the Polynesian Islands and New Zealand. The Asian bottle gourd, L. siceraria subsp. asiatica, was used by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11000 years before present (BP) and it appears as a domesticated species in China and Japan from 8000-9000 years BP (Erickson et al., 2005; Clarke et al., 2006; Kistler et al., 2014). Linguistic evidence and dated archaeological specimens suggest that this species has been present in Eastern Polynesia since before AD 1200. The dispersal of L. siceraria within Polynesia, where it is widely distributed, was certainly human-mediated (Clarke et al., 2006).

Lagenaria siceraria also reached the New World. Archaeological evidence shows that it was present in the Americas by at least 10000 years BP and became increasingly ubiquitous and widespread during the latter half of the Holocene (Kistler et al., 2014). Remains found in North America date from 10000 to 7500 years BP, those in Mexico from 7000 to 5500 years BP and in Peru from about 6000 years BP (Bisognin, 2002; Stephens, 2015). Currently, there are two theories to explain how this species reached the New World: the first theory suggests that the bottle gourd was moved from Asia (Asian origin theory) to the Americas by Paleo-Indian populations as they crossed the Bering Land Bridge and colonized the New World (Erickson et al., 2005). The second theory suggests that the bottle gourd arrived in the Americas from Africa (African origin theory) via long-range dispersal on ocean currents (Whitaker and Carter, 1954; Kistler et al., 2014). Experimental evidence suggests that the early spread from Africa to the New World could have occurred through oceanic drift as dried gourds with viable seeds have survived in seawater for at least 200 days (Stephens, 2015). Regardless of how it reached the New World, L. siceraria is now extensively cultivated throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas for food and its useful gourds (Bisognin, 2002; Davidse et al., 2009; Stephens, 2015).

In Africa, remnants of L. siceraria found in Egypt and Zambia date from 3000–1000 BC. Archaeological remains also show that L. siceraria was used in Egypt about 3500 to 3300 BC (PROTA, 2018).

Habitat

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Lagenaria siceraria is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas at elevations ranging from near sea level to 2500 m. It is often found as an escapee especially along riversides and ruderal areas. It can be found growing in alluvial sandy soils, flat areas and moderate slopes, rocky ridges, riverbanks, dry riverbeds, riverine thickets, woodland and savannahs. It is also common in disturbed sites, secondary forests, ruderal areas near villages and along roadsides. L. siceraria is well adapted to tropical moist and wet climates, but also tolerates dry and arid conditions and can thus be found growing in dry thickets, arid steppes and deserts (Welman, 2005; Stephens, 2015; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Present, no further details Natural
Deserts Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Arid regions Present, no further details Natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported is 2n=22 (Singh, 1990). Populations of L. siceraria are heterozygous and highly variable. Hybridization is often common (PROSEA, 2018). Apparently, India is the region with the highest diversity of varieties and cultivars (Sunil et al., 2014), followed by West Africa (Stephens, 2015). Tropical Africa is considered the primary gene pool for this species (Singh, 1990).

Reproductive Biology

Lagenaria siceraria is a diploid, self-compatible vine. Flowers are monoecious (solitary male and female flowers are found on the same plant), and cross-pollination is highly favourable. Dioecious and andromonoecious sex forms bearing hermaphrodite flowers have been reported for wild, non–cultivated types. Flowers open in the late afternoon and are pollinated by insects (Morimoto et al., 2004; Welman, 2005PROSEA, 2018). In Kenya, 22 species of insects including hawkmoths (Hippotion celerio, Agrius convolvuli), moths (Noctuidae spp.), butterflies and honeybees were observed visiting L. siceraria flowers (Morimoto et al., 2004). In the Americas, hummingbirds visit the flowers (Welman, 2005). Pollen is usually abundant, and the stigmas are receptive up to 36 hours after anthesis. Female flowers are short-stalked while male flowers have long stalks (PROSEA, 2018).

Physiology and Phenology

In China, L. siceraria produces flowers during summer and fruits are often collected in autumn (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In Pakistan, flowers have been reported almost throughout the year, but especially from March to May (Flora of Pakistan, 2018). In India, flowering and fruiting have been observed from June to February (India Biodiversity Portal, 2018). In southern Africa flowering has been observed mainly in April and May and fruits mainly from April to July (Welman, 2005).

Longevity

Lagenaria siceraria is a vigorous, fast-growing annual vine (Stephens, 2015).

Activity Patterns

Seeds of L. siceraria usually germinate 5-7 days after sowing. The vining stage starts 14 days after emergence and is characterized by rapid vine elongation and the growth of tendrils and lateral stems. Growth slows down at the onset of flowering that starts 55-65 days after sowing and continues throughout the cropping period of 6-7 months. A number of male flowers are produced before the female flowers appear. The ratio of female to male flowers is higher under cool temperatures. Each plant yields about 10-15 fruits and the fruits need 2-3 months to mature (PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Associations

In southern Africa, L. siceraria can be found growing in riverine thickets, woodlands and savannahs with Acacia spp., Colophospermum mopane, Faidherbia albida and Phragmites spp. It can also be found on cultivated land with sorghum and maize (Welman, 2005).

Environmental Requirements

Lagenaria siceraria is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates with mean annual temperatures in the range 19-27°C and mean annual rainfall of 700-2800 mm. However, in South Africa it has been observed growing in dry and arid habitats receiving annual rainfall of 400-600 mm (Welman, 2005; Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 2016).  It is adapted to a wide range of soil types including light, medium and heavy soils with pH in the range 5.5-7.5. The optimum temperature for germination is 20-25°C and the germination rate declines below 15°C or above 35°C. It does not tolerate frost. Low temperatures and extreme drought lead to flower and fruit abortion (PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
45 40

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 19 27
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 38
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 10

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7002800mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen Whole plant not specific N
Golovinomyces cichoracearum Pathogen Whole plant not specific
Meloidogyne Pathogen Whole plant not specific N
Podosphaera fuliginea Pathogen Whole plant not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Some of the diseases and pests affecting L. siceraria include: anthracnose (Colletotrichum lagenarium [Gloeosporium orbiculare]), powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum [Golovinomyces cichoracearum] and Sphaerotheca fuliginea [Podosphaera fuliginea]), Sclerotium basal stem rot, fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum), root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), cucurbit leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae), blister beetles (Coryna apicicornis) and fruit flies (Dacus spp. [Bactrocera spp.]) (Stephens, 2015; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Lagenaria siceraria spreads by seeds. Fruits can be dispersed by ocean currents and by large mammals. Fruits are known to float in the sea for many months without the seeds losing their viability (Stephens, 2015; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018). It has been suggested that this species could have been dispersed by megafaunal mammals (Kistler et al., 2014).

Intentional Introduction

Lagenaria siceraria is an ancient crop that has been introduced and extensively cultivated by humans. It is the only crop known to have been cultivated in pre-Columbian times in both the Old and New World (Erickson et al., 2005; Kistler et al., 2014; Stephens, 2015). Currently, it is one of the most widely distributed plant species in the world with a long history of domestication and cultivation (Bisognin, 2002; PROTA, 2018). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionGrown for its fruits Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
DisturbanceNaturalized in disturbed sites, roadsides, etc Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped and naturalized Yes Yes Welman, 2005
FoodYoung fruits, young shoots and flowers are consumed by humans Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Garden waste disposalSeeds Yes Yes ,
Intentional releaseOne of the oldest cultivated crops. Widely grown for its fruits Yes Yes Erickson et al., 2005
Medicinal useUsed in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
People foragingYoung fruits, young shoots and flowers are consumed by humans Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Seed tradeMajor seed companies sell the seed Yes Yes ,

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and fruits Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Floating vegetation and debrisFruits float in the sea and can be dispersed by sea currents Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
MailSeeds available online Yes Yes
LivestockFruits Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
WaterFruits float in the sea and can be dispersed by sea currents Yes Yes PROTA, 2018

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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Lagenaria siceraria is a vigorous and fast-growing vine that climbs over trees and shrubs displacing and outcompeting native vegetation for water, nutrients and sunlight (Chacón and Saborío, 2012; Oviedo Prieto and González-Oliva, 2015; DAISIE, 2018).

Social Impact

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Although L. siceraria is cultivated for its fruit as a vegetable, there have been reports in recent years of toxicity in humans consuming the fruit or juice from the fruit (Ho et al., 2014). Apparently the ingestion of extremely bitter bottle gourd can cause rapid onset diarrhoea, vomiting, gastrointestinal bleeding and hypotension. Like other members within the Cucurbitaceae, this species contains cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste and known to be cytotoxic at high concentrations (Welman, 2005).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Hybridization
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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The fruits of some cultivars of L. siceraria are used as a vegetable when young. These can be boiled, steamed, fried, used in curries or made into fritters. Cultivars differ markedly in sweetness or bitterness. Carefully selected cultivars are comparable to the popular summer squashes of temperate regions. Young shoots and flower buds of less bitter types are occasionally eaten as a green vegetable. Oil from the seeds has been used as cooking oil in Africa. Syrup made from the green fruit is used to treat bronchial disorders such as pectoral cough and asthma (Sivarajan and Balchandran, 1996). Various medicinal uses of the leaves, fruit and seeds have been recorded from various countries, e.g. as a pectoral, an anthelmintic, a purgative and even as a headache remedy (PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

The myriad of sizes and shapes of dried mature fruits accounts for the tremendous variation in the use of the dry shell (calabash) as containers and utensils in many parts of the world. Calabashes are used for storing and transporting drinking water, porridge, fresh or fermented milk, beer and wine, honey, ghee, animal fat, salt, tobacco, perfume, medicinal herbs, crop seeds or food grains. They are also used as beehives, as containers for brewing beer or for storing clothes (like a suitcase) as animal traps and decoys, animal feeders, air pumps, well buckets, vases, funnels, floats for fishing nets, beds for babies, washbasins, irrigation pots, cages for chicks, masks and containers for seedlings. Calabashes are also used to make decorative handicrafts, floats and musical instruments. In South America, the calabash gourds are dried and carved into “mates”, the traditional container for mate, the popular caffeinated, tea-like drink brewed from the yerba mate plant (PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

In the Polynesian islands, the calabash gourd is often dried when ripe and used as a traditional percussion instrument, the ipu heke in contemporary and ancient hula. Gourd containers are very common in Hawaii and on Easter Island, especially as water bottles. In Hawaii they are also used to make containers for a variety of uses, rattles, drums and head masks. On most Polynesian islands, calabash gourd containers are often elaborately decorated (Clarke et al., 2006; McCormack, 2007).

Uses List

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Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Religious

General

  • Ritual uses
  • Souvenirs

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits
  • Seeds
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Oils

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Woodware

  • Musical instruments

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bisognin, D. A., 2002. Origin and evolution of cultivated cucurbits. Ciência Rural, 32(4), 715-723. doi: 10.1590/S0103-84782002000400028

Chacón, E., Saborío, G., 2012. Interamerican network of information on invasive species, Costa Rica. (Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica). In: Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica . San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad.http://invasoras.acebio.org

Clarke AC, Burtenshaw MK, McLenachan PA, Erickson DL, Penny D, 2006. Reconstructing the origins and dispersal of the Polynesian bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). Molecular Biology and Evolution, 23(5), 893-900.

DAISIE, 2018. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe . http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Davidse, G, Sousa, MS, Knapp, S, Chiang, FC, 2009. Cucurbitaceae a Polemoniaceae. In: Flora Mesoamericana , 4(1) . 1-855.

Decker-Walters, D. S., Wilkins-Ellert, M., Chung, S. M., Staub, J. E., 2004. Discovery and genetic assessment of wild bottle Gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley; Cucurbitaceae] from Zimbabwe. Economic Botany, 58(4), 501-508. doi: 10.1663/0013-0001(2004)058[0501:DAGAOW]2.0.CO;2

Decker-Walters, D., Staub, J., López-Sesé, A., Nakata, E., 2001. Diversity in landraces and cultivars of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria; Cucurbitaceae) as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 48(4), 369-380. doi: 10.1023/A:1012079323399

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 2016. Production guideline for bottle gourd. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.12 pp. http://www.daff.gov.za/Daffweb3/Portals/0/Brochures%20and%20Production%20guidelines/Bottle%20gourd.pdf

Erickson, D. L., Smith, B. D., Clarke, A. C., Sandweiss, D. H., Tuross, N., 2005. An Asian origin for a 10 000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(51), 18315-18320. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0509279102

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2018. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

Ho CH, Ho MG, Ho SP, Ho HH, 2014. Bitter bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) toxicity. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 46(6), 772-775.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Kistler, L., Montenegro, Á., Smith, B. D., Gifford, J. A., Green, R. E., Newsom, L. A., Shapiro, B., 2014. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(8), 2937-2941. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1318678111

McCormack, G., 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. In: Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2 , Rarotonga: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust.http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org

Morimoto, Y., Gikungu, M., Maundu, P., 2004. Pollinators of the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) observed in Kenya. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 24(1), 79-86.

Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PROSEA, 2018. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation.http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea.php

PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Singh AK, 1990. Cytogenetics and evolution in the Cucurbitaceae. In: Biology and utilization of the Cucurbitaceae, [ed. by Bates DM, Robinson RW, Jeffrey C]. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press. 10-28.

Sivarajan VV, Balchandran I, 1996. Ayurvedic drugs and their plant source, New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH Publication Company Pvt. Ltd.

Stephens JM, 2015. Gourd, Bottle—Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl. #HS602. Gainesville, Florida, USA: Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension.2 pp.

Stevens, P. F., 2017. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Sunil, N., Reddy, M. T., Hameedunnisa, B., Vinod, Rao, P. S., Sivaraj, N., Kamala, V., Prasad, R. B. N., Rao, B. V. S. K., Chakrabarty, S. K., 2014. Diversity in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria - (Molina) Standl.) germplasm from Peninsular India. Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 5(2), 236-243. https://sites.google.com/site/ejplantbreeding/current-issue

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Welman M, 2005. Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl. . Pretoria, South Africa: South African National Biodiversity Institute.http://pza.sanbi.org/lagenaria-siceraria

Whitaker, T. W., Carter, G. F., 1954. Oceanic drift of gourds-experimental observations. American Journal of Botany, 41, 697-700. doi: 10.2307/2438952

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. Interamerican network of information on invasive species, Costa Rica. (Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica.). In: Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

DAISIE, 2018. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Davidse G, Sousa MS, Knapp S, Chiang FC, 2009. Cucurbitaceae a Polemoniaceae. In: Flora Mesoamericana, 4 (1) 1-855.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 2016. Production guideline for bottle gourd., Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 12 pp. http://www.daff.gov.za/Daffweb3/Portals/0/Brochures%20and%20Production%20guidelines/Bottle%20gourd.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

Gomes-Klein VL, Lima LFP, Gomes-Costa GA, Medeiros ES, 2015. Cucurbitaceae. List of species of Brazilian flora. (Cucurbitaceae. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/FichaPublicaTaxonUC/FichaPublicaTaxonUC.do?id=FB17036

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Jørgensen P M, León-Yánez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. 1182 pp.

Jørgensen P M, Nee M H, Beck S G, 2014. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 1741 pp.

Keraudren-Aymonin M, 1993. Cucurbitaceae. (Cucurbitacées). In: Flore des Mascareignes: La Réunion, Maurice, Rodrigues. [ed. by Bosser J, Cadet T, Guého J, Marais W]. Réduit, Mauritius: Sugar Industry Research Institute. 1-22.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mladenović E, Berenji J, Ognjanov V, Ljubojević M, Čukanović J, 2012. Genetic variability of bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) standley and its morphological characterization by multivariate analysis. Archives of Biological Sciences. 64 (2), 573-583. DOI:10.2298/ABS1202573M

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PFAF, 2018. Plants For A Future Database. In: Plants For A Future Database. Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future. http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database. Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Red de Herbarios del Noroeste de México, 2017. (Flora del Noroeste dé Mexico)., Sonora, Mexico: Herbario de la Universidad de Sonora. http://herbanwmex.net/portal/taxa/index.php

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

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26/03/2018 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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