Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Leveillula taurica
(powdery mildew of cotton)

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Datasheet

Leveillula taurica (powdery mildew of cotton)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 April 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Leveillula taurica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • powdery mildew of cotton
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Leotiomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Leveillula taurica (Lév.) G. Arnaud

Preferred Common Name

  • powdery mildew of cotton

Other Scientific Names

  • Erysiphe taurica Lév.
  • Leveillula solanacearum Golovin
  • Oidiopsis taurica (Lév.) E.S. Salmon
  • Ovulariopsis cynarea (Ferraris & Massa) Ciccar.

International Common Names

  • English: powdery mildew of eggplant; powdery mildew of pepper; powdery mildew of tomato
  • Spanish: oidio
  • French: oidium du sainfoin

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Mehltau: Artischocke; Mehltau: Baumwolle; Mehltau: Eierpflanze; Mehltau: Paprika; Mehltau: Tomate

EPPO code

  • LEVETA (Leveillula taurica)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Leotiomycetes
  •                     Order: Erysiphales
  •                         Family: Erysiphaceae
  •                             Genus: Leveillula
  •                                 Species: Leveillula taurica

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIMI, 1996
ArmeniaPresentPapoyan et al., 1986; IMI, 1996
BhutanPresentIMI, 1996
Brunei DarussalamPresentIMI, 1996
ChinaPresentIMI, 1996
-Hong KongPresentIMI, 1996
-XinjiangPresentIMI, 1996; He et al., 2012; Zheng et al., 2013
-YunnanPresentIMI, 1996
IndiaPresentIMI, 1996
-Andhra PradeshPresentReddy & Reddy, 1980; IMI, 1996
-DelhiPresentIMI, 1996
-GujaratPresentDhruj et al., 1996
-HaryanaPresentSaharan and Saharan, 1994; IMI, 1996
-Himachal PradeshPresentPaul and Bhardwaj, 1987
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIMI, 1996
-KarnatakaPresentNaik & Ragaswamy, 1994; Sharma, 1984; Deshpande et al., 1985; IMI, 1996
-MaharashtraPresentPadule et al., 1982; Wankhade and Peshney, 1992; IMI, 1996
-RajasthanPresentMahrishi et al., 1980; Mahrishi et al., 1979; Mahrshi and Siradhana, 1980; IMI, 1996
-Tamil NaduPresentIMI, 1996
-Uttar PradeshPresentKumar et al., 1991
IndonesiaPresentIMI, 1996
-JavaPresentIMI, 1996
IranPresentSedeghi & Esmail, 1992; Sharifnabi and Banihashemi, 1990; IMI, 1996; Mirzaee and Mohammadi, 2010; Aeeinfar, 2011; Abkhoo, 2015
IraqPresentIMI, 1996
IsraelPresentReuveni, 1976; Palti, 1974; Elad and Shtienberg, 1994; IMI, 1996
JapanPresentKunoh et al., 1981
KazakhstanPresentAl'muratov & Zhansugurova, 1978; Amanturdiyev, 1989; IMI, 1996
Korea, Republic ofPresentCha et al., 1980; Kang et al., 1995; IMI, 1996
KyrgyzstanPresentIMI, 1996
LebanonPresentIMI, 1996
MalaysiaPresentIMI, 1996
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIMI, 1996
-SabahPresentIMI, 1996
MongoliaPresentIMI, 1996
MyanmarPresentIMI, 1996
NepalPresentIMI, 1996
PakistanPresentMoghal et al., 1977; IMI, 1996
PhilippinesPresentIMI, 1996
Sri LankaPresentIMI, 1996
SyriaPresentBillar, 1989; IMI, 1996
TaiwanPresentChen et al., 1996; IMI, 1996
TajikistanPresentAmanturdiyev, 1989; IMI, 1996
TurkeyPresentYucel, 1994; Kavak, 2011
TurkmenistanPresentIMI, 1996
UzbekistanPresentAmanturdiyev, 1989; IMI, 1996
YemenPresentIMI, 1996

Africa

AngolaPresentIMI, 1996
Côte d'IvoirePresentIMI, 1996
EgyptPresentMichail and Tarabeih, 1976; IMI, 1996
EthiopiaPresentIMI, 1996
GambiaPresentIMI, 1996
GhanaPresentCaesar and Clerk, 1985; IMI, 1996
GuineaPresentIMI, 1996
KenyaPresentOndieki, 1973; IMI, 1996
LibyaPresentKhan & El-Ammari, 1987; El-Ammari and Khan, 1987; IMI, 1996
MadagascarPresentIMI, 1996
MalawiPresentReddy et al., 1993; IMI, 1996
MauritiusPresentIMI, 1996
MoroccoPresentBesri and Hormattallah, 1985; Besri, 1991; IMI, 1996
MozambiquePresentIMI, 1996
NigerPresentIMI, 1996
NigeriaPresentIMI, 1996
RwandaPresentIMI, 1996
SenegalPresentDamme, 1986; IMI, 1996
Sierra LeonePresentIMI, 1996
SomaliaPresentIMI, 1996
South AfricaPresentvan Jaarsveld, 1985; Gorter and Eicker, 1987; IMI, 1996
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIMI, 1996
SudanPresentOmer et al., 1972; Hussein, 1985; Mohamed et al., 1995; IMI, 1996
TanzaniaPresentIMI, 1996
TogoPresentIMI, 1996
TunisiaPresentMoens et al., 1984; Bechir, 1993; Allagui et al., 1995; IMI, 1996
UgandaPresentIMI, 1996
ZambiaPresentKannaiyan and Haciwa, 1989; Kannaiyan and Haciwa, 1990; IMI, 1996
ZimbabwePresentIMI, 1996

North America

CanadaPresentCerkauskas and Buonassisi, 2003
-British ColumbiaPresentCerkauskas and Buonassisi, 2003
MexicoPresentGarcia Estrada et al., 1993; Sanchez, 1983; IMI, 1996
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresentMihail and Alcorn, 1985; IMI, 1996
-CaliforniaPresentContaxis & Van Maren, 1978; Correll et al., 1987; Buddenhagen et al., 1988; Koike et al., 1988; IMI, 1996
-FloridaPresentIMI, 1996
-HawaiiPresentUchida et al., 1995; IMI, 1996; Romberg et al., 2014
-IdahoPresentForster, 1989; IMI, 1996
-IowaPresentIMI, 1996
-MarylandPresentJones et al., 2009
-NevadaPresentIMI, 1996
-New YorkPresentMcGrath et al., 2001
-OregonPresentSampangi et al., 2007
-TexasPresentCook and Riggs, 1995; IMI, 1996
-UtahPresentJones & Thompson, 1987; IMI, 1996
-WashingtonPresentGlawe et al., 2004

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIMI, 1996
DominicaPresentIMI, 1996
Dominican RepublicPresentIMI, 1996
HondurasPresentIMI, 1996
NicaraguaPresentIMI, 1996
Puerto RicoPresentRuiz Giraldo & Rodriguez, 1992; Negron et al., 1991; IMI, 1996

South America

ArgentinaPresentLucero et al., 2005
BrazilPresentPinto et al., 1994; IMI, 1996; Mizubuti and Brommonschenkel, 1996
-Minas GeraisPresentMizubuti and Brommonschenkel, 1996
-Rio de JaneiroPresentVivas et al., 2010
ChilePresentIMI, 1996
PeruPresentIMI, 1996
VenezuelaPresentSanabria de Albarracin et al., 1987; Sanabria de Albarracin et al., 1994; Parra et al., 1976; IMI, 1996

Europe

AlbaniaPresentKaltani and Bedo, 1979; IMI, 1996
AustriaPresentBedlan, 1984; IMI, 1996
BelgiumPresentNihoul et al., 1991; IMI, 1996
BulgariaPresentKounovski et al., 1985; Kunovska & Todorova, 1981; Stamova and Stamova, 1993; IMI, 1996
CyprusPresentIMI, 1996
Czech RepublicPresentIMI, 1996
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentZacha and Novakova, 1981; IMI, 1996
FrancePresentDaubeze et al., 1995; IMI, 1996
-CorsicaPresentIMI, 1996
GermanyPresentIMI, 1996; Lohrer, 1996
GreecePresentVakalounakis et al., 1994; Lohrer, 1996
-CretePresentVakalounakis, 2016Heraklio area
HungaryPresentLehoczky et al., 1972; Simay, 1991
ItalyPresentDaubeze et al., 1995; Frisullo et al., 1995; Fiori et al., 1996; Lohrer, 1996
LithuaniaPresentIMI, 1996
MaltaPresentIMI, 1996
NetherlandsPresentZuijderwijk and Dik, 1996
PolandPresentIMI, 1996
RomaniaPresentDocea and Fratila, 1980; Iosifescu, 1985; IMI, 1996
Russian FederationPresentPyzhenkov, 1977; IMI, 1996
SlovakiaPresentIMI, 1996
SpainPresentSotirova et al., 1990; IMI, 1996
SwedenPresentPettersson and Ramert, 1988; IMI, 1996
SwitzerlandPresentIMI, 1996
UKPresentIMI, 1996
UkrainePresentGelyuta and Taran, 1989; IMI, 1996
Yugoslavia (former)PresentAleksic and Aleksic, 1976; Maric et al., 1977; IMI, 1996

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIMI, 1996
-QueenslandPresentIMI, 1996
-VictoriaPresentIMI, 1996
-Western AustraliaPresentIMI, 1996
FijiPresentIMI, 1996
New CaledoniaPresentIMI, 1996
Papua New GuineaPresentIMI, 1996
TongaPresentDatf, 1973

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / mycelium present
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / mycelium present

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Abkhoo J, 2015. Powdery mildews causing fungi in Iran. Mycopath, 13(1):51-55. http://111.68.103.26/journals/index.php/mycopath/article/viewFile/673/354

Aeeinfar H, 2011. First report of Powdery mildew of Rosa persica caused by Leveillula taurica from Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 47(3):Pe309-Pe310, En105. http://www.ijpp.ir/article_16095.html

Aleksic Z, Aleksic D, 1976. The most important diseases of pepper in Serbia. Poljoprivreda, 23(252):17-23

Allagui MB, Palloix A, Hamza N, 1995. Evaluation of resistance and susceptibility to powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) in pepper (Capsicum sp.) under natural epidemics in Tunisia. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 34(3):143-148; 7 ref

Al'muratov NN, Zhansugurova L, 1978. Diseases of prostrate summer cypress and their control in the south-eastern Kazakhstan. Intensifik. zemledeliya yuga i yugo-vost. Kazakhstana. Alma-Ata. USSR, 146-154

Amanturdiyev K, 1989. Pests and diseases of alchor. Uzbekiston Biologija Zhurnali, No. 1:51-53

Arnaud G, 1921. Etudes sur les champignons parasites. Annals Epiphyties, 7:1-115

Ayesu-Offei EN, 1989. Formp speciales of Leveillula taurica (Lev.) Arn. infecting peppers and eggplants in Ghana. Tropical Agriculture, 66(4):355-360

Azadbakht J, Darvishnia M, Hayati J, Azadbakht N, 2013. Four new host records for powdery mildew fungi from Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest and Range Protection Research, 10(2):Pe114-Pe119, En3. http://www.rifr-ac.ir/

Bechir AM, 1993. Evaluation of pepper genotypes to Leveillula taurica Lev.(Arn.) resistance in Tunisia. Capsicum & Eggplant Newsletter, No. 12:81-82; 1 ref

Bedlan G, 1984. Important diseases of carrot. Pflanzenarzt, 37(9):140-142

Besri M, 1991. Integrated control of cryptogamic diseases of tomato in Morocco. Bulletin SROP, 14(5):187-191; 19 ref

Besri M, Hormattallah A, 1985. Occurrence and survival of Leveillula taurica, cause of tomato powdery mildew in Morocco. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 112(4):348-354

Billar M, 1989. Survey of alfalfa diseases in the Ghouta of Damascus, Syria, (1981, 1982, 1985 and 1986). Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 7(1):1-7; 13 ref

Boesewinkel HJ, 1980. The morphology of the imperfect states of powdery mildews (Erysiphaceae). Botanical Review, 46(2):167-224

Braun U, 1986. Taxonomic notes on some powdery mildews of various genera. Mycotaxon, 25(1):259-269

Braun U, 1987. A monograph of the Erysiphales (powdery mildews). Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 89:700 pp

Braun U, 1995. The powdery mildews (Erysiphales) of Europe. The powdery mildews (Erysiphales) of Europe., 337 pp.; many ref

Buddenhagen IW, Workneh F, Bosque-Perez NA, 1988. Chickpea improvement and chickpea diseases in California. International Chickpea Newsletter, No. 19:9-10; 3 ref

Cerkauskas RF, Buonassisi A, 2003. First report of powdery mildew of greenhouse pepper caused by Leveillula taurica in British Columbia, Canada. Plant Disease, 87(9):1151

Cha JS, Ki UK, Cho BH, Kim KC, 1980. A new disease, powdery mildew, caused by Oidiopsis taurica on Capsicum spp. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 19(4):240-242

Chen YuhKun, Chen ChingChung, Chen LungChung, 1996. Occurrence of powdery mildew on golden calla lily in Taiwan. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 62(6):580-583; 13 ref

Choi, I. Y., Jang, S. J., Oh, H. T., Shin, H. D., 2019. First report of powdery mildew caused by Leveillula taurica on Cucurbita ficifolia in Korea. Plant Disease, 103(3), 586-587. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/pdis-07-18-1288-pdn

Cook CG, Riggs JL, 1995. First report of powdery mildew on kenaf caused by Leveillula taurica in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Plant Disease, 79(9):968

Correll JC, Gordon TR, Elliott VJ, 1987. Host range, specificity, and biometrical measurements of Leveillula taurica in California. Plant Disease, 71(3):248-251

Cpsar JC, Clerk GC, 1985. Germinability of Leveillula taurica (powdery mildew) conidia obtained from water-stressed pepper plants. Canadian Journal of Botany, 63(10):1681-1684

Daft GC, 1973. A supplementary list of diseases in Tonga. Technical Document, FAO Plant Protection Committee for the Southeast Asia and Pacific Region Bangkok. Thailand, No. 88:3 pp

Damme PLvan, 1986. Performance of two African aubergines (Solanum pthiopicum and Solanum macrocarpon) in the Senegal river valley. Agronomie Tropicale, 41(3/4):218-230

Daubeze AM, Hennart JW, Palloix A, 1995. Resistance to Leveillula taurica in pepper (Capsicum annuum) is oligogenically controlled and stable in Mediterranean regions. Plant Breeding, 114(4):327-332

Deshpande AA, Anand N, Pathak CS, Sridhar TS, 1985. New sources of powdery mildew resistance in Capsicum species. Capsicum Newsletter, 4:75-76

Dhruj IU, Akbari LF, Khandar RR, Vaishnav MU, 1996. Effectiveness of triazole fungicides against powdery mildew of fenugreek. Plant Disease Research, 11(1):86-88; 6 ref

Diop-Bruckler M, Molot P, 1986. Interet des quelques hyperparastes dans la lutte vis-a-vis de Leveillula taurica et de Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Dijon, France: Colloque OEPP Lutte Microbiologique

Docea E, Fratila E, 1979. A new pathogen causing powdery mildew of cucumber in Romania. Lucrari Stiintifice, B, 22:165-168

Elad Y, Shtienberg D, 1994. Effect of compost water extracts on grey mould (Botrytis cinerea). Crop Protection, 13(2):109-114

El-Ammari SS, Khan MW, 1983. Leveillula taurica powdery mildew on greenhouse cucumbers in Libya. Plant Disease, 67(5):553-555

El-Ammari SS, Khan MW, 1987. Identity of powdery mildews of cucurbits in Libya. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 5(2):92-89

Fiori M, Prota VA, Carta C, Garau R, 1996. Control trials against powdery mildew on artichoke in 1994-95 in Sardinia. Difesa delle Piante, 19(1):23-26; 9 ref

Forster RL, 1989. Powdery mildew of greenhouse cucumbers and tomatoes caused by Leveillula taurica in Idaho. Plant Disease, 73(12):1020

Frisullo S, Corato Ude, Lops F, Trombetta NM, 1995. Diseases of kenaf in Basilicata. Informatore Fitopatologico, 45(1):37-41; 29 ref

Garcia-Estrada RS, Cardenas-Soriano E, Gonzalez-Hernandez V, Zavaleta-Mejia E, 1993. Infection and some physiological alterations produced by Oidiopsis taurica in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Fitopatologia, 28(1):1-9

Gelyuta VP, Taran MA, 1989. New and rare species of the microflora of the Ukrainian SSR of Leveillula Arnaud (order Erysiphales). Ukrains'kii Botanichnii Zhurnal, 46(2):56-59

Glawe DA, Toit LJdu, Pelter GQ, 2004. First report of powdery mildew on potato caused by Leveillula taurica in North America. Plant Health Progress, December:1-3. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/brief/2004/potato/

Gorter GJMA, Eicker A, 1987. Additional first records of perfect stages of some powdery mildew fungi in South Africa, including a new species. South African Journal of Botany, 53(1):93-97

He G, Xu B, Song JG, Zhang LL, Zhao ZY, Wang G, 2012. First report of powdery mildew caused by Leveillula taurica on Cynanchum kashgaricum in China. Plant Disease, 96(9):1373. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Hussein MM, 1985. Root rot/wilt complex, powdery mildew, and mosaic disease of faba beans and their control. Faba beans, kabuli chickpeas, and lentils in the 1980s., 119-127; [6 tab.]; 6 ref

IMI, 1996. Leveillula taurica, Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Map No. 217. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Iosifescu M, 1985. Aspects of the epidemiology of powdery mildew in sweet pepper, varietal response to it and its control. Productia Vegetala, Horticultura, 34(11):3-7

Jaarsveld ABvan, 1985. Fungal pathogens of lupins in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 17(4):209-213; [13 ref., 1 tab.]; 39 ref

Jones RW, Stommel JR, Wanner LA, 2009. First report of Leveillula taurica causing powdery mildew on pepper in Maryland. Plant Disease, 93(11):1222. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Jones WB, Thomson SV, 1982. The effects of fungicide treatments on yield and quality of tomato plants infected with Leveillula taurica. Phytopathology, 72:970

Jones WB, Thomson SV, 1987. Source of inoculum, yield, and quality of tomato as affected by Leveillula taurica. Plant Disease, 71(3):266-268

Kaltani T, Bedo S, 1979. Principal diseases of vegetables, resistance of hybrids and problems in organizing the protection of plants in the greenhouses of the 17 November Collective in Tirane. Buletini i Shkencave Bujqesore, 18:51-63

Kang SooWoong, Kwon JinHyeuk, Shin WonKyo, Kim HeeKyu, 1995. Occurrence of powdery mildew on tomato caused by Oidiopsis taurica (LTv.) Arnaud (= Leveillula taurica) in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 11(4):380-382; 9 ref

Kannaiyan J, Haciwa HC, 1989. A check list of chickpea diseases recorded in Zambia. International Chickpea Newsletter, No. 21:23-24

Kannaiyan J, Haciwa HC, 1990. Diseases of pigeonpea in Zambia. International Pigeonpea Newsletter, No. 12:22-23

Kavak H, 2011. Two new records of powdery mildews with their effectiveness on three ornamentals in Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(5):1076-1079. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar/fulltext/2011/4%20Mar/Kavak.htm

Khan MW, El-Ammari SS, 1987. Outbreaks and new records. Libya. Occurrence of three species of powdery mildews on cucurbits. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 35(2):66-67

Khodaparast SA, Takamatsu S, Hedjaroude G, 2001. Phylogenetic structure of the genus Leveillula (Erysiphales: Erysiphaceae) inferred from the nucleotide sequences of the rDNA ITS region with special reference to the L. taurica species complex. Mycological Research, 105(8):909-918; 40 ref

Koike ST, Feng C, Correll JC, 2015. Powdery mildew, caused by Leveillula taurica, on spinach in California. Plant Disease, 99(4):555. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Koike ST, Tidwell TE, Kosta KL, 1988. First report of powdery mildew (Oidiopsis taurica) of gazania. Plant Disease, 72(6):546

Kontaxis DG, Maren AFvan, 1978. Powdery mildew on tomato - a new disease in the United States. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(10):892-893

Kumar J, Dutta M, Rajendra Prasad, 1991. Pigeon pea diseases at different altitudes in Garhwal Hills, India. International Pigeonpea Newsletter, No. 14:16-17

Kunoh H, Takeshima H, Ishizaki H, 1981. Studies of the powdery mildew fungus, Leveillula taurica, on green pepper III. Histochemical observation of osmiophilic granule associated with haustoria and intercellular hyphae. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 47(2):206-212

Kunovski Zh(Kounovski Zh), Todorova I, 1985. Powdery mildew of pepper (Leveillula solanacearum Gol.) in Bulgaria. II. Sources of resistance. Pochvoznanie, Agrokhimiya i Rastitelna Zashchita, 20(5):75-81

Kunovski Zh, Todorova I, 1981. Research on powdery mildew of Capsicum in Bulgaria. I. Physiological specialization of the pathogen of powdery mildew of Capsicum. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka, 18(6):29-36

Lehoczky J, Kajati I, Princzinger G, 1972. A new disease in Hungary: powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica (Lev.) Arn.) of green pepper. Novenyvedelem, 8:393-402

Lohrer T, 1996. Powdery mildew on tomatoes. Gemuse Munchen, 32:396-397

Lucero H, Lucero G, Pizzuolo P, 2005. Physalis viscosa, a new host of Leveillula taurica from Argentina. (Physalis viscosa. Un nuevo hospedero de Leveillula taurica en Argentina.) Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 37(1):113-115

Mahrishi RP, Mathur AK, Bhatnagar GC, 1979. Simultaneous occurrence of Oidiopsis taurica and Oidium erysiphoides on eggplant in Rajasthan, India. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(10):864-865

Mahrshi RP, Mathur AK, Gupta RBL, 1980. Occurrence and evaluation of the reaction of potato varieties to the powdery-mildew caused by Oidiopsis taurica (Lev.) Salmon in Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 50(3):268-270

Mahrshi RP, Siradhana BS, 1980. Some new hosts of Oidiopsis taurica from Rajasthan. Indian Phytopathology, 33(3):513

Maric Z, Balaz F, Jasnic S, Sekulic, 1977. Important diseases and pests of vegetables in glasshouses of Voyvodina with particular reference to chemical control of Sclerotinia minor Jagg, Leveillula taurica (Lev) Arn. and Trialeurodes vaporariorum Weatw. Acta Horticulturae, No. 58:393-399

McGrath MT, Shishkoff N, Bornt C, Moyer DD, 2001. First occurrence of powdery mildew caused by Leveillula taurica on pepper in New York. Plant Disease, 85(10):1122

Michail SH, Tarabeih AM, 1976. New records of powdery mildews on certain ornamental plants. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 11(1/2):53-57

Mihail JD, Alcorn SM, 1984. Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) on native and cultivated plants in Arizona. Plant Disease, 68(7):625-626

Mirzaee MR, Khodaparast SA, Mohseni M, Ramazani SHR, Soltani-Najafabadi M, 2011. First record of powdery mildew of castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis) caused by the anamorphic stage of Leveillula taurica in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 6(1):36-38. http://www.springerlink.com/content/u723 m46401772870/fulltext.html

Mirzaee MR, Mohammadi M, 2010. Occurrence of powdery mildew caused by Leveillula taurica on onion (Allium cepa) in Iran. Plant Disease, 94(2):280. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Mizubuti ESG, Brommonschenkel SH, 1996. Diseases caused by fungi in tomato. Informe Agropecuário (Belo Horizonte), 18(184):7-14; 24 ref

Moens M, Aichai BBen, Welvprt W, 1984. Contribution to the knowledge about Leveillula taurica (Lev.) Arn. on early pepper in Tunisia. II. Chemical control. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 49(2a):257-266

Moghal SM, Perwaiz MS, Jagirdar HH, 1977. The effect of some sulphur fungicides on powdery mildew of chillies. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 20(4/5):322-323

Mohamed YF, Bardin M, Nicot PC, Pitrat M, 1995. Causal agents of powdery mildew of cucurbits in Sudan. Plant Disease, 79(6):634-636

Mukerji KJ, 1968. Leveillula taurica. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 182. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

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