Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Leucinodes orbonalis
(eggplant fruit borer)

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Datasheet

Leucinodes orbonalis (eggplant fruit borer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Leucinodes orbonalis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • eggplant fruit borer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Wingspan 18-24 mm, adults white with a characteristic wing pattern. Forewing, antemedian field brown, median field with large brown patch near inner margin, reniform stigma brown. Hindwing, black patch on cross-vein of cell.
TitleAdult
CaptionWingspan 18-24 mm, adults white with a characteristic wing pattern. Forewing, antemedian field brown, median field with large brown patch near inner margin, reniform stigma brown. Hindwing, black patch on cross-vein of cell.
CopyrightK.V.N. Maes
Wingspan 18-24 mm, adults white with a characteristic wing pattern. Forewing, antemedian field brown, median field with large brown patch near inner margin, reniform stigma brown. Hindwing, black patch on cross-vein of cell.
AdultWingspan 18-24 mm, adults white with a characteristic wing pattern. Forewing, antemedian field brown, median field with large brown patch near inner margin, reniform stigma brown. Hindwing, black patch on cross-vein of cell.K.V.N. Maes
Larvae are reddish in colour and may reach 15 mm long.
TitleLarva in aubergine
CaptionLarvae are reddish in colour and may reach 15 mm long.
Copyright©James Litsinger
Larvae are reddish in colour and may reach 15 mm long.
Larva in aubergineLarvae are reddish in colour and may reach 15 mm long.©James Litsinger
Final-instar larvae bore into fruits, characterized by small entrance holes closed by dried excrement.
TitleSymptoms on aubergine
CaptionFinal-instar larvae bore into fruits, characterized by small entrance holes closed by dried excrement.
Copyright©James Litsinger
Final-instar larvae bore into fruits, characterized by small entrance holes closed by dried excrement.
Symptoms on aubergineFinal-instar larvae bore into fruits, characterized by small entrance holes closed by dried excrement.©James Litsinger
L. orbonalis causes yield loss, weakens plants, and the fruits produced by infested plants may be unsuitable for consumption
TitleSymptoms on aubergine
CaptionL. orbonalis causes yield loss, weakens plants, and the fruits produced by infested plants may be unsuitable for consumption
Copyright©James Litsinger
L. orbonalis causes yield loss, weakens plants, and the fruits produced by infested plants may be unsuitable for consumption
Symptoms on aubergineL. orbonalis causes yield loss, weakens plants, and the fruits produced by infested plants may be unsuitable for consumption©James Litsinger

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée, 1854

Preferred Common Name

  • eggplant fruit borer

International Common Names

  • English: brinjal fruit borer
  • French: foreuse des solanées; perceur de l'aubergine

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bohrer, Auberginenfrucht-

EPPO code

  • LEUIOR (Leucinodes orbonalis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Crambidae
  •                             Genus: Leucinodes
  •                                 Species: Leucinodes orbonalis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshWidespreadCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
Brunei DarussalamPresentCIE, 1976; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
CambodiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
ChinaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentEPPO, 2014
-HunanWidespreadYing, 1993
-JiangsuWidespreadZhu et al., 1987
-JiangxiPresentYang, 1982
IndiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentKumar et al., 2000
-AssamPresentIslam et al., 2004
-BiharPresentMandal et al., 2004
-ChhattisgarhPresentAsati et al., 2004
-DelhiPresentEPPO, 2014
-GujaratPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentAnjana et al., 2007; EPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentEPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentMohamad et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
-KeralaPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentAsmita et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ManipurPresentSingh et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014
-MeghalayaPresentSingh and Singh, 2003
-OdishaPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
-RajasthanPresentJat et al., 2002
-Tamil NaduPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
-TripuraPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
-West BengalPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentEPPO, 2014
-SumatraPresentEPPO, 2014
JapanPresentEPPO, 2014
LaosPresentWaterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-SarawakPresentEPPO, 2014
MyanmarPresentWaterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentEPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentKalshoven and van der Laan, 1981; EPPO, 2014
SingaporePresentCIE, 1976; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentCIE, 1976; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
United Arab EmiratesPresentEPPO, 2014
VietnamRestricted distributionCIE, 1976; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014

Africa

BurundiPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
CameroonPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
CongoPresentEPPO, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentCIE, 1976
EthiopiaPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
GhanaPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
LesothoPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentEPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
NigeriaPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
RwandaPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentEPPO, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
SomaliaPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
-ZanzibarPresentCIE, 1976
UgandaPresentCIE, 1976; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentEPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentEPPO, 2014

Europe

DenmarkAbsent, intercepted onlyEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsAbsent, intercepted onlyNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO, 2014Absent, intercepted only, confirmed by survey.
UKPresentHiggott, 2009

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Inflorescence / internal feeding
Inflorescence / webbing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen
Baculovirus Pathogen Larvae
Bracon Parasite Larvae
Bracon brevicornis Parasite
Campyloneura Parasite Larvae
Cochliobolus spicifer Pathogen
Eriborus argenteopilosus Parasite
Gibberella fujikuroi Pathogen
Gibberella sacchari Pathogen Larvae
Itamoplex Parasite Pupae
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen
Phanerotoma Parasite Larvae
Pseudoperichaeta Parasite Larvae
Trathala Parasite Larvae
Trathala flavoorbitalis Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma chilonis Parasite

References

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Ali MI, 1994. Circumstantial evidence supports insect resistance in Bangladesh. Resistant Pest Management, 6(1):5

Anjana Patial; Mehta PK; Sood AK, 2007. Developmental biology of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee in mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh. Entomon, 32(2):137-141.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Asari PAR; Nair MRGK, 1972. On the control of brinjal pests using deterrents. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala, 10(2):133-135

Asati BS; Sarnaik DA; Thakur BS; Rai N, 2004. Correlation studies in round fruited brinjal against fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guen.). Progressive Horticulture, 36(1):132-134.

Asmita Suradkar; Naitam NR; Gotarkar SB; Aherkar SK, 2008. Management of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen using different IPM modules. Journal of Entomological Research, 32(2):125-126.

Attygalle AB; Schwarz J; Gunawardena NE, 1988. Sex pheromone of brinjal shoot and pod borer Leuconodes orbonalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Pyraustinp). Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung, C (Biosciences), 43(9-10):790-792

Awasthi AK, 2000. Preliminary screening of brinjal genotypes to Leucinodes orbonalis (Guen.). Insect Environment, 6(1):33-34.

Baang LA; Corey FM, 1991. Life history of an eggplant fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guen) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). CMU Journal of Science, 4(1):45-61

Babu SGR; Gowda PHR; Shivashankar KT; Krishnappa KS, 1999. Evaluation of M single plant progenies of Solanum macrocarpon for growth, yield and shoot and fruit borer resistance. South Indian Horticulture, 47(1/6):182-184; 4 ref.

Bajaj KL; Singh D; Kaur G, 1989. Biochemical basis of relative field resistance of eggplant (Solanum melongena) to the shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guen.). Vegetable Science, 16(2):145-149

Beevi SN; Jacob A, 1982. Susceptibility of different pests and plants to infection by Fusarium moniliformp var. subglutinans. Entomon, 7(2):235-236

Behera TK; Gyanendra Singh, 2002. Studies on resistance to shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) and interspecific hybridization in eggplant. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 59(1):62-66; 7 ref.

Behera TK; Narendra Singh; Kalda TS, 1999. Genetic diversity in eggplant for resistance to shoot and fruit borer. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 56(3):259-261; 4 ref.

Biradar AP; Teggelli RG; Patil DR; Balikai RA, 2001. Evaluation of cypermethrin 3 EC+ quinalphos 20 EC(=23 EC) against brinjal shoot and fruit borer. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 14(2):369-372; 7 ref.

Brar JS; Bhalla JS; Singh H, 1992. Chemical control of Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. in brinjal. Journal of Insect Science, 5(2):225-226

Chakraborti S, 2001. A biorational approach for the management of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. Journal of Entomological Research, 25(1):73-76; 8 ref.

Chaudhary DR; Sharma SD, 2000. Screening of some brinjal cultivars against bacterial wilt and fruit borer. Agricultural Science Digest, 20(2):129-130; 4 ref.

Chaudhary OP; Kashyap RK, 1987. Field fertilization vis-a-vis incidence of insect pests complex and marketable yield in the egg-plant, Solanum melongena L. Giornale Italiano di Entomologia, 3(17):413-420

Chitra KC; Rao SJ; Rao PK; Nagaiah K, 1993. Field evaluation of certain plant products in the control of brinjal pest complex. Indian Journal of Entomology, 55(3):237-240

CIE, 1976. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 364. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cork A; Alam SN; Das A; Das CS; Ghosh GC; Farman DI; Hall DR; Maslen NR; Vedham K; Phythian SJ; Rouf FMA; Srinivasan K, 2001. Female sex pheromone of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis blend optimization. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 27(9):1867-1877; 11 ref.

Darekar KS; Gaikwad BP; Chavan UD, 1991. Screening of eggplant cultivars for resistance to fruit and shoot-borer. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 16(3):366-369

Dilbagh Singh; Chadha ML, 1991. Effect of morphological characters on brinjal on incidence of Leucinodes orbonalis. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 28(3):345-353

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Frempong E, 1979. The nature of damage to egg plant (Solanum melongena L.) in Ghana by two important pests, Leucinodes orbonalis Gn. and Euzophera villora (Fldr.) (Lepidoptera Pyralidae). Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique, 41(2):408-416

Gunawardena NE; Attygalle AB; Herath HMWKB, 1989. The sex pheromone of the brinjal pest, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee (Lepidoptera): problems and perspectives. Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka, 17(2):161-171

Gupta SC; Singh PP; Kumar A, 1999. Effect of intercropping with spices on the incidence of Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. in brinjal and its economics. Shashpa, 6(1):45-48; 5 ref.

Higgott JB, 2009. Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée, 1854 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a species not previously recorded in the wild in Great Britain. Entomologist's Gazette, 60(1):25-27. http://www.pemberleybooks.com

Islam J; Nath RK; Dutta BC, 2004. Management of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guen.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Bioved, 15(1/2):121-126.

Islam MN; Karim MA; Mannan MA; Chowdhury JCS; Islam M, 1999. Integrated management of the brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), based on insecticide. Bangladesh Journal of Entomology, 9(1/2):75-85; 17 ref.

Janardar Singh; Bardhan AK, 1974. Effectiveness of DD-136, an entomophilic nematode against insect pests of agricultural importance. Current Science, 43(19):622

Jat KL; Pareek BL; Swaroop Singh, 2002. Seasonal incidence of shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guen.) on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) in Rajasthan. Annals of Biology, 18(2):165-169; 14 ref.

Kalshoven LGE; Laan PA van der (Reviser and translator), 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia (revised). Jakarta, Indonesia: Ichtiar Baru, 701 pp.

Karmakar K; Bhattacharya B, 2000. Performance of a local brinjal variety (Solanum melongena L.) and its pest management under terai agro-ecological conditions. Environment and Ecology, 18(2):344-346; 2 ref.

Khorsheduzzaman AKM; Ali MI; Mannan MA; Ahmed A, 1997. Brinjal-coriander intercropping: an effective IPM component against brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera). Bangladesh Journal of Entomology, 7(1/2):85-91; 20 ref.

Krishnamoorthy A; Mani M, 1998. New record of parasitoid Diadegma apostata (G.) on brinjal shoot and fruit borer. Insect Environment, 4(3):87.

Kumar BA; Rao BN; Sriramulu M, 2000. Studies on the efficacy of certain insecticides and their mixtures against shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. on brinjal. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 28(1):25-28; 11 ref.

Kumar BA; Rao BN; Sriramulu M, 2001. Evaluation of insecticide mixtures against Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. on brinjal. Journal of Research ANGRAU, 29(2/3):22-26; 12 ref.

Kumar NKK; Sadashiva AT, 1996. Solanum macrocarpon: a wild species of brinjal resistant to brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guen.). Insect Environment, 2(2):41-42.

Kumar PA; Ajin Mandaokar; Karra Sreenivasu; Chakrabarti SK; Suman Bisaria; Sharma SR; Sarvjeet Kaur; Sharma RP, 1998. Insect-resistant transgenic brinjal plants. Molecular Breeding, 4(1):33-37; 19 ref.

Kumar PA; Mandaokar AD; Sharma RP, 1998. Genetic engineering for the improvement of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). AgBiotech News and Information, 10(10):329N-332N; 21 ref.

Kumar SP; Babu PCS, 1998. Ovipositional deterrent and ovicidal effects of Neem Azal against brinjal shoot and fruit borer and leaf beetle. Shashpa, 5(2):193-196; 6 ref.

Lal OP, 1991. Varietal resistance in the eggplant, Solanum melongena against the shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 98(4):405-410

Maleque MA; Islam MN; Kundu R; Islam MS, 1998. Judicious use of insecticides for the management of the brinjal shoot and fruit borer. Bangladesh Journal of Entomology, 8(1/2):97-107; 15 ref.

Mallik SN; Kumar M; Sinha AN; Karn BP, 1989. Trathala flavo-orbitalis Cameron (Ichneumonidae) - a parasite of Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. from Bihar. Current Science, 58(19):1098-1099

Mally R; Korycinska A; Agassiz DJL; Hall J; Hodgetts J; Nuss M, 2015. Discovery of an unknown diversity of Leucinodes species damaging Solanaceae fruits in sub-Saharan Africa and moving in trade (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pyraloidea). ZooKeys, No.472:117-162. http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=4535

Mandal SK; Saw SP; Kumar B; Purbey SK, 2004. Bioefficacy of some granular insecticides against Leucinodes orbonalis Guen in brinjal. Journal of Research, Birsa Agricultural University, 16(2):297-300.

Mathirajan VG; Natarajan K; Kuttalam S; Chandrasekaran S; Regupathy A, 2000. Efficacy of lambda cyhalothrin (karate) 5 EC against brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guen.). Pesticide Research Journal, 12(1):117-119; 5 ref.

Mehta PK; Vaidya DN; Kashyap NP, 1998. Bioefficacy of some insecticides against brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guen.). Journal of Insect Science, 11(1):80-81; 9 ref.

Mehto DN; Singh KM; Singh RN; Prasad D, 1983. Biology of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. Bulletin of Entomology, 24(2):112-115

Mishra PN; Singh YV; Nautiyal MC, 1988. Screening of brinjal varieties for resistance to shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guen.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). South Indian Horticulture, 36(4):188-192

Mohamad BD; Bhagat RC; Qureshi A, 2011. A survey of insect pests damaging vegetable crops in Kashmir Valley (India), with some new records. Journal of Entomological Research, 35(1):85-91. http://www.indianjournals.com

Mohanty JN; Anand Prakash; Jagadiswari Rao, 2000. Management of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. by release of Bracon brevicornis Wesm. in the field. Journal of Applied Zoological Researches, 11(2/3):96-97; 3 ref.

Naitam NR; Mali AK, 2001. IPM of Brinjal pests using insecticide mixtures and natural enemies. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 7(2):137-140; 10 ref.

Naresh JS; Malik VS; Balan JS, 1986. Estimation of fruit damage and larval population of brinjal fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee and its parasitism by Trathala sp. on brinjal. Bulletin of Entomology (New Delhi), 27(1):44-47

Naresh JS; Malik VS; Balan JS; Khokhar KS, 1989. A new record of Trathala sp., a larval endoparasite attacking brinjal fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee. Bulletin of Entomology (New Delhi), 27(1):74

Oda M, 2002. Grafting of vegetable crops. Scientific Report of the Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 54:49-72; many ref.

Panda HK, 1999. Screening of brinjal cultivars for resistance to Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. Insect Environment, 4(4):145-146.

Patel JR; Korat DM; Patel VB, 1988. Incidence of shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) Guen and its effect on yield in brinjal. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 16(2):143-145

Patel RC; Patel JC; Patel JK, 1971. New records of parasites of Leucinoides orbonalis Guen. from Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology, 33(3):358

Patnaik HP; Singh DN; Mohapatra S, 1998. Effect of NPK fertilizers on the incidence of shoot and fruit borer, (Leucinodes orbonalis Guen) in brinjal under insecticidal protection. Orissa Journal of Horticulture, 26(2):56-60; 8 ref.

Paul SK; Ghosh MR, 1990. Comparative efficacy of some synthetic pyrethroids to reduce damage to brinjal by Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. (Pyraustidae: Lepidoptera). Environment and Ecology, 8(4):1293-1295; 10 ref.

Prabhat Kumar; Johnsen S, 2000. Life cycle studies on fruit and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) and natural enemies of insect-pests of eggplant (Solanum melongena). Journal of Applied Biology, 10(2):178-184.

Rabindra Prasad, 2001. Effect of crop-association and insecticide on the incidence of shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen of brinjal. Shashpa, 8(2):195-197; 3 ref.

Radhika S; Reddy KD; Subbarathnam GV, 1997. Management of brinjal shoot and fruit borer Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee) with insecticides. Journal of Research ANGRAU, 25(3):10-14; 5 ref.

Raja J; Rajendran B; Pappiah CM; Verghese A, 1998. Management of egg plant shoot and fruit borer Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. In: Reddy PP, Kumar NKK, eds. Advances in IPM for Horticultural Crops. Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Pest Management in Horticultural Crops: Environmental Implications and Thrusts, Bangalore, India, 15-17 October 1997. Bangalore, India: Association for Advancement of Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, 84-86.

Razmi MS; Yazdani SS; Singh SP; Gupta SC; Hameed SF, 1991. Persistence of toxicity of some insecticides against the neonate larvae of Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. Journal of Entomological Research, 15(3):218-221

Reddy KCS; Joshi GC, 1990. Effect of insecticides and plant growth regulators on plant growth, incidence yield in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Journal of Research APAU, 18(2):141-145

Samanta A; Roy P; Das AK; Majumdar D; Somchoudhury AK, 1999. Bio-efficacy of a new formulation of quinalphos against insect pests of brinjal. Journal of Interacademicia, 3(1):49-52; 6 ref.

Sandanayake WRM; Edirisinghe JP, 1992. Instar determination and larval distribution in brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinoides orbonalis (Guen.). Ceylon Journal of Science, Biological Sciences, 22:50-59; 13 ref.

Sandanayake WRM; Edirisinghe JP, 1992. Trathala flavoorbitalis: parasitization and development in relation to host-stage attacked. Insect Science and its Application, 13(3):287-292

Sandanayake WRM; Edirisinghe JP, 1993. Aspects of reproductive biology of Trathala flavoorbitalis (Cam.): a parasitoid of Leucinodes orbonalis (Guen.). Entomon, 17(3-4):159-168

Sangama SK; Singh SP; Hameed SF, 1991. Dissipation of endosulfan residues in/on brinjal. Journal of Entomological Research, 15(2):138-140

Sasikala K; Rao PA; Krishnayya PV, 1999. Comparative efficacy of eco-friendly methods involving egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum, mechanical control and safe chemicals against Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee infesting brinjal. Journal of Entomological Research, 23(4):369-372; 7 ref.

Sharma AK; Chhibber RC, 1999. Effect of exposure periods and insecticides on Leucinodes orbonalis in brinjal. Indian Journal of Entomology, 61(3):242-251; 7 ref.

Sharma VK; Roshan Singh; Arora RK; Arun Gupta, 1998. Field response of brinjal cultivars against shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. Annals of Biology (Ludhiana), 14(2):199-201; 7 ref.

Singh PK, 2000. Effect of neem products on incidence of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. Journal of Applied Zoological Researches, 11(1):23-24.

Singh RKR; Devjani P; Singh TK, 2009. Population dynamics of Leucinodes orbonalis. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 17(2):486-487. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Singh SV; Singh KS; Malik YP, 2000. Seasonal abundance and economic losses of shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis on brinjal. Indian Journal of Entomology, 62(3):247-252; 13 ref.

Singh TH; Kalda TS, 1997. Source of resistance to shoot and fruit borer in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). PKV Research Journal, 21(2):126-128; 8 ref.

Singh YP; Singh PP, 2003. Biology of shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guen.) of egg plant (Solanum melongena L.) at medium high altitude hills of Meghalaya: (c) weather parameters with the development of shoot and fruit borer. Indian Journal of Entomology, 65(2):147-154.

Sridhar V; Vijay OP; Naik G, 2001. Field evaluation of brinjal (Solanum spp.) germplasm against shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. Insect Environment, 6(4):155-156; 1 ref.

Srinivasan G; Babu PCS, 2000. Sex pheromones for brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis. Indian Journal of Entomology, 62(2):225-226; 4 ref.

Srinivasan G; Babu PCS; Verghese A, 1998. Management of brinjal shoot and fruit borer Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using neem products and insecticides. In: Reddy PP, Kumar NKK, eds. Advances in IPM for Horticultural Crops. Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Pest Management in Horticultural Crops: Environmental Implications and Thrusts, Bangalore, India, 15-17 October 1997. Bangalore, India: Association for Advancement of Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, 87-93.

Sudhakar K; Punnaiah KC; Krishnayya PV, 1998. Influence of organic and inorganic fertilizers and certain insecticides on the incidence of shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. infesting brinjal. Journal of Entomological Research, 22(3):283-286; 7 ref.

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