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Datasheet

Leersia hexandra
(southern cut grass)

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Datasheet

Leersia hexandra (southern cut grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Leersia hexandra
  • Preferred Common Name
  • southern cut grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Panicles terminal, 5-15 cm long, exserted, branches 3-13 cm long, filiform, ascending to somewhat spreading in more robust forms, usually one per node but sometimes two.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionPanicles terminal, 5-15 cm long, exserted, branches 3-13 cm long, filiform, ascending to somewhat spreading in more robust forms, usually one per node but sometimes two.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Panicles terminal, 5-15 cm long, exserted, branches 3-13 cm long, filiform, ascending to somewhat spreading in more robust forms, usually one per node but sometimes two.
InflorescencePanicles terminal, 5-15 cm long, exserted, branches 3-13 cm long, filiform, ascending to somewhat spreading in more robust forms, usually one per node but sometimes two.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Panicles terminal, 5-15 cm long, exserted, branches 3-13 cm long, filiform, ascending to somewhat spreading in more robust forms, usually one per node but sometimes two.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionPanicles terminal, 5-15 cm long, exserted, branches 3-13 cm long, filiform, ascending to somewhat spreading in more robust forms, usually one per node but sometimes two.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Panicles terminal, 5-15 cm long, exserted, branches 3-13 cm long, filiform, ascending to somewhat spreading in more robust forms, usually one per node but sometimes two.
InflorescencePanicles terminal, 5-15 cm long, exserted, branches 3-13 cm long, filiform, ascending to somewhat spreading in more robust forms, usually one per node but sometimes two.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Leaves of L. hexandra are very rough to the touch, with retrorse hairs on the underside of the midrib.
TitleLeaf and leaf hairs
CaptionLeaves of L. hexandra are very rough to the touch, with retrorse hairs on the underside of the midrib.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Leaves of L. hexandra are very rough to the touch, with retrorse hairs on the underside of the midrib.
Leaf and leaf hairsLeaves of L. hexandra are very rough to the touch, with retrorse hairs on the underside of the midrib.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Culms 25-150 cm long, decumbent, glabrous to coarsely scabrous near the nodes; blades 5-25 cm long, 3-5 mm wide, scabrous to nearly glabrous above and beneath.
TitleLeaf and stem
CaptionCulms 25-150 cm long, decumbent, glabrous to coarsely scabrous near the nodes; blades 5-25 cm long, 3-5 mm wide, scabrous to nearly glabrous above and beneath.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Culms 25-150 cm long, decumbent, glabrous to coarsely scabrous near the nodes; blades 5-25 cm long, 3-5 mm wide, scabrous to nearly glabrous above and beneath.
Leaf and stemCulms 25-150 cm long, decumbent, glabrous to coarsely scabrous near the nodes; blades 5-25 cm long, 3-5 mm wide, scabrous to nearly glabrous above and beneath.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Leersia hexandra Swartz

Preferred Common Name

  • southern cut grass

International Common Names

  • English: swamp rice grass
  • Spanish: arrocillo rosado; hieba de arroz; lambedora (Dominican Republic); lamedora (Nicaragua); pasto de agua

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: andrequice; arroz-bravo; arroz-de-Guiana; capim-marreca; grama-boiadeira; grama-de-brejo
  • Japan: taiwanashikaki
  • Thailand: yaa sai

EPPO code

  • LERHE (Leersia hexandra)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Leersia
  •                                 Species: Leersia hexandra

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page L. hexandra belongs to the tribe Oryzeae (Gramineae [Poaceae]: Bambusoideae)

Variability

The most conspicuously variable characters of L. hexandra are scabrousness and general size of the leaves and stem. Pyrah (1969) used these variables to divide the species into four groups: dwarf, scabrous plants; dwarf, smooth plants; robust, scabrous plants; robust, smooth plants. However, there is a continuum of phenotypes between these groups.

Large populations of L. hexandra probably represent single clones since propagation is mainly vegetative and sexual reproduction is rare (Pyrah, 1969). Occasional cross pollination results in heterogeneous genotypes which may give phenotypically different clones. Because of the immense variation in the genus, Launert (1965) has commented that with the presence of such variation it would be a vain attempt to try and subdivide this taxon. Furthermore, the wide range of distribution would also make subdividing difficult without worldwide field observation. Launert also comments on an extreme form of Leersia from Africa, with spikelets 5.1-5.9 mm long; most species have spikelets 3.1-4.4 mm long and have some lateral pubescence. However, many specimens of L. hexandra from the USA have spikelets 4.4-5.0 mm long and are glabrous laterally and somewhat acuminate apex, these specimens are scabrous and depauperate (Pyrah, 1969).

Description

Top of page L. hexandra is very like plants from the genus Oryza and can be distinguished in many cases because the auricle at the junction of sheath and blade and the lower and upper glume are lacking. In addition, the leaves of Leersia are very rough to the touch, Leersia having retrorse hairs on the underside of the midrib; however, some samples of Leersia have been described as having glabrous leaves (Pyrah, 1969) and would therefore be less rough to the touch.

Description: after Pyrah (1969)

Perennial grass plant similar in appearance to rice (Oryza sativa); rhizomes elongate; culms 25-150 cm long, decumbent, rooting at the nodes, terminal portion erect, often floating, glabrous to coarsely scabrous near the nodes; nodes exposed, densely retrorse-pubescent to nearly glabrous, often somewhat shrunken, especially upon drying; sheaths coarsely scabrous-hispid to glabrous, margins often conspicuously ciliate; ligule truncate, 1-6 mm long, auriculate; blades 5-25 cm long, 3-5 mm wide, scabrous to nearly glabrous above and beneath; panicles terminal, 5-15 cm long, exserted, branches 3-13 cm long, filiform, ascending to somewhat spreading in more robust forms, usually one per node but sometimes two; spikelet 3.0-4.4 (5.0) mm long, imbricate, generally turning purple; lemma acute to acuminate, ciliate (to 0.6 mm long) on keel and margins; short hispid to glabrous laterally; palea sub equal with lemma, ciliate on keel; stamens 6, anthers 2-3 mm long; pistil about 2.5 mm; caryopsis usually not developed. Chromosome number 2n=48.

Distribution

Top of page L. hexandra is abundant in wet areas of tropical and subtropical regions of the world, in the southern USA, Central America, northern and central South America, Africa (south of the Sahara), India, tropical regions of China, South-East Asia and Australia. In Japan and neighbouring areas it is replaced by L. japonica (Pyrah, 1969).

It is reported as a serious weed of rice in Guyana and Brazil and a principal weed in Madagascar, the Philippines, Sumatra and Sarawak. It is also a weed of rice in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, the Philippines, Suriname and Thailand. It is a weed of maize in Indonesia, rubber in Malaysia and sugarcane in Australia and Tanzania. The plants are also a problem in drainage and irrigation ditches where the dense mat of vegetation that forms can impede water flow and cause erosion of banks (Holm et al., 1977).

L. hexandra is recorded in the floras of China, Ghana, Hong Kong, Israel, Jamaica, Myanmar, Puerto Rico and South Africa, but it is not clear if it is a weed in these areas (Holm et al., 1979).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentHolm et al., 1979
Brunei DarussalamPresentWaterhouse, 1993
CambodiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentWang et al., 1990
-GuangdongPresentWang et al., 1990
-GuangxiPresentPyrah, 1969
-GuizhouPresentPyrah, 1969
-HainanPresentPyrah, 1969
-Hong KongPresentPyrah, 1969
-HubeiPresentPyrah, 1969
-HunanPresentPyrah, 1969
-JiangxiPresentPyrah, 1969
-SichuanPresentPyrah, 1969
-YunnanPresentPyrah, 1969
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Indian PunjabPresentPyrah, 1969
-West BengalPresentPyrah, 1969
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentPyrah, 1969
-SumatraPresentPyrah, 1969
IsraelPresentHolm et al., 1979
LaosPresentWaterhouse, 1993
MalaysiaPresentPyrah, 1969
-SarawakPresentHolm et al., 1979
MyanmarPresentPyrah, 1969
NepalPresentPyrah, 1969
PhilippinesPresentPyrah, 1969
SingaporePresentPyrah, 1969
Sri LankaPresentPyrah, 1969
SyriaPresentPyrah, 1969
TaiwanPresentPyrah, 1969
ThailandPresentPyrah, 1969
VietnamPresentPyrah, 1969

Africa

AngolaPresentGibbs-Russel et al., 1990
BotswanaPresentGibbs-Russel et al., 1990
GhanaPresentHolm et al., 1979
KenyaPresentClayton, 1970
LesothoPresentGibbs-Russel et al., 1990
MadagascarPresentHolm et al., 1979
NamibiaPresentGibbs-Russel et al., 1990
NigeriaPresentHolm et al., 1979
South AfricaPresentGibbs-Russel et al., 1990
SwazilandPresentGibbs-Russel et al., 1990
TanzaniaPresentClayton, 1970
-ZanzibarPresentClayton, 1970
UgandaPresentClayton, 1970

North America

MexicoPresentPyrah, 1969
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentPyrah, 1969
-FloridaPresentPyrah, 1969
-GeorgiaPresentPyrah, 1969
-LouisianaPresentPyrah, 1969
-North CarolinaPresentPyrah, 1969
-South CarolinaPresentPyrah, 1969
-TennesseePresentPyrah, 1969
-TexasPresentPyrah, 1969
-VirginiaPresentPyrah, 1969

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentPyrah, 1969
CubaPresentPyrah, 1969
Dominican RepublicPresentPyrah, 1969
El SalvadorPresentPyrah, 1969
GuatemalaPresentPyrah, 1969
HaitiPresentPyrah, 1969
HondurasPresentPyrah, 1969
JamaicaPresentPyrah, 1969
NicaraguaPresentPyrah, 1969
Puerto RicoPresentPyrah, 1969
Trinidad and TobagoPresentPyrah, 1969

South America

ArgentinaPresentPyrah, 1969
BoliviaPresentPyrah, 1969
BrazilPresentHolm et al., 1979
-AmapaPresentPyrah, 1969
-AmazonasPresentPyrah, 1969
-BahiaPresentPyrah, 1969
-CearaPresentPyrah, 1969
-MaranhaoPresentPyrah, 1969
-Mato GrossoPresentPyrah, 1969
-ParanaPresentPyrah, 1969
-PernambucoPresentPyrah, 1969
-Rio de JaneiroPresentPyrah, 1969
-Rio Grande do NortePresentPyrah, 1969
-Rio Grande do SulPresentPyrah, 1969
-Santa CatarinaPresentPyrah, 1969
ColombiaPresentPyrah, 1969
EcuadorPresentPyrah, 1969
French GuianaPresentPyrah, 1969
GuyanaPresentPyrah, 1969
ParaguayPresentPyrah, 1969
SurinamePresentPyrah, 1969
UruguayPresentPyrah, 1969
VenezuelaPresentPyrah, 1969

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentWatson and Dallwitz, 1985
-New South WalesPresentWatson and Dallwitz, 1985
-QueenslandPresentWatson and Dallwitz, 1985
-VictoriaPresentWatson and Dallwitz, 1985
Papua New GuineaPresentPyrah, 1969

Habitat

Top of page L. hexandra is a tall perennial, tufted, aquatic or swamp grass that reproduces predominantly vegetatively, by creeping rhizomes, and by seeds (rare).

It is found in a variety of moist, usually freshwater, habitats, along irrigation ditches, streams and other waterways, in humid thickets, in ponds, in flooded ricefields and on moist arable lands.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Freshwater

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page L. hexandra is reported as a serious weed of rice in Guyana and Brazil and a principal weed in Madagascar, the Philippines, Sumatra and Sarawak. It is also a weed of rice in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, the Philippines, Suriname and Thailand. It is a weed of maize in Indonesia, rubber in Malaysia and sugarcane in Australia and Tanzania. It is a serious weed of tea in Indonesia. The plants are also a problem in drainage and irrigation ditches where the dense mat of vegetation that forms can impede water flow and cause erosion of banks (Holm et al., 1977).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Biology and Ecology

Top of page L. hexandra is an aquatic perennial grass which grows from 30 cm to 1 m high, forming matted carpets. It propagates vegetatively by rhizomes and by seed, which is rare; Pyrah (1969) noted that of the several hundred specimens he studied, only one had developed seeds. L. hexandra is sometimes infected by the fungus Testicularia leersiae which attacks the ovary, causing swelling which resembles seed. L. hexandra is sometimes known as 'rice grass' and resembles rice in appearance. Flowering will depend upon the climate and is probably year-round in the tropics.It has a high crude-protein content (12.4%) and low fibre content (30.9%) and is regarded as a fodder crop in the Philippines, Sri Lanka, India and Indonesia.

L. hexandra is host to a number of pests of economic importance, including rice viruses, virus vectors and insects. Among the insects are: brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Claridge, 1990); green planthopper Nilaparvata bakeri (Claridge and Morgan, 1993); green rice leafhopper Nephotettix malayanus, in Queensland, Australia (Kay and Brown, 1992); gall midge Orseolia oryzae, in south China, where it overwinters on the weed (Chiu, 1980); and leaf folder Brachmia arotraea [Helcystogramma arotraea], in India (Natarajam et al., 1978).

The populations of N. lugens from rice and from L. hexandra represent two distinct, but very closely allied, sympatric species (Claridge et al., 1985). Heinrichs and Medrano (1984) noted that the brown planthopper population that occurs on L. hexandra is distinct from that on rice because it does not survive on rice and the rice population does not survive on L. hexandra. However, the L. hexandra population is important in the management of brown planthopper on rice because it is attacked by the same predators, parasites and pathogens.

L. hexandra is susceptible to leaf yellowing, a virus disease of rice in India (Raychandhuri et al., 1967); to the fungus Piricularia sp. [Pyricularia] in Thailand (Chandrasrikul, 1962); to Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight of rice) in Texas (Gonzales et al, 1991); to brown spot (Cochliobolus miyabeanus); to rice grassy stunt tenuivirus, transmitted by N. lugens; to Tungro virus (rice tungro bacciliform virus) (Bottenberg et al, 1990); and to rice yellow dwarf MLO. L. hexandra plants were a source of the nematode, Ditylenchus angustus, which causes Ufra disease, and were found to transmit the nematode to uninfected plants downstream in the water flow; methods to control spread of the nematode include control of L. hexandra in the water currents, (Sein and Zan, 1977).

L. hexandra has also been used as a living mulch in sugarcane, with a view to suppressing the growth of weed Echinochloa spp., which are more difficult to control; treatments to control L. hexandra are applied later (Bushundial, 1991).

Impact

Top of page L. hexandra constitutes one of the aquatic weed flora of flooded rice of South-East Asia and has been described as a serious weed of rice in Guyana and Brazil and a principal weed of rice in Madagascar, the Philippines and Sarawak (Holm et al., 1977). It occurs as a weed of wetland, flooded or irrigated rice in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Suriname and Thailand. It is a serious weed of tea in Indonesia. It has also been reported as a weed of maize in Indonesia and of sugarcane in Australia, the Philippines and Tanzania (Holm et al 1977). In north-west Nigeria, L. hexandra is reported as increasing in importance as a pest in lowland rice (Imeokparia, 1989)

Usually, L. hexandra will be one of several weeds that cause problems in rice; therefore, yield losses cannot usually be attributed to L. hexandra alone. Ampong-Nyarko and De Datta (1991) reported estimates of 44-96% yield losses caused by uncontrolled weed growth, depending on the method of rice culture.

L. hexandra plants indirectly limit crop production by serving as hosts for organisms that adversely affect rice; this weed provides food, shelter and reproductive sites for insects, nematodes, pathogens and rodents (see Biology and Ecology). Yield losses attributed to these factors are difficult to determine.

In addition to competition with rice for resources, L. hexandra is also a problem associated with blockage of irrigation ditches.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page The genus Leersia is very closely allied to the genus Oryza; they can be distinguished because Leersia has bisexual spikelets and there are no sterile lemmas (Pyrah, 1969; Clayton and Renvoize, 1992).

Prevention and Control

Top of page Introduction

The choice of control method depends upon the size of weed infestation, the cost of labour, the value of the crop, and the cost and availability of herbicide.

Methods that are commonly used to control perennial grasses and that can be used for L. hexandra include: preparation of a clean seedbed; rotation of rice with lowland, non-irrigated crops; tillage methods, i.e. ploughing, to destroy rhizomes; and applications of systemic herbicides, such as glyphosate, with attention to the selectivity of the herbicide: for example, if the crop is susceptible to glyphosate then apply it pre-planting (Ampong-Nyarko and De Datta, 1991).

Other methods that have proved useful in the control of weeds in wetland rice are: closer row spacing to increase crop competition; thorough hand weeding; and burning stubble during the dry season (Moody, 1982).

Chemical Control

Glyphosate (pre-planting and post-emergence), fenoxaprop-ethyl (post-emergence), fluazifop-butyl and fluazifop-P-butyl (post-emergence) and imazapyr (pre- and post-emergence) may be used for control. Rates of application will vary depending upon the crop and the timing of application: for a full description of weed control in rice, see Ampong-Nyarko and De Datta (1991). See also Soerjani et al. (1987) for further information on chemical control in Malaysia.

Integrated Pest Management

Rice

A range of control methods is used in the management of weeds in rice. The following descriptions illustrate the factors that are important for weed control in wetland rice systems. The list is not comprehensive: for further details, see Ampong-Nyarko and De Datta (1991).

Land Preparation

Land preparation is important in all rice cultivation and contributes to good weed management. Methods used will vary according to the crop system, especially concerning the management of perennial weeds. In transplanted rice, ploughing and puddling to destroy weeds and incorporate them into the earth provide a major source of weed control. In dry-seeded wetland rice and direct-seeded rice, land is prepared by ploughing and is kept weed-free before use, either by hand weeding or by herbicide application. Use of herbicides will be determined by the water management of the cropping system: for instance, in dry-seeded rice, after land preparation, weeds are allowed to emerge and are then destroyed either by shallow cultivation or with a non-residual contact herbicide, such as paraquat; in transplanted rice, puddling is followed by a pre-planting treatment with glyphosate on emergent weeds. In dry-seeded wetland rice, a pre-planting herbicide, such as glyphosate, or a pre-crop-emergence herbicide, such as imazapyr or fenoxaprop, could be used.

Cultivation

Taller rice cultivars with more tillers shade out weeds and reduce weed competition. Rotation of rice with other crops, such as jute (Corchorus sp.), can be important in reducing the build-up of large populations of perennial grass weeds.

Spacing

Rice planted with close spacing (e.g. 15 x 15 cm) will shade weeds and reduce competition, while still allowing some mechanized weed control if required (Moody, 1982).

Hand Weeding

Additional hand weeding is usually done early in the season, during the critical period and, if weed populations are high, then later hand weeding is a common practice. If labour is scarce, herbicides such as glyphosate, applied locally to weeds only, or bensulfuron or fenoxaprop are used. Hand weeding alone can give as good weed protection as herbicide use: for example, in rice that is direct seeded onto wet soil, seeds are sown onto a weed-free field and two or three timely hand weedings are sufficient to ensure optimum yields (Moody, 1982; Ampong-Nyarko and De Datta, 1991).

Sugarcane

Cultivation followed by hand weeding has been shown to give sufficient control of L. hexandra in sugarcane (Keya, 1980).

References

Top of page

Ampong-Nyarko K; Datta SK de, 1991. Handbook for weed control in rice. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

Bottenberg H; Litsinger JA; Barrion AT; Kenmore PE, 1990. Presence of tungro vectors and their natural enemies in different rice habitats in Malaysia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 31(1):1-15

Bushundial DP, 1991. Recent work on the control of Echinochloa pyrimidalis (Lam.) Hitch. and Chase and Echinochloa polystachya (Kunth) Hitchc. Proceedings of the 24th West Indies Sugar Techologists' Conference, Kingston, Jamaica, 8-12 April 1991., 279-285.

Chandrasrikul A, 1962. A preliminary host list of plant diseases in Thailand. Technical Bulletin 6. Bangkok, Thailand: Department of Agriculture.

Chiu SF, 1980. Present and future gall midge control strategies in South China. International Rice Research Newsletter, 5(4):20-21

Claridge MF, 1990. Variation in pest and natural enemy populations - relevance to brown planthopper control strategies. Pest management in rice (conference held by the Society of Chemical Industry, London, UK, 4-7 June 1990) [edited by Grayson, B.T.; Green, M.B.; Copping, L.G.] Barking, UK; Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd., 143-154

Claridge MF; Hollander J den; Morgan JC, 1985. The status of weed-associated populations of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) host race or biological species? Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 84(1):77-90.

Claridge MF; Morgan JC, 1993. Geographical variation in acoustic signals of the planthopper, Nilaparvata bakeri (Muir), in Asia: species recognition and sexual selection. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 48(3):267-281

Clayton WD, 1970. Gramineae (Part 1). In: Milne-Redhead E, Polhill RM, eds. Flora of Tropical East Africa. London, UK: Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.

Clayton WD; Renvoize SA, 1992. Genera Graminum, Grasses of the World. Kew Bulletin Additional Series. London, UK: HMSO.

Gibbs-Russel GE; Watson L; Koekmoer M; Smook L; Barker NP; Anderson HM; Dallwitz MJ, 1990. Grasses of Southern Africa. South Africa: National Botanic Gardens.

Gonzalez CF; Xu GW; Li HL; Cosper JW, 1991. Leersia hexandra, an alternative host for Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae in Texas. Plant Disease, 75(2):159-162

Heinrichs EA; Medrano FG, 1984. Leersia hexandra, a weed host of the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal). Crop Protection, 3(1):77-85

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Holm LG; Plucknett DL; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii.

Imeokparia PO, 1989. Weeds of lowland rice in north-western Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Weed Science, 2(1-2):9-14

Kay IR; Brown JD, 1992. Nephotettix species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on rice and weeds in Queensland. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 31(4):303-304

Keya NCO, 1980. A preliminary progress report on weeds and weed control at Nzoia. Proceedings of the Seventh East African Weed Science Conference, 1979., 135-139

Launert, 1965. Senck. Biol, 46:144.

Moody K, 1982. Weed control in dry-seeded rice. Report of a workshop on cropping systems research in Asia [Rockwood, W.G.; Argosino, G. (Editors)] IRRI Los Banos Philippines, 161-177

Natarajam K; Rajamani S; Mathur KC, 1978. Brachmia arotrp, a leaf folder of rice in India. International Rice Research Newsletter, 3(3):16

Pyrah GL, 1969. Taxonmomic and distributional studies on Leersia (Gramineae). Iowa State Journal of Science, 44(2):215-270.

Raychandhuri S; Mishra W; Ghosh; A, 1967. The virus diseases of the rice plant. International Rice Research Institute. Baltimore, USA: John Hopkins Press.

Soerjani M; Kostermans AJGH; Tjitrosoepomo G, 1987. Weeds of Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka, 716 pp.

Tin Sein; Kaung Zan, 1977. Ufra disease spread by water flow. International Rice Research Newsletter, 2(2):5

Wang Z; Mingyuan X; Dehui M, 1990. Farmland weeds in China: a collection of coloured illustrative plates. Agricultural House: China.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Watson L; Dallwitz MJ, 1985. Australian grass genera, anatomy, morphology, keys, classification. Canberra, Australia: The Australian National University.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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