Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Lettuce mosaic virus
(lettuce mosaic)

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Datasheet

Lettuce mosaic virus (lettuce mosaic)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 October 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lettuce mosaic virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lettuce mosaic
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Potyviridae
  •         Genus: Potyvirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleSymptoms on lettuce
Caption
CopyrightThorben Lundsgaard/Dept of Plant Biology, KVL, Denmark
Symptoms on lettuceThorben Lundsgaard/Dept of Plant Biology, KVL, Denmark

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lettuce mosaic virus

Preferred Common Name

  • lettuce mosaic

Other Scientific Names

  • lactuca virus 1
  • lettuce mosaic potyvirus
  • lettuce virus 1
  • marmor lactucae

International Common Names

  • Spanish: mosaico de la lechuga
  • French: mosaïque de la laitue

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Mosaikvirus: Salat

English acronym

  • LMV

EPPO code

  • LMV000 (Lettuce mosaic potyvirus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Potyviridae
  •                 Genus: Potyvirus
  •                     Species: Lettuce mosaic virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanUnconfirmed recordLal and Singh, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2008
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
IndiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-DelhiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; Sharma et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentDanesh, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2008; Soleimani et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
IraqPresentShawkat et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
IsraelWidespreadNitzany and Cohen, 1960; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
JordanPresentAl-Musa and Mansour, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
LebanonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresent, few occurrencesOng, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
YemenRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

Africa

EgyptPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
GhanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
KenyaAbsent, reported but not confirmedCABI/EPPO, 2008
MalawiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MauritiusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaWidespreadGall et al., 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MexicoRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaWidespreadGrogan, 1980; Bosque-Perez and Buddenhagen, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaRestricted distributionJagger, 1921; Raid et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentJagger, 1921; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentJagger, 1921; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentNaidu et al., 2008
-WisconsinPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

JamaicaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentChaves et al., 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ChileWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
EcuadorPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
UruguayWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
FinlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-France (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
GermanyWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentKyriakopoulou, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-CretePresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
IrelandRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Italy (mainland)WidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008
-SicilyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
NorwayRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
PolandRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SlovakiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Spain (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
SwedenRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
UKWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ScotlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentGeard, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentStubbs, 1954; Stubbs and O'Loughlin, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandWidespreadFletcher et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Whole plant / dwarfing

References

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Ainsworth GC, Ogilvie L, 1939. Lettuce mosaic. Annals of Applied Biology, 26:279-297.

Alhubaishi AA, Walkey DGA, Webb MJW, Bolland CJ, Cook AA, 1987. A survey of horticultural plant virus diseases in the Yemen Arab Republic. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 35(4):135-143

Allam EK, Ismail EG, 1972. Lettuce mosaic in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Microbiology, 7:1-2.

Al-Musa A, Mansour A, 1984. Occurrence and incidence of lettuce mosaic virus in Jordan. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 23(1):57-59

Berger PH, Adams MJ, Barnett OW, Brunt AA, Hammond J, Hill JH, Jordan RL, Kashiwasaki S, Rybicki E, Spence N, Stenger DC, Ohki ST, Uyeda I, Zaayen Avan, Valkonen J, Vetten HJ, 2005. Potyviridae. In: Virus taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Eighth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses [ed. by Fauquet, C. M. \Mayo, M. A. \Maniloff, J. \Desselberger, U. \Ball, L. A.]. San Diego, USA: Elsevier Inc., 819-841.

Bos L, Huijberts N, Cuperus C, 1994. Further observations on variation of lettuce mosaic virus in relation to lettuce (Lactuca sativa), and a discussion of resistance terminology. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 100(5):293-314

Bosque-Perez NA, Buddenhagen IW, 1989. First report of lettuce mosaic virus on chickpea. Plant Disease, 73(4):368

Brlansky RH, Derrick KS, 1979. Detection of seedborne plant viruses using serologically specific electron microscopy. Phytopathology, 69(1):96-100

Brunt AA, Crabtree K, Dallwitz MJ, Gibbs AJ, Watson L (eds), 1996. Viruses of plants. Descriptions and lists from the VIDE database. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 1484 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2008. Lettuce mosaic virus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 3). Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 376.

Candresse T, Lot H, German-Retana S, Krause-Sakate R, Thomas J, Souche S, Delaunay T, Lanneau M, Gall Ole, 2007. Analysis of the serological variability of Lettuce mosaic virus using monoclonal antibodies and surface plasmon resonance technology. Journal of General Virology, 88(9):2605-2610. http://vir.sgmjournals.org

Carvalho Filho JLSde, Gomes LAA, Maluf WR, 2009. Tolerance to precocious flowering and commercial traits of F4 progenies of hybrid Regina 71 × Salinas 88 lettuce. (Tolerância ao florescimento precoce e características comerciais de progênies F4 de alface do cruzamento Regina 71 × Salinas 88.) Acta Scientiarum - Agronomy, 31(1):37-42. http://www.uem.br/acta

Chaves ALR, Braun MR, Eiras M, Colariccio A, Galleti SR, 2003. Erigeron bonariensis: an alternative host of Lettuce mosaic virus in Brazil. (Erigeron bonariensis: hospedeira alternativa do Lettuce mosaic virus no Brasil.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 28(3):307-311. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v28n3/a14v28n3.pdf

Chaves ALR, Colariccio A, Eiras M, Galleti SR, 2007. Sonchus oleraceus and S. asper as a natural reservoir of viruses in lettuce crops of the São Paulo green belt. (Sonchus asper e S. oleraceus como reservatórios naturais de vírus em cultivos de alface no cinturão-verde de São Paulo.) Arquivos do Instituto Biológico (São Paulo), 74(2):101-106. http://www.biologico.sp.gov.br/ARQUIVOS/v74_2/chaves.pdf

Clark MF, Adams AN, 1977. Characteristics of the microplate method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. Journal of General Virology, 34(3):475-483

CMI, 1969. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 376. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Couch HBA, 1955. Studies on seed transmission of lettuce mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 45:63-70.

Danesh D, 1981. Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) in Ispahan. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 17:11-13.

Dinant S, Lot H, 1992. Lettuce mosaic virus. Plant Pathology, 41(5):528-542

Dinant S, Maisonneuve B, Albouy J, Chupeau Y, Chupeau MC, Bellec Y, Gaudefroy F, Kusiak C, Souche S, Robaglia C, Lot H, 1997. Coat protein gene-mediated protection in Lactuca sativa against lettuce mosaic potyvirus strains. Molecular Breeding, 3(1):75-86; 42 ref.

Ding XS, Cockbain AJ, Woods RD, 1990. Natural infection of pea plants with lettuce mosaic virus in Shanghai. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 6(4):53-58.

Dolores-Talens AC, Hill JH, 1985. Development of enhanced immunoassays for the detection of lettuce mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 75:963.

Dolores-Talens AC, Hill JH, Durand DP, 1989. Application of enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA) to detection of lettuce mosaic virus in lettuce seeds. Journal of Phytopathology, 124(1-4):149-154

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Falk BW, Guzman VL, 1984. Differential detection of seedborne lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) in LMV-susceptible and resistant lettuce breeding lines. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 97:179-181

Falk BW, Purcifull DE, 1983. Development and application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test to index lettuce seeds for lettuce mosaic virus in Florida. Plant Disease, 67(4):413-416

Fidan U, Turkoglu T, 1988. Virus diseases occurring on lettuce in Izmir Province (Turkey). Bitki Koruma Bulteni, 28:43-56.

Fletcher JD, France CM, Butler RC, 2005. Virus surveys of lettuce crops and management of lettuce big-vein disease in New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection [Proceedings of a conference organized by the New Zealand Plant Protection Society, Wellington, 9-11 August 2005.], 58:239-244. http://www.hortnet.co.nz/publications/nzpps/

Gall Ole, Svanella-Dumas L, Fakhfakh H, Marrakchi M, Candresse T, 2007. Frequent occurrence of Lettuce mosaic virus in Cape daisy (Osteospermum sp.) in Tunisia. Plant Disease, 91(11):1514. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Geard ID, 1961. Diseases of lettuce. Tasmanian Journal of Agriculture, 32:369-377.

German-Retana S, Walter J, Gall Ole, 2008. Lettuce mosaic virus: from pathogen diversity to host interactors. Molecular Plant Pathology, 9(2):127-136. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1364-3703.2007.00451.x

Ghabrial SA, Li D, Shepherd RJ, 1981. A sensitive radioimmunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. Journal of General Virology, 48:311-317.

Ghabrial SA, Li D, Shepherd RJ, 1982. Radioimmunosorbent assay for detection of lettuce mosaic virus in lettuce seed. Plant Disease, 66(11):1037-1040

Gonzales D, Rawlins WA, 1969. Relation of aphid populations to field spread of lettuce mosaic virus in New York. Journal of Economic Entomology, 62:1109-1114.

Grogan RG, 1980. Control of lettuce mosaic with virus-free seed. Plant Disease, 64(5):446-449

Grogan RG, 1983. Lettuce mosaic virus control by use of virus-indexed seed. Seed Science and Technology, 11:1043-1049.

Hill EK, Hill JH, Durand DP, 1984. Production of monoclonal antibodies to viruses in the potyvirus group: use in radioimmunoassay. Journal of General Virology, 65(3):525-532

Holmes FO, 1939. Handbook of Phytopathogenic Viruses. Minneapolis, USA: Burgess.

Horvßth J, 1991. Unknown Compositae (Asteraceae) hosts of lettuce mosaic potyvirus. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 26(3-4):347-351; 43 ref.

Hull R, Milne RG, Regenmortel MHVvan, 1991. A list of proposed standard acronyms for plant viruses and viroids. Archives of Virology, 120(1-2):151-164

Hunter DG, Bowyer JW, 1991. Location of lettuce mosaic virus in mature lettuce seed tissues by immunogold cytochemistry. Australian Plant Pathology, 20(1):3-5

Hunter DG, Bowyer JW, 1993. Cytopathology of lettuce mosaic virus-infected lettuce seeds and seedlings. Journal of Phytopathology, 137(1):61-72

Hunter DG, Bowyer JW, 1994. Cytopathology of anthers and pollen from lettuce plants infected by lettuce mosaic virus. Journal of Phytopathology, 142(2):107-114

Hunter DG, Bowyer JW, 1994. Cytopathology of mature ovaries from lettuce plants infected by lettuce mosaic potyvirus. Journal of Phytopathology, 140(1):11-18

Hunter DG, Bowyer JW, 1997. Cytopathology of developing anthers and pollen mother cells from lettuce plants infected by lettuce mosaic potyvirus. Journal of Phytopathology, 145(11/12):521-524; 9 ref.

Jadão AS, Pavan MA, Silva Nda, Zerbini FM, 2002. Seed transmission of Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) pathotype II and IV in different lettuce genotypes. Summa Phytopathologica, 28(1):58-61.

Jafarpour B, Shepherd RJ, Grogan RG, 1979. Serologic detection of bean common mosaic and lettuce mosaic viruses in seed. Phytopathology, 69(10):1125-1129

Jagger IC, 1921. A transmissible mosaic disease of lettuce. Journal of Agricultural Research, 20:737-739.

Jordan R, Guaragna MA, Putnam M, 2011. Detection and molecular characterization of new and emerging potyviruses of ornamental plants. Acta Horticulturae [12th International Symposium on Virus Diseases of Ornamental Plants, Haarlem, Netherlands, 21 April 2008.], No.901:159-166. http://www.actahort.org/books/901/901_20.htm

Kimble KA, Grogan RG, Greathead AS, Paulus AO, House JK, 1975. Development, application, and comparison of methods for indexing lettuce seed for mosaic virus in California. Plant Disease reporter, 59(6):461-464

Klisiewicz JM, 1966. Reactions of safflower to lettuce mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 56:1354-1356.

Kuan TL, 1988. Inoculum thresholds of seedborne pathogens. Overview. Phytopathology, 78(6):867-868

Kyriakopoulou PE, 1985. A lethal strain of lettuce mosaic virus in Greece. In: Fifth Conference of ISHA-Vegetable Virus Working Group, held at Bet Dagen, Israel, September 1985. Bet Dagen, Israel 18.

Lahdenpera M-L, 1981. The first report of lettuce mosaic virus in Finland. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae, 20(2):210-213

Lal SB, Singh S, 1988. Identification of some virus diseases of vegetable crops in Afghanistan. Plant Protection Bulletin (Faridabad), 36(2):83-89

Legarrea S, Betancourt M, Plaza M, Fraile A, García-Arenal F, Fereres A, 2012. Dynamics of nonpersistent aphid-borne viruses in lettuce crops covered with UV-absorbing nets. Virus Research, 165(1):1-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681702

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Mou BQ, Ryder EJ, 2010. 06-857, a green leaf lettuce breeding line with resistance to leafminer and lettuce mosaic virus. HortScience, 45(4):666-667. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD, 1995. Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses. Sixth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses. Sixth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses., viii + 586 pp.; [^italic~Archives of Virology, Supplement 10^roman~].

Naidu RA, Karthikeyan G, Jarugula S, Nelson M, Morrell A, 2008. First report of the natural infection of Coreopsis auriculata 'Nana' with Lettuce mosaic virus in the United States. Plant Disease, 92(3):486. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

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Peypelut M, Krause-Sakate R, Guiraud T, Pavan MA, Candresse T, Zerbini FM, Gall Ole, 2004. Specific detection of Lettuce mosaic virus isolates belonging to the "Most" type. Journal of Virological Methods, 121(1):119-124.

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Raid RN, Nagata RT, Brown LG, 1996. A recent outbreak of lettuce mosaic potyvirus in commercial lettuce production in Florida. Plant Disease, 80(3):343; 1 ref.

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Ryder EJ, 1973. Seed transmission of lettuce mosaic virus in mosaic resistant lettuce. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 98(6):610-614

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Sharma P, Jain RK, Saha S, Kalia P, 2013. First report of Lettuce mosaic virus infecting Lactuca sativa in India. Plant Disease, 97(6):849. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

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van Vuurde JWL, Maat DZ, 1983. Routine application of ELISA for the detection of lettuce mosaic virus in lettuce seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 11:505-513.

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Vuurde JWLVan, Maat DZ, 1985. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and disperse-dye immuno assay (DIA): comparison of simultaneous and separate incubation of sample and conjugate for the routine detection of lettuce mosaic virus and pea early-browning virus in seeds. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 91(1):3-13

Walkey DGA, Dance MC, 1979. High temperature inactivation of seedborne lettuce mosaic virus. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(2):125-129

Wisler GC, Duffus JE, 2000. A century of plant virus management in the Salinas valley of California, 'East of Eden'. Virus Research, 71(1/2):161-169; 24 ref.

Zerbini FM, Koike ST, Gilbertson RL, 1995. Biological and molecular characterization of lettuce mosaic potyvirus isolates from the Salinas Valley of California. Phytopathology, 85(7):746-752

Zerbini FM, Koike ST, Gilbertson RL, 1997. Gazania spp.: a new host of lettuce mosaic potyvirus, and a potential inoculum source for recent lettuce mosaic outbreaks in the Salinas Valley of California. Plant Disease, 81(6):641-646; 16 ref.

Zheng Tao, Chen Jiong, Chen JianPing, 2002. Complete sequence analysis of a Chinese isolate of lettuce mosaic virus. Chinese Journal of Virology, 18(1):66-70.

Zink FW, Duffus JE, Kimble KA, 1973. Relationship of a non-lethal reaction to a virulent isolate of lettuce mosaic virus and turnip mosaic susceptibility in lettuce. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 98(1):41-45

Distribution Maps

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