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Acrolepiopsis assectella
(leek moth)

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Datasheet

Acrolepiopsis assectella (leek moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acrolepiopsis assectella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • leek moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. assectella is a moth present throughout Europe. It is also found in some Asian countries and has been introduced to parts of Canada. The larvae of A. assectella feed on cultivated Allium sp...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult female Acrolepiopsis assectella laying an egg on a leek leaf.
TitleAdult female ovipositing
CaptionAdult female Acrolepiopsis assectella laying an egg on a leek leaf.
CopyrightEric Thibout
Adult female Acrolepiopsis assectella laying an egg on a leek leaf.
Adult female ovipositingAdult female Acrolepiopsis assectella laying an egg on a leek leaf. Eric Thibout

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acrolepiopsis assectella Zeller

Preferred Common Name

  • leek moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Acrolepia assectella Zeller
  • Acrolepia betulella Herrich-Schaffer
  • Acrolepia vigieliella Duponchel
  • Roeslerstammia betulella Herrich-Schaffer

International Common Names

  • Spanish: barrenador de la cebolla; pollilla del puerro; tiña del puerro
  • French: teigne du poireau

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: porremollet
  • Germany: Lauchmotte; Motte, Lauch-; Motte, Zwiebel-; Zwiebelmotte
  • Iran: bide tareh
  • Italy: tignola della cipolla
  • Netherlands: Nienmot; Poreimot
  • Norway: purremollet
  • Sweden: lokmallen
  • Turkey: sogan yaprak guvesi

EPPO code

  • ACROAS (Acrolepiopsis assectella)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

A. assectella is a moth present throughout Europe. It is also found in some Asian countries and has been introduced to parts of Canada. The larvae of A. assectella feed on cultivated Allium species, primarily leek (A. porrum) and onion (A. cepa), but also garlic (A. sativum) and chives (A. fistulosum and A. schoenoprasum).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Plutellidae
  •                             Subfamily: Plutellinae
  •                                 Genus: Acrolepiopsis
  •                                     Species: Acrolepiopsis assectella

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page A. assectella was first described by Zeller in 1839 and had many synonyms and generic combinations in the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. The last taxonomic study was conducted by Gaedike (1970a).

Description

Top of page Eggs

Eggs were studied by electronic microscopy (Chauvin et al., 1974). They are white, elliptical, ca 0.3 x 0.2 mm, with fine reticulate surface sculpturing. They are laid singly, primarily on the leaf surface.

Larvae

The best description of the larvae of A. assectella, including chetotaxy, is given by Frediani (1954).

First instar larvae are ca 1 mm long but mature larvae are ca 10 mm. The cephalic capsule is brown, its width, characteristic for each instar, increases after each larval moulting. The body is yellowish-white. Larval development consists of five instars. The sexes can be distinguished on the 4th and 5th instars, the orange testicles being dorsally visible.

Pupae

Tullgren (1918) and Frediani (1954) published good descriptions of the leek moth pupa. It is enclosed with the larval exuvia in a 10-mm-long, cream-coloured, silk cocoon made of characteristic meshes, open at the two extremities. The cocoon is spun by the 5th instar larva generally on the same host plant, on the surface of the leaves or on the flower-stalk, or between the floral peduncles.

The pupa is 7-8 mm long, its colour varies from weak yellow after pupal moulting to brown before adult emergence. Male and female pupae can be distinguished by the presence of a medial groove on the ventral face of the 7th and 8th abdominal segments.

Adults

Spuler (1910) published an illustration of the leek moth adult and Frediani (1954) described them precisely. Males and females 8- 9 mm long, with a wing span reaching ca 15 to 16 mm, are similar although the females are generally a little bigger. The general colour is grey-brown with a typical white triangle in the middle of the posterior edge of the fore wings. The hind wings are uniformly grey. The filiform, 6-mm-long antennae are made of 36-40 antennomers.

Male and female genitalia of A. assectella and other species of Acrolepiopsis were described by Gaedike (1970a).

Olfactory and gustatory sensillae from the antennae and ovipositor were studied using electron microscopy by Faucheux (1988a, b).

Distribution

Top of page A. assectella seems to be present throughout Europe. It has occasionally been reported from Siberia and Japan, but these observations are generally old (Frenkel, 1931) and probably represent misidentifications of Acrolepiopsis sapporensis. The misidentification of assectella was noted by Semenov and Kuznetsov (1956) when they described the Siberian Acrolepiopsis alliella, now considered to be a synonym of A. sapporensis (Moriuti, 1972). The record of assectella from onion in Hawaii, USA (Zimmerman, 1978), is in all probability also a misidentification of A. sapporensis.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
MongoliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresentLecomte, 1976; Lecomte, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentIntroducedAllison et al., 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentIntroducedAllison et al., 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2007; New York State Department of Agriculture, 2010; EPPO, 2014
-HawaiiAbsent, invalid recordCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentNew York State Department of Agriculture, 2010

Europe

AustriaWidespread****Swatonek, 1968; Petersen and Gaedike, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
BelarusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)Widespread****Smolak, 1925; Gaedike, 1980
DenmarkPresentFerdinandsen and Rostrup, 1921; Gram and Thomsen, 1927; Bovien, 1932; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
FinlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentPouillaude, 1917; Labeyrie, 1956; Labeyrie, 1966; Rahn, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-CorsicaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespread****Gaedike, 1970a; Eichler, 1950; Bremer, 1962; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentPelekassis, 1962; Petersen and Gaedike, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresent, few occurrences****Gaedike, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentDella Beffa, 1949; Frediani, 1954; Zambelli, 1960; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-SicilyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentDuchovskiene, 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
LuxembourgPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentMaan, 1945; Oudejans, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentHaanshus, 1933; Fjelddalen et al., 1960; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentGomez-Bustillo, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentEsterberg, 1933; Preobrazhenskii, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-Eastern SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-Northern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresent, few occurrencesGaedike, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentGaedike, 1971; Gomez-Bustillo, 1979; Isart et al., 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-Balearic IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
SwedenWidespread****Tullgren, 1918; Lindblom, 1938; Stenmark, 1959; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandWidespreadHadorn, 1935; Weismann, 1942; Siegrist, 1945; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
UKPresent, few occurrences195*Dannreuther, 1944; Jary and Rolfe, 1945; Becker, 1961; Simmonds, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentVassiliev, 1915; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentGaedike, 1969; Gaedike, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2007

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page A. assectella is considered a specialist phytophagous species. Its host range is restricted to plants belonging to the genus Allium. The leek moth was only observed on cultivated Allium. Leek (A. porrum) and onion (A. cepa) are the main host plants but attacks are also observed on garlic (A. sativum) and chives (A. fistulosum and A. schoenoprasum). In 1910, Picard noted possible damage on cultivated ornamental Asphodelus and Hemerocalis.

The vegetative and flowering stages are most widely affected, but the seedling stage is sometimes affected in nurseries. Stored onions and garlic are also damaged.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
AlliumLiliaceaeOther
Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeMain
Allium fistulosum (Welsh onion)LiliaceaeOther
Allium porrum (leek)LiliaceaeMain
Allium sativum (garlic)LiliaceaeOther
Allium schoenoprasum (chives)LiliaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page On inflorescences, damage is characterized by the fall of the flowers where moth larvae have eaten the floral peduncles.

On leeks, larvae mine the central leaves which have long, longitudinal grooves when growing.

On onion leaves the larvae feed on the parenchyma inside the hollow leaves, forming white windows closed by the epidermis. When feeding takes place at the base of the hollow flower stalk, this can be broken easily.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / internal feeding
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / internal feeding
Stems / external feeding
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / visible frass
Vegetative organs / internal feeding
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page The biology and ecology of A. assectella were analysed in detail by Labeyrie (1966). Other important studies have been published in France (Rahn, 1966), Italy (Frediani, 1954), the Netherlands (Maan, 1945), Sweden (Tullgren, 1918) and Switzerland (Siegrist, 1945). Reproductive behaviour and physiology were studied by Thibout (1972, 1974, 1978, 1979, 1981).

Adults emerge from pupae fixed on to Allium leaves by the cocoon. They are active at night and remain still during the day. The first night after emergence the female releases a sex pheromone that attracts males. The female sex pheromone was identified as Z-11-hexadecenal (Renou et al., 1981). In response to this pheromone, the males also release a sex pheromone that stimulates female receptivity. This male pheromone is made of 8 n-alkanes from C16 to C23 (Lecomte et al., 1998). Mating takes place in the second half of the night and lasts about 1 h. Females normally mate once only but males are able to mate two or three times during their lifespan, but only once a night.

Females do not start to lay eggs before the following night and then only if they find an Allium host. Host plant searching behaviour by female leek moths was studied by Lecomte et al. (1987). Sulfur volatiles emitted by leeks, including dimethyl and dipropyl disulfides and especially dipropyl thiosulfinate which are characteristic to Allium, attract the moths.

A female generally lays between 100 and 120 eggs during her 1-week life, a maximum of about 400 eggs has been observed. Eggs are laid singly on the leaves of Allium plants and, after a wandering period, first instar larvae penetrate into the green leaves where they bore galleries. Third, fourth and fifth instars bore into the central yellow leaves of the leek and produce the most severe damage.

Development time is temperature dependent. At 25°C, eggs hatch after 3-4 days. Larval development takes 2 weeks, pupal development 1 week and adults can survive 7-10 days.

Migration has not been observed in the leek moth. An adult diapause, which is initiated by low temperatures and short photoperiods during larval instars, allows the adults to overwinter and survive for 4-6 months (Abo-Ghalia and Thibout, 1982). This diapause decreases female fecundity.

According to latitude, A. assectella completes various generations a year. In northern and central Europe, only two generations were observed. In southern Europe four to five generations, and in Algeria up to eight overlapping generations, have been observed.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ageniaspis fuscicollis Parasite
Aphaereta brevis Parasite Larvae Poland leeks
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Diadegma fenestrale Parasite Larvae Poland leeks
Diadegma semiclausum Parasite Larvae
Diadromus collaris Parasite Pupae
Diadromus pulchellus Parasite Pupae
Dolichogenidea impura Parasite Larvae Poland leeks
Endromopoda detrita Parasite Poland
Formica fusca Predator
Formica selysi Predator
Itoplectis alternans Parasite Larvae
Itoplectis europeator Parasite Larvae
Limnerium gracile Parasite Larvae
Microgaster globata Parasite Larvae
Microgaster hospes Parasite Larvae Poland leeks
Phaeogenes impiger Parasite Poland leeks

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Ageniaspis fuscicolis was tentatively reared on the leek moth (Arambourg et al., 1971), but cannot be considered as a natural enemy.

Two hyperparasitoids were obtained from A. assectella: Eupteromalus nidulans (Chalcididae) described by Frediani (1957) in Italy; and a Gelis sp. (Ichneumonidae) found in France (E Thibout, personal comunication, 2000, IRBI, Université François Rabelais, Tours, France).

The following parasitoids have been observed on several occasions:
Diadegma fenestralis (Holm.) on larvae, England and Sweden (Noyes, 1974; E Thibout, personal comunication, 2000, IRBI, Université François Rabelais, Tours, France),
Diadegma semiclausum on larvae, France (E Thibout, personal communication, 2000, IRBI, Université François Rabelais, Tours, France),
Diadromus (Thyraeella) collaris on pupae, Algeria, France and Italy (Lecomte, 1977; Labeyrie, 1966; Frediani, 1957),
Diadromus pulchellus on pupae, England and France (Noyes, 1974; Labeyrie, 1960),
Itoplectis alternans on larvae, France and Italy (Labeyrie, 1966; Frediani, 1954),
Itoplectis europeator (tunetana) on larvae, France (Aubert, 1969),
Limnerium gracilis on larvae, France and Italy (Suire, 1926; Frediani, 1954),
Microgaster globata on larvae, France and Netherlands (Maan, 1945; Labeyrie and Pons, 1950).

With the exception of the last species which is in the Braconidae, the others are Ichneumonidae.

15 natural parasitoids observed on the leek moth, some of them require confirmation:
Four Ichneumonidae: in France Zaglyptus varipes (Labeyrie, 1966), Campoletis raptor, Pimpla spuria and Phaeogenes fuscicornis (E Thibout, personal communication, 2000, IRBI, Université François Rabelais, Tours, France);
Two Braconidae: Chelonus eleaphilus and Chelonus depressus (Labeyrie, 1966); and
One Syrphidae: Xanthandrus comtus (Labeyrie, 1966).

In Allium fields, A. assectella larvae and pupae in the cocoon are also preyed upon by various predatory insects. In Russia, Velitchkevitch (1924) indicated that Staphilinidae and Coccinellidae are predators of the leek moth. In France, Thibout (not published) observed predation by Formicidae, Arachnida, Chrysopa carnea (Chrysopidae) and Orius sp. (Nabidae). In the UK, Noyes (1974) noted that Forficula auricularia (Dermaptera), Philonthus sp. (Staphilinidae), and three Carabidae, Pterostichus niger, Harpalus rufipes and an Amara sp. are also predators of the leek moth.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural dispersal of the leek moth is limited. The adults appear to be poor flyers.

Seedborne Aspects

Top of page A. assectella does not cause direct damage on seeds which are chemically protected against specialist phytophagous insects (Arnault and Mauchamp, 1985). In inflorescences, the moth can cause seed loss by feeding on the floral peduncles. Attacks by the leek moth can also have positive consequences. For example, moderate defoliation in leek results in a greater level of sexual reproduction than in control plants (Boscher, 1979).

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - wood Yes
Land vehicles Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page Cultivated Allium plants, particularly leek and onion, from the south of Norway and Sweden to Italy, Spain and Algeria, are frequently attacked by A. assectella. After hatching, the young larva explores the surface and mines the green leaves. On reaching the third instar, the larva penetrates the young leaves, the flower stalk or the inflorescence of the host plant. Feeding on the parenchyma by the moth larva causes a reduction in plant growth; if larvae are numerous, weakening or withering of the plant can occur. On old leaves, open galleries can be seen which decrease the economic value of the plant. Without control, moth populations can reach so high a level at the third generation that 100% of the plants are damaged (Bouchet, 1964).

Very important damage also occurs on inflorescences in plants cultivated for seed production where serious seed loss can occur. In France, damage can reach >70% in Brittany (Rahn, 1982b), and 60-80% on leek and 40-50% on onion in Vaucluse (Nepveu and Hoffman, 1950).

The number of leek moths in a population depends on climatic conditions. The population increases with successive generations and damage is more important in summer and at the beginning of autumn than in the spring.

Sometimes moth galleries are colonized by maggots of Drosophilidae or of the onion fly, Delia antiqua, which introduce fungal and bacterial pathogens.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page In Allium fields, it is difficult to detect moth attacks. Damage by 4th and 5th instar larvae can be observed in central yellow growing leaves. In summer, when plants grow very quickly, longitudinal open mines can be seen on the green leaves, but by this time, insect development has finished.

Sexual trapping of the leek moth with the synthetic pheromone Z-11-Hexadecenal (Z 11 HDAL) can be used for providing early warning against various populations of the moth with standard INRA traps (Rahn, 1982a).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page A. assectella can be confused with Acrolepiopsis ursinella (betulella) which develops on wild Allium ursinum, however the genitalia of the two species can be compared and are described by Gaedike (1970b).

Prevention and Control

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Cultural Control

Some cultural methods may influence leek moth damage on annual Allium plants (Rahn, 1982b). They have less activity on biennial plants such as leek.

Biological Control

Work on the specialist solitary endoparasitoid Diadromus pulchellus has been undertaken in the laboratory (Lecomte and Thibout, 1983, 1986, 1993; Thibout et al., 1988, 1993). No field studies have been undertaken.

Host-Plant Resistance

Some Allium varieties are considered more resistant than others to the leek moth. However, leeks and onions are selected according to flower stalk length, leaf colour, taste, winter hardiness or tendency to bulbiness (Brewster, 1994) and not on resistance to insects.

Chemical Control

Chemical control of the leek moth is very efficient when applied at the most appropriate time. Sexual trapping by means of the synthetic female pheromone (Z 11 HDAL) can be used to predict potential damage and dates of egg laying. However, some abnormally low captures have shown that this technique is not entirely reliable (Rahn, 1982a). The use of five pyrethrinoids and two organophosphorous insecticides, and of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin is possible in France under certain conditions (ACTA, 2000). No resistance of the leek moth to these insecticide treatments has been indicated. Film-coating leek seeds with fipronil and imidacloprid provided protection against A. assectella at low population densities (Ester and Huiting, 2001).

References

Top of page

A?sman K, 2002. Trap cropping effect on oviposition behaviour of the leek moth Acrolepiopsis assectella and the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 105(2/3):153-164.

Abo-Ghalia A; Thibout E, 1982. Frequency of reproductive diapause as a function of the progress of the photoperiod at constant temperatures and investigations on the susceptible stage of a strain of Acrolepiopsis assectella (Lep., Yponomeutoidea). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 18(2):173-179

ACTA, 2000. Index phytosanitaire. Paris, France: ACTA.

Allison J; Jenner W; Cappuccino N; Mason PG, 2007. Oviposition and feeding preference of Acrolepiopsis assectella Zell. (Lep., Acrolepiidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 131(9/10):690-697. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jen

Arambourg Y; Pralavorio R; Chabot B, 1970. The possibility of rearing Ageniaspis fuscicollis praysincola Silv. a parasite of Prays oleae Bern. (Lep. Hyponomeutidae) in a substitute host. Annales de Zoologie Ecologie Animale, 2(4):657-658

Arnault C; Mauchamp B, 1985. Ecdysis inhibition in Acrolepiopsis assectella larvae by digitonin: antagonistic effects of cholesterol. Experientia, 41(8):1074-1077

Aubert JF, 1969. Les Ichneumonides ouest-paléarctiques et leurs hôtes Vol. I. Paris, France: Editions Quatrefeuilles.

Baraniak E, 1989. Remarks on the distribution of Polish species of the families Acrolepiidae, Roeslerstamiidae, Orthotaeliidae. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 59(3):493-509

Becker P, 1961. Leek moth occurring inland. Plant Pathology, 10:42.

Bernes J, 1914. La culture de l'oignon dans l'Agenais. La Vie Agricole et Rurale, 2: 542.

Boisduval D, 1867. Essai sur l'entomologie horticole. Paris, France: Librairie d'Horticulture E. Donnaud.

Boscher J, 1979. Modified reproduction strategy of leek Allium porrum in response to a phytophagous insect, Acrolepiopsis assectella. Oikos, 33(3):451-456

Bouchet J, 1964. Quelques observations sur les ennemis des cultures légumiFres en France en 1963. Phytoma, 138:25-30.

Bovien P, 1932. Om porremollet (Acrolepia assectella Zell.) og dets biologi. Soerrtryk of Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 38:334-344.

Bremer H, 1962. Krankheiten und BeschSdigungen der Gemüse und Küchenkrauter. Stuttgart, Germany: Verlag Ulmer E.

Brewster JL, 1994. Onions and other vegetable alliums. Wallingford, UK; CAB INTERNATIONAL, xi + 236 pp.

Breyer D, 1862. Roesslerstammia assectella, mours de le chenille. Annales de la Société entomologique belge, 6:21-22.

CABI/EPPO, 2007. Acrolepiopsis assectella. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 405 (1st Revision).

Chauvin G; Rahn R; Barbier R, 1974. Comparison of the eggs of the Lepidoptera Phalera bucephala L. (Ceruridae), Acrolepia assectella Z. and Plutella maculipennis Curt. [xylostella (L.)] (Plutellidae): Morphology and special ultrastructures of the chorion in contact with the plant support. International Journal of Insect Morphology & Embryology, 3(2):247-256

CoutiFre G, 1948. La teigne du poireau. La Potasse, 174-176.

Dannreuther T, 1944. A new british moth. The Hastings Naturalist, 6:144-145.

Della Beffa G, 1949. Gli insetti dannosi all'agricoltura e i moderni metodi e mezzi di lotta. Milan, Italy: Hoepli U.

Duchovskiene? L, 2003. Dynamics of pest harmfulness in onion crop depending on growing technique. (Kenkeju zalingumo kitimas skirtingai auginamuose svogu¯nuose.) Sodininkyste ir Darzininkyste, 22(1):153-163.

Eichler W, 1950. Zwiebelminierschadlinge in Mitteldeutschland (1949). Nachrichtenblatt für den Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienst, 4:1-3.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Ester A; Huiting HF, 2001. .

Esterberg LK, 1933. On two little known insect pest of onion. Review of Applied Entomology, 21:623.

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