Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Eulecanium tiliae
(nut scale)

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Datasheet

Eulecanium tiliae (nut scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Eulecanium tiliae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • nut scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Eulecanium tiliae (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • nut scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Calypticus fasciatus Costa, 1829
  • Coccus aceris Fabricius, 1794
  • Coccus aceris campestris Schrank, 1801
  • Coccus aesculi Kollar, 1848 (nomen nudum)
  • Coccus alni Modeer, 1778
  • Coccus capreae Linnaeus, 1767
  • Coccus coryli Linnaeus, 1758 (rejected name)
  • Coccus fuscus Gmelin, 1790
  • Coccus mali Schrank, 1781
  • Coccus pyri Schrank, 1801
  • Coccus rubi Schrank, 1801
  • Coccus salicum Fabricius, 1781
  • Coccus tiliae Linnaeus, 1758
  • Coccus xylostei Schrank, 1801
  • Eulecanium aceris (Curtis) Fernald, 1903 (erroneous authorship)
  • Eulecanium aesculi (Kollar) Fernald, 1903 (nomen nudum)
  • Eulecanium alni (Modeer) Fernald, 1903
  • Eulecanium capreae (Linnaeus) Fernald, 1903
  • Eulecanium cerasi (Goethe) Fernald, 1903
  • Eulecanium coryli (Linnaeus) Cockerell, 1901
  • Eulecanium coryli cimbricus Wünn, 1937
  • Eulecanium curtisi Kirkaldy, 1904
  • Eulecanium emerici (Planchon) Leonardi, 1908
  • Eulecanium fasciatum (Costa) Fernald, 1903
  • Eulecanium fuscum (Gmelin) Cockerell, 1901
  • Eulecanium gyrcanicum Hadzibejli, 1967
  • Eulecanium ibericum Hadzibejli, 1960
  • Eulecanium mali (Schrank) Borchsenius, 1955
  • Eulecanium pyri (Schrank) Fernald, 1903
  • Eulecanium rubi (Shrank) Fernald, 1903
  • Eulecanium tiliae (Linnaeus) Fernald, 1903
  • Eulecanium variegatum (Goethe) Fernald, 1903
  • Eulecanium websteri mirabile (King) Fernald, 1903
  • Globulicoccus fuscus (Gmelin) MacGillivray, 1921
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) aesculi (Kollar) Cockerell, 1896 (nomen nudum)
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) capreae (Linnaeus) Cockerell, 1896
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) cerasi Goethe; Cockerell, 1896
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) genevense Targioni Tozzetti; Cockerell, 1896
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) hoferi King, in Hofer, 1903
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) juglandis Bouché; Cockerell, 1896
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) rubi (Schrank) Cockerell, 1896
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) variegatum Goethe; Cockerell & Parrott, 1899
  • Lecanium (Globulicoccus) fuscum (Gmelin) Lindinger, 1907
  • Lecanium (Saissetia) capreae (Linnaeus) Reh, 1903
  • Lecanium aesculi (Kollar) Signoret, 1874 (nomen nudum)
  • Lecanium alni (Modeer) Signoret, 1869
  • Lecanium berberidis (Schrank) Signoret, 1874 (misidentification)
  • Lecanium cerasi Goethe, 1884
  • Lecanium coryli (Linnaeus) Marchal, 1908
  • Lecanium fasciatum (Costa) Walker, 1852
  • Lecanium fuscum (Gmelin) Douglas, 1887
  • Lecanium genevense Targioni Tozzetti, 1868
  • Lecanium juglandis Bouché, 1844
  • Lecanium mali (Schrank) Ferris, 1925
  • Lecanium pyri (Schrank) Signoret, 1869
  • Lecanium rubi (Schrank) Walker, 1852
  • Lecanium variegatum Goethe, 1884
  • Lecanium websteri mirabilis King, in Hofer, 1903
  • Parthenolecanium coryli (Linnaeus) Sulc, 1908
  • Physokermes coryli (Linnaeus) Lindinger, 1911

International Common Names

  • English: scale, nut; thorn scale
  • French: chermes du moisetier
  • Russian: jabloneva lozhnoshchitovka; lipovaya lozhnoshchitovka

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: hasselskjoldlus
  • Finland: paehkinaekilpikirva
  • Germany: Grosse kugelige Napfschildlaus; Haselschildlaus; Napfschildlaus, Grosse kugelige; Schildlaus, Haselnuss
  • Italy: lecanio del nocciolo
  • Netherlands: Hazeldopluis
  • Norway: hasselskjoldlus
  • Poland: misecznik miechun
  • Slovakia: puklice lipova
  • Sweden: hasselskoeldlus
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): lipin lazni stitas

EPPO code

  • LECABE (Lecanium berberidis)
  • LECATI (Eulecanium tiliae)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Eulecanium
  •                                         Species: Eulecanium tiliae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ArmeniaPresent, WidespreadBabayan (1976)
AzerbaijanPresentHadzibejli (1983)
GeorgiaPresentHadzibejli (1983)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Himachal PradeshPresent, WidespreadMishra and Bhalla (1974); Sharma and Dogra (1986)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentBhagat et al. (1991)
-ManipurPresentNHM (1977)
IranPresentBehdad and Barooti (1978); Radjabi and Rezwani (1986); CABI (Undated)
IraqPresentBodenheimer (1944)
IsraelPresentBen-Dov (1971)
PakistanPresentAli (1971)
TurkeyPresent, WidespreadKozar et al. (1979); CABI (Undated);

Europe

BulgariaPresentKozar et al. (1979)
CyprusPresentNHM (1932)
CzechiaPresentNHM (1940)
CzechoslovakiaPresentCABI (Undated);
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, WidespreadKozarževskaja and Vlainić (1981); Kozarzevskaja and Vlainic (1982)
DenmarkPresentKozarzhevskaya and Reitzel (1975); Hodgson (1994)
FrancePresentBalachowsky (1934)
-CorsicaPresentBalachowsky (1934)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadSchmutterer (1952)
GreecePresent, WidespreadCanard (1980); Argyriou (1984)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadBognar and Vinis (1979); CABI (Undated);
IrelandPresentHodgson (1994)
ItalyPresentMarotta (1987); Longo et al. (1995)
LatviaPresentRasinya (1959)
MaltaPresentBorg (1932)
MoldovaPresent, WidespreadKozár and Ostafichuk (1987)
NetherlandsPresentJansen (1995)
PolandPresent, WidespreadKAWECKI (1958); Koteja and Zak-Ogaza (1983); Lagowska and Koteja (1996)
PortugalPresentNHM (1970)
RomaniaPresent, WidespreadSavescu (1944); CABI (Undated)
RussiaPresentDanzig (1959); Drozdovskii (1960)
SerbiaPresentGraora (2008)
SlovakiaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Komárek (1952)
SpainPresentGomez-Menor Ortega (1958); Gomez-Menor Ortega (1965)
-Canary IslandsPresentCarnero Hernandez and Perez Guerra (1986)
SwedenPresentKozarzhevskaya and Reitzel (1975)
SwitzerlandPresentKozár et al. (1994)
UkrainePresentTereznikova (1981)
United KingdomPresentGreen (1930); NHM (1989); Hodgson (1994)
-Channel IslandsPresentGreen (1925)
-ScotlandPresentNHM (1969)

North America

CanadaPresent, WidespreadRichards (1958)
-British ColumbiaPresent, WidespreadGraham and Prebble (1953); Rubin and Beirne (1975); CABI (Undated)
-Nova ScotiaPresentPhillips (1965)
-OntarioPresent, WidespreadPhillips (1965)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentGill (1988)
-NevadaPresentGill (1988)
-OregonPresentGill (1988)
-Rhode IslandPresentGill (1988)
-WashingtonPresentGill (1988)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / yellowed or dead

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anthribus fasciatus Predator Eggs
Anthribus nebulosus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Blastothrix britannica Parasite Adults/Larvae British Columbia ornamental woody plants
Blastothrix longipennis Parasite
Chilocorus fraternus Predator Eggs/Larvae
Coccophagus ishii Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults/Larvae
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Metaphycus maculipes Parasite
Metaphycus melanostomatus Parasite
Microterys duplicatus Parasite

References

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agowska B, 1987. Chalcids (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) as parasitoids of the coccids Pulvinaria betulp (L.), Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche) and Eulecanium coryli (L.) (Homoptera, Coccidae). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 57(2):383-398

Ali SM, 1971. A catalogue of the Oriental Coccoidea (Part V) (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea). Indian Museum Bulletin, 6:7-82.

Argyriou LC, 1984. Faunal analysis of some scale insects in Greece. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Central European Entomofaunistics (SIEEC). Budapest, Hungary, August 1983, 364-367.

Babayan GA, 1976. Morphological and biological characters of the apple soft scale Eulecanium tiliae L. (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) in Armenia. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 55(1):52-57

Balachowsky A, 1934. Contribution a l'etude des Coccides de France. Recherches complementaires sur la faune de Corse. Bulletin de la Societe entomologique de France, 5:67-72.

Behdad E; Barooti S, 1978. Biological studies on Eulecanium coryli L., the pest of fruit trees in Esfahan. Entomologie et Phytopathologie Appliquees, 46(1/2): 3, 55-65.

Beirne BP, 1984. Biological control of the European fruit lecanium, Lecanium tilip (Homoptera: Coccidae), in British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 81:28

Ben-Dov Y, 1971. An annotated list of the soft scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidae) of Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology, 6(1):23-34

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp.

Bhagat RC; Ramzan A; Farhan N, 1991. New records of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) and host-plants from Kashmir Valley, India. Entomon, 16(1):91-94

Bodenheimer FS, 1944. Additions to the Coccoidea of Iraq, with descriptions of two new species. Bulletin de la Societe Fouad ler d'Entomologie, 28:81-84.

Bognar S; Vinis G, 1979. Scale insects in the parks and avenues of Budapest. Acta Agronomica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 28(1-2):13-26.

Borchsenius NS, 1957. Subtribe mealybugs and scales (Coccoidea). Soft scale insects Coccidae. Vol. IX. (In Russian). Fauna SSSR. Zoologicheskii Institut Academii Nauk SSSR NS, 66:1-493.

Borg J, 1932. Scale Insects of the Maltese Islands. Malta: Government Printing Office.

Canard M, 1980. Presence in Greece of Eulecanium tilip (L.) (Homoptera, Coccidae) on fig (Ficus carica L.) and of its parasite Blastothrix sericea (Dalm.) (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). Biologia Gallo-Hellenica, 9(1):157-162

Carnero Hernandez A; Perez Guerra G, 1986. Coccids (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Canary Islands. Comunicaciones I.N.I.A., Proteccion Vegetal, No. 25:85pp.

Danzig EM, 1959. K faune koktsid (Homoptera, Coccoidea) Leningradskoi oblasti. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 38:443-445.

Danzig EM; Kerzhner IM, 1981. Coccus Linnaeus, 1758 and Parthenolecanium Sulc, 1908 (Insecta, Homoptera, Coccidae): Proposed designation of type species under the plenary powers Z.N.(S) 2125. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 38:147-152.

Drozdovskii EM, 1960. Koktsidy (Homoptera, Coccoidea) na plodovykh i yagodnykh kul'turakh v Moskovskoi oblasti. Izvestiya Timiryazevskoi Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Akademii, 1:193-208.

Ferris GF, 1925. Notes on Coccidae XI. (Hemiptera). The Canadian Entomologist, 57:228-234.

Giliomee JH, 1967. Morphology and taxonomy of adult males of the family Coccidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology, Supplement, 7:1-168.

Gill RJ, 1988. The scale insects of California. Part 1. The soft scales (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Technical Services in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology. California Department of Food and Agriculture, 1:1-132.

Glendenning R, 1933. A successful parasite introduction into British Columbia. The Canadian Entomologist, 65:169-171.

Gomez-Menor Ortega J, 1937. Coccidos de Espana. Madrid, Spain: Universidad de Madrid.

Gomez-Menor Ortega J, 1958. Cochinillas que atacen a los frutales (Homoptera: Coccoidea: II. Familias Lecanidae y Margarodidae). Boletin de patologia Vegetal y Entomologia Agricola, Madrid, 23:43-173.

Gomez-Menor Ortega J, 1965. Adiciones a los "Coccidos de Espana". VI nota. Especies del genero Evallaspis con su distribucion geografica en la Peninsula a Islas Baleares. EOS, 41:87-114.

Graham K; Prebble ML, 1953. Studies of the lecanium scale, Eulecanium coryli (L.), and its parasite, Blastothrix sericea (Dalm.), in British Columbia. Canadian Entomologist, 85:153-181.

Graora D, 2008. Importance and research status of scale insects (Homoptera, Coccoidea) in Serbia. (Znacaj i istrazenost stitastih vasi (Homoptera, Coccoidea) u Srbiji.) Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor), 36(2):114-120.

Green EE, 1925. Notes on the Coccidae of Guernsey (Channel Islands), with descriptions of some new species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (ser.9), 16:516-527.

Green EE, 1930. Observations on British Coccidae, XII. Entomologist`s Monthly Magazine, 66:9-17.

Gupta BP; Rai KM, 1971. Biology and control of Eulecanium (Lecanium) coryli (Linn.) (Homoptera: Coccidae). Progress in Horticulture, 2(4):21-30

Hadzibejli ZK, 1983. Koktsidy subtropicheskoi zony Gruzii. Metsniereba, Tbilisi: Akademya Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR, 293pp.

Hodgson CJ, 1994. The scale insect family Coccidae: an identification manual to genera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 639 pp.

Jansen MGM, 1995. Scale insects (Homoptera: Coccinea) from import interceptions and greenhouses in the Netherlands. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:131-146; 32 ref.

Kawecki Z, 1958. Studia nad rodzajem Lecanium Burm. Czesc V. Misecznik miechun - Lecanium coryli (L.) sensu Marchal nec Sulc. (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Lecaniidae). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 27:39-69.

Komarek J, 1946. Skody puklici liskovou - Lecanium coryli L. na jasanech luznich lesu. Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Zoologicke Spolecnosti, 10:156-165.

Komarek J, 1952. Odumirani jasanu v souvislosti s Eulecanium coryli a ucinkem mrazu. Zoologicke a Entomologicke Listy, 4:219-221.

Kosztarab M; Kozar F, 1988. Scale insects of Central Europe. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 455 pp.

Koteja J; Zak-Ogaza B, 1983. Fauna czerwców (Homoptera, Coccinea) Wyzyny Krakowsko-Czestochowskiej. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, 36:465-489.

Kozar F, 1987. The probability of interspecific competitive situations in scale-insects (Homoptera, Coccoidea). Interspecific competition of scale-insects. Oecologia, 73(1):99-104

Kozar F; Drozdjak J, 1993. Data to the scale insect fauna (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Bukk National Park. The Fauna of the Bukk National Park, 71-76.

Kozar F; Fowjhan MA; Zarrabi M, 1996. Check-list of Coccoidea and Aleyrodoidea (Homoptera) of Afghanistan and Iran, with additional data to the scale insects of fruit trees in Iran. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 31(1-2):61-74.

Kozár F; Guignard E; Bachmann F; Mani E; Hippe C, 1994. The scale insect and whitefly species of Switzerland (Homoptera: Coccoidea and Aleyrodoidea). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 67(1-2):151-161; 24 ref.

Kozar F; Humble LM; Foottit RG; Otvos IS, 1989. New and little known scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) from British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 86:70-77

Kozár F; Konstantinova GM; Akman K; Altay M; Kiroglu H, 1979. Distribution and density of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) on fruit plants in Turkey in 1976 (Survey of scale insect (Homoptera: Coccoidea) infestations in European orchards No. 11). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 14(3/4):535-542

Kozar F; Ordog G; Kosztarab M, 1977. New additions to the Hungarian scale fauna (Homoptera: Coccoidae). Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 30(1):69-75

Kozár F; Ostafichuk VG, 1987. New and little known scale-insect species from Moldavia (USSR) (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 68:91-95.

Kozar F; Tzalev M; Viktorin RA; Horvath J, 1979. New data to the knowledge of the scale-insects of Bulgaria (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 32(2):129-132

Kozarzhevskaya E; Reitzel J, 1975. The scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of Denmark. Beretning, Statens Forsoegsvirksomhed i Plantekultur, No. 1226:41 pp.

Kozarzhevskaya E; Vlainic A, 1981. Stetnost i rasprostranjenost kokcida (Homoptera: Coccoidea) u kuturnim biotopima Beograda. Sumarstvo, 13-26.

Kozarzhevskaya E; Vlainic A, 1982. Bioekoloski pregled kokcida - stitastih vasi u kulturnoj flori Beograda (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Zastita Bilja, 32:183-202.

Lagowska B, 1984. Badania nad nasileniem wyst(powania miseczników (Homoptera, Coccidae) na drzewach i krzewach owocowych w okolicach Lublina. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych. Seria E, 14:9-17.

Lagowska B; Koteja J, 1996. Czerwce (Homoptera, Coccinea) Roztocza. Fragmenta Faunistica, 39:29-42.

Lellakova-Duskova F, 1966. Die auf Weidengewachsen (Salicales) lebenden Schildlause (Coccoidea) in der Tschechoslowakei. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 57:294-309.

Longo S; Marotta S; Pellizzari G; Russo A; Tranfaglia A, 1995. An annotated list of the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidea) of Italy. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:113-130.

Marotta S, 1987. Coccids (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) noteworthy in Italy, with bibliographic references on taxonomy, geographic distribution, biology and host plants. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri', 44:97-119

Mihajlovic L; Kozarzevskaja E, 1983. The effectiveness of natural enemies in reducing populations of some harmful scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Zastita Bilja, 34(2):295-301

Miller GL; Williams ML, 1990. Tests of male soft scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidae) from America north of Mexico, including a key to the species. Systematic Entomology, 15(3):339-358

Mishra RC; Bhalla OP, 1974. Occurrence of Eulecanium sp. tiliae (L.) (Homoptera: Coccidae) on plum and apple in Himachal Pradesh. Current Science, 43(13):428

Phillips JHH, 1965. Notes on species of Lecanium Burmeister (Homoptera: Coccoidea) in the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario with a description of a new species. Canadian Entomologist, 97:231-238.

Radjabi G; Rezwani A, 1986. Eulecanium tilip (L.) in Iran. Entomologie et Phytopathologie Appliquees, 53(1-2):Pe 49-55; en 9-10

Rasinya BP, 1959. Koktsidy (Homoptera, Coccoidea) v raznykh biotopakh Latviiskoi SSR. Fauna Latviiskoi SSR, 2:107-119.

Richards WR, 1958. Identities of species of Lecanium Burmeister in Canada (Homoptera: Coccoidea). The Canadian Entomologist, 90:305-313.

Rubin A; Beirne BP, 1975. Natural enemies of the European fruit lecanium, Lecanium tiliae (Homoptera: Coccidae), in British Columbia. Canadian Entomologist, 107(4):337-342

Rubin AY; Beirne BP, 1975. The European fruit lecanium, Lecanium tiliae (L.) (Homoptera: Coccidae), in southwestern British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 72:18-20

Savescu A, 1943. Oekoarten bei Lecaniden. Bulletin de la Section Scientifique, 25:212-223.

Savescu A, 1944. Formes ecologiques des le canides de la faune Roumaine. Bulletin de la Section Scientifique, 27:230-247.

Schmutterer H, 1952. Die okologie der Cocciden (Homoptera, Coccoidea) Frankens. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 33:544-584.

Sharma JP; Dogra GS, 1986. Studies on the control of the plum scale Eulecanium sp? tilip (L.) (Homoptera: Coccidae) through chemical and natural elements. Indian Journal of Entomology, 48(3):258-263

Silvestri F, 1919. Contribuzioni alla conoscenza degli insetti dannosi e dei loro simbionti. V. La cocciniglia del nocciuolo (Eulecanium coryli L.). Bolletino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della R. Scuola Superiore D`Agricoltura in Portici, 13:127-192.

Sugonypv ES, 1983. Review of chalcids of the genus Blastothrix Mayr (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) of North America. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 62(3):601-609

Tereznikova EM, 1981. Scale Insects. Eriococcidae, Kermesidae and Coccidae. (In Ukrainian). Fauna Ukraini. Akademyiya Nauk Ukrainskoi RSR. Institut Zoologii, Kiev, 20:1-215.

Ulgenturk S; Toros S, 1996. Ankara Iiinde Antribus fasciatus Forst. (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) uzerinde on calismalar. Turkiye 3 Entomoloji Kongresi, 24-28 Eylul 1996, 668-674.

Distribution References

Ali SM, 1971. A catalogue of the Oriental Coccoidea (Part V) (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea). In: Indian Museum Bulletin, 6 7-82.

Argyriou LC, 1984. Faunal analysis of some scale insects in Greece. [Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Central European Entomofaunistics (SIEEC)], Budapest, Hungary: 364-367.

Babayan G A, 1976. Morphological and biological characters of the apple soft scale Eulecanium tiliae L. (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) in Armenia. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie. 55 (1), 52-57.

Balachowsky A, 1934. [English title not available]. (Contribution a l'etude des Coccides de France. Recherches complementaires sur la faune de Corse.). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 67-72.

Behdad E, Barooti S, 1978. Biological studies on Eulecanium coryli L., the pest of fruit trees in Esfahan. Entomologie et Phytopathologie Appliquees. 46 (1/2), Pe pp. 55-65; en p.

Ben-Dov Y, 1971. An annotated list of the soft scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidae) of Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology. 6 (1), 23-34.

Bhagat R C, Ramzan A, Farhan N, 1991. New records of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) and host-plants from Kashmir Valley, India. Entomon. 16 (1), 91-94.

Bodenheimer F S, 1944. Additions to the Coccoidea of Iraq, with descriptions of two new species. Bulletin de la Societe Fouad 1er d'entomologie. 81-84.

Bognar S, Vinis G, 1979. Scale insects in the parks and avenues of Budapest. Acta Agronomica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 28 (1/2), 13-26.

Borg J, 1932. Scale insects of the Maltese Islands. Malta: Government Printing Office.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Canard M, 1980. Presence in Greece of Eulecanium tiliae (L.) (Homoptera, Coccidae) on fig (Ficus carica L.) and of its parasite Blastothrix sericea (Dalm.) (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). (Presence en Grece d'Eulecanium tiliae (L.) (Homoptera, Coccidae) sur le figuier Ficus carica L. et de son parasite Blastothrix sericea (Dalm.) (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae).). Biologia Gallo-Hellenica. 9 (1), 157-162.

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