Leptospermum scoparium (manuka)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Growth Stages
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Leptospermum scoparium J. R. Forst. & G. Forst.
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Leptospermum floribundum
- Leptospermum scoparium var. eximum B.L. Burtt (1940)
- Leptospermum scoparium var. forsteri S. Schauer (1841)
- Leptospermum scoparium var. incanum Cockayne (1917)
- Leptospermum scoparium var. linifolium (Sol. ex Aiton) R.Br. ex Aiton (1811)
- Leptospermum scoparium var. martinii hort.
- Leptospermum scoparium var. myrtifolium (Sol. ex Aiton) R.Br. ex Aiton (1811)
- Leptospermum scoparium var. nichollii Turrill (1912)
- Leptospermum scoparium var. nichollsii Dorr. Sm.
- Leptospermum scoparium var. parvum Kirk (1899)
- Leptospermum scoparium var. prostratum Kirk (1899)
- Leptospermum scoparium var. rotundifolium Maiden & Betche
- Leptospermum scoparium var. scoparium J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (1776)
International Common Names
- English: broom tea; manuka; manuka (Australia); tea tree
- French: leptosperme à balais
Local Common Names
- : Australian tea tree; New Zealand tea bush; New Zealand tea tree; red tea tree
- Australia: broom tea tree
- Brazil: árvore-chá; érica; falsa-érica; leptospermo
- Germany: Manukastrauch, Roter; Südsee-Myrte, Besenartige
- New Zealand: kahikatoa; katoa; manuka; pata; rauiri; rauwiri; tea tree
- South Africa: manuka myrtle; manukamirt
- Sweden: rosenmyrten
- UK/England and Wales: tea tree
- USA: broom tea tree
- LEKSC (Leptospermum scoparium)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Leptospermum scoparium, commonly known as manuka, is a shrub or small tree native to New Zealand and Australia. It is an early successional species of disturbed areas in forests in New Zealand and its seeds are light, wind-dispersed and numerous. Seeds germinate in bare patches, and the plant grows quickly, establishing dominance over low-growing vegetation. Plants die out after about 60 years, being replaced by larger, longer living trees. However, in impoverished or wet soils, manuka can become the dominant climax vegetation. Manuka has been seen by generations of New Zealand’s hill country farmers as a serious problem in newly cleared and oversown grassland.
Manuka is grown as an ornamental garden plant in many countries, with cultivars widely available. In South Africa, the species is listed as ‘under surveillance’ in the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act 1983. It is also considered a possible threat in Hawaii, where it seems to spread more quickly than the related Leptospermum laevigatum (Starr et al., 2003). In Britain, where it has been cultivated in gardens since 1772 (Dawson, 2009), it has been only recorded as naturalised at Tresco Abbey in the Scilly Isles, although unreported naturalisation may have occurred elsewhere (Stephens et al., 2005)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Myrtales
- Family: Myrtaceae
- Genus: Leptospermum
- Species: Leptospermum scoparium
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Stephens et al. (2005) reported the following on this species taxonomy:
“A comprehensive taxonomic revision of the genus Leptospermum listed 79 species (Thompson, 1989), which has been increased to 83 with later additions (Dawson, 1997). L. scoparium is one of 13 species included in the Leptospermum myrtifolium subgroup, the defining characteristics of which are deciduous sepals and persistent strongly wooded fruit-valves (Thompson, 1989). The Australian species within this sub-group are extremely difficult to define; L. continentale and L. rotundifolium were recently elevated by Thompson (1989) from L. scoparium varieties to species rank. The species L. juniperinum and L. squarrosum have both been recorded as varieties of L. scoparium (Thompson, 1989), and the endemic Tasmanian L. scoparium var. eximium could be considered to warrant species status, displaying lignotuber development which is not found in New Zealand’s L. scoparium (Bond et al., 2004).”
Dawson (2009) discussed the many forms found in cultivation including red-flowered, pink-flowered, double-flowered, prostrate and dwarf forms, and concluded that the pool of variation for L. scoparium is by no means exhausted.
DescriptionTop of page
Webb et al. (1988) describe L. scoparium as the following:
“Shrub of diverse habit, or tree up to c. 4 m high. Bark shedding in long strips. Branchlets and young leaves clothed in silky hairs. Leaves subsessile, ± 4-12-(20) × 1-4 mm, of 2 main forms on different plants, narrow-lanceolate or ovate, coriaceous, rigid, acute, pungent, erect to patent. Flowers axillary, or occasionally terminal on branchlets, ± sessile, usually solitary. Hypanthium broadly turbinate; calyx lobes ± triangular, caducous. Petals c. 6 mm long, ± suborbicular, usually white, rarely pink, patent. Stamens c. 20, < to slightly > style; filaments much more slender than style. Ovary apex glabrous. Capsule 5-celled, 3-7 × 4-10 mm, woody, long-persistent, distinctly exserted beyond receptacle rim”.
Plant TypeTop of page Broadleaved
DistributionTop of page
Manuka is native to New Zealand and Australia but has been introduced and cultivated in a number of countries, including the United States, Britain, South Africa and Madeira (Starr et al., 2003; DAISIE, 2008; Dawson, 2009). In Australia, it is generally found in coastal areas in Tasmania and Victoria and has a broad range within New South Wales (Atlas of Living Australia, 2012; Thompson and Logan, 2012). The species is also widespread in its native origin in New Zealand (Webb et al., 1988). The species establishment in Hawaii threatens other biodiversity and so it is now recognised as an invasive species.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Israel||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Dawson, 2009|
|South Africa||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Dawson, 2009|
|USA||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Dawson, 2009|
|-California||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Not invasive||Starr et al., 2003|
|-Hawaii||Localised||Introduced||Invasive||Starr et al., 2003|
|Denmark||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Dawson, 2009|
|France||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Dawson, 2009|
|Portugal||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|UK||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Dawson, 2009|
|Australia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-New South Wales||Localised||Native||Thompson and Logan, 2012||coastal|
|-Tasmania||Widespread||Native||Atlas of Living Australia, 2012||coastal|
|-Victoria||Localised||Native||Atlas of Living Australia, 2012||coastal|
|New Zealand||Widespread||Native||Invasive||Webb et al., 1988|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Although native to New Zealand, Stephens et al. (2005) suggest that manuka spread extensively within the country only after the opening up of newly disturbed areas as a result of human settlement. In Hawaii, according to Starr et al. (2003), manuka and other species of Leptospermum were planted for forestry, slope stabilisation or landscaping and later naturalised and spread, sometimes forming dense stands. Manuka has also been planted as an ornamental in South Africa, and is proposed as a declared plant, but more information is required before it can be listed (SABONET, 2002).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|UK||Australia||1772||Horticulture (pathway cause)||Yes||Dawson (2009)||In only one locality|
|UK||New Zealand||1772||Horticulture (pathway cause)||Yes||Dawson (2009)||In only one locality|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
L. scoparium has been planted as an ornamental in several countries, including the United States, Britain and South Africa (USDA- ARS, 2012), but has only naturalised and become invasive in Hawaii and possibly South Africa. It is however, identified as a high risk weed for the Pacific Islands with a Weed Risk Assessment Score of 20 (PIER, 2012).
HabitatTop of page
In New Zealand, Webb et al. (1988) describe its habitat as “Lowland to subalpine areas in various habitats, especially open slopes, river banks, forest margins, and scrub, where it often forms the dominant vegetation.”
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Disturbed areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Natural grasslands||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Scrub / shrublands||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Coastal areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Coastal dunes||Principal habitat||Natural|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
L. scoparium may negatively affect pasture species, and the shrub has been particularly problematic for hill country farmers in New Zealand.
Growth StagesTop of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Stephens et al. (2005) reported that throughout New Zealand, L. scoparium is normally diploid with 22 chromosomes (Dawson 1987, 1990), but two triploid and one tetraploid cultivars have been described (Dawson, 1990) and wild aneuploids have been recorded.
According to Primack and Lloyd (1980), L. scoparium is an andromonoecious species; although, the variation in the percentage of perfect flowers is mainly related to the environment. Overall control of flowering is determined by temperature and day-length. L. scoparium flowering is initially activated by a long-day flowering cue, although bud development is restrained by cool temperatures throughout winter leading to spring flowering when the temperature restraint is lifted (Zieslin and Gottesman, 1986). Bennik (2009) found that the species is partly self-compatible but relies more heavily on cross pollination for higher yields of capsule and seed set.
Pollination of L. scoparium is by a range of insects – large tachinid and calliphorid flies, small Diptera, Hymenoptera, moths, craneflies and honeybees (Stephens, 2005).
Physiology and Phenology
Fruit capsules (of which 8000 have been recorded on a 10 year old plant) each contain 240 to 470 seeds with an average of about 300, each seed weighing about 0.005 mg (Grant, 1967). Seed falls throughout the year, with a major peak in late winter-spring and a smaller peak in autumn. Seed viability was estimated by Grant (1967) at 19.05% and germination percentage was similar. Light is required for successful germination, which can occur at temperatures of between 4.5oC and 32oC. In the field, Grant (1967) found that most seedlings appeared in pasture in the spring (September-October).
L. scoparium is found in many different environments and is therefore associated with a wide range of different species, ranging from scrubland associations on low fertility hill country with gorse (Ulex europaeus) and broom (Cytisus scoparius) to the early stages of succession to larger native trees and shrubs. L. scoparium also has direct associations with different species of native mistletoes (Viscum spp.) (Stephens et al. 2005).
L. scoparium occupies a variety of environments in New Zealand, either as an early succession species in the development of forest or as the permanent dominant species on sites that are too wet, dry, cold, exposed, infertile or unstable for the establishment of climax forest (Stephens, 2005). This indicates that the species is extremely wide-ranging in its environmental requirements.
ClimateTop of page
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- seasonally waterlogged
- very acid
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Capnodium elegans||Pathogen||Whole plant||to genus||New Zealand|
|Coelostomidia wairoensis||Herbivore||Whole plant||to genus|
|Eriococcus leptospermi||Herbivore||Whole plant||to genus|
|Eriococcus orariensis||Herbivore||Whole plant||to genus||New Zealand|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
The insect species most commonly found affecting L. scoparium in New Zealand are the introduced scale insects Eriococcus orariensis and E. leptospermi and the scale insect Coelostomidia wairoensis, which is endemic to New Zealand. Manuka blight, caused by the introduction to New Zealand and subsequent deliberate spread of E. orariensis rapidly eradicated large areas of manuka (Hoy, 1961). However the later spread of the entomogenous fungus Myriangium thwaitesii led to the recovery of manuka in many areas. The insects often also carry the spores of sooty moulds, one of which is Capnodium elegans, and these mould diseases may contribute to the effect of the insects.
Other insect enemies include manuka beetle (Pyronota spp.), manuka moth (Declana floccose), webworm (Heliostibes atychioides), the larvae of the longhorn beetle (Ochrocudus huttoni), the mite Aceria manukae and the wood borer Amasa truncates (Molloy, 1975; Brockerhoff and Bain, 2000).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)
The species seeds prolifically and the seed is light and readily transported by wind. Release of seeds from the capsules is expedited by burning.
This form of introduction is unlikely to occur.
The species has been deliberately introduced and transported to other countries, primarily as an ornamental but also for forestry and soil conservation purposes.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Cultural/amenity||Positive and negative|
|Economic/livelihood||Positive and negative|
|Environment (generally)||Positive and negative|
Economic ImpactTop of page
In the past in New Zealand, hill country farmers (and to some extent governments) have spent much time and effort in controlling manuka, which tends to spring up in large numbers when land is cleared for pastoral agriculture. Besides the lost production from its direct effects on pasture, costs have included hand slashing, mechanised clearing and herbicides used in attempts to maintain pastures clear of manuka and other species like gorse (Ulex europaeus) and broom (Cytisus scoparius). However, because of the increasing economic value of manuka honey, large blocks of land in New Zealand are currently being planted in manuka. Consequently, this plant is no longer seen as a weed causing negative economic impacts in New Zealand but one that can be financially viable. Furthermore, research funding is now being directed towards growing profitable strains of the plant rather than limiting its growth (Harrington and Gregory, 2009; Massey University, 2012).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
L. scoparium plays an integral part in many of New Zealand’s natural ecosystems, and is now considered valuable for its role in succession and slope stabilisation.
In Hawaii, Starr et al. (2003) reported: “L. laevigatum and L. scoparium were both planted on Lana'i during forestry efforts in part to stabilize the eroding soils. According to Robert Hobdy (DLNRDOFAW) (pers. comm.), both species stayed put for a long time then suddenly began to spread, with L. scoparium being the more aggressive of the two. With thick shrubby growth, not much else can grow beneath Leptospermum infestations. Seeds are light and numerous, being spread on the wind.”
Impact on Habitats
Not relevant in New Zealand, and no information from elsewhere.
Impact on Biodiversity
Not relevant in New Zealand, and no specific information from elsewhere.
Social ImpactTop of page
In the past, many hill country farmers have despaired at the lack of control of manuka.
Recently in New Zealand, disputes over the ownership of manuka honey produced from wild manuka have resulted in some bee-keepers sabotaging hives of opposition keepers in attempts to get the manuka honey for themselves (K.C. Harrington, Massey University, New Zealand, personal communication, 2013).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Highly mobile locally
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has high genetic variability
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of successional patterns
- Monoculture formation
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - shading
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
New Zealand Maori used L. scoparium as firewood, among other uses, and it continues to be highly valued as firewood. A modern website says ‘Manuka firewood is a native hardwood and burns extremely hot and slow, making it the best available. Suitable for open fires, pizza ovens and log fires (Waikato Firewood Company, 2008).
Stephens et al. (2005) reviewed the status of essential oils in New Zealand’s L. scoparium populations. These have received considerable attention in the past 20 years. Analysis of commercially available oils showed 100 components of which 51 were identified and made up about 95% of the content. Triketones, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene hydrocarbons are the three main components, and the proportions of these three groups vary considerably between populations in different parts of the country. Manuka oil is readily available from many different sources, and is touted as being useful for the complexion, for aromatherapy, as an antibiotic, and for many medical conditions, especially those affecting the skin.
L. scoparium is a major source of honey harvested by the introduced honeybee (Apis mellifera) and the production of manuka honey has become a major industry both in New Zealand and elsewhere. Although many honey types have antibacterial properties because of the presence of hydrogen peroxide, only manuka honey has a high level of non-peroxide anti-bacterial activity (Stephens et al. 2005). This non-peroxide antibacterial factor has been named Unique Manuka Factor (UMF). Manuka honey is now used in many medical products in many countries.
L. scoparium is used in amenity plantings along roadsides in New Zealand, and the many attractive cultivars are extensively used as garden ornamentals in many countries, including Britain, the United States, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa.
According to Stephens et al. (2005), New Zealand Maori traditionally used L. scoparium for food, medicine and timber. A sugary gum sometimes found on the branches was given to infants or used to treat coughs in adults. Infusions of leaves or bark were used for various ailments, and the timber was used for implements. L. scoparium is named tea-tree because Captain James Cook used its leaves for brewing tea when he first arrived in New Zealand in 1769.
The species germinates and grows quickly, making it ideal as a soil stabiliser. Under natural conditions in New Zealand, dense stands eventually thin and the species is replaced by taller-growing forest species. In Hawaii, L. scoparium was introduced partly for this reason, but is now regarded as invasive (Starr et al., 2003). However, Harris (2004) adds that “While they are classed as an "alien invasive pest plant" they have provided some benefits by stabilising ridge tops that have eroded following grazing by goats.”
Uses ListTop of page
- Erosion control or dune stabilization
- Land reclamation
- Landscape improvement
- Soil conservation
- Wildlife habitat
- Botanical garden/zoo
- Sociocultural value
Human food and beverage
- Honey/honey flora
- Essential oils
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
- Potted plant
Detection and InspectionTop of page
The species is easily recognised by its distinctive and often colourful flowers.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
In Hawaii, Starr et al. (2003) suggest that the public could be discouraged from planting Leptospermum species or other potentially invasive non-native plants.
L. scoparium was battled by generations of hill country farmers in New Zealand. They used fire, manual pulling or cutting (often by teams of workers brought in from Fiji and other Pacific islands), mechanical clearing with bulldozers and, since the Second World War, herbicides. Cutting or slashing works well on manuka, since plants do not regrow but new plants will continue to emerge from the cleared area from seed in the soil.
In New Zealand, biological control was actively encouraged by farmers when scale insects appeared in the 1950s but the initial onslaught was later mitigated by the appearance of an entomogenous fungus which attacked the scale insects and led to the recovery of the manuka.
In South Africa, the leaf-mining gracillariid moth, Parectopa thalassias, from Australia, and an unidentified gall-forming midge, Dasineura spp. have been released for the control of the related Leptospermum laevigatum (Starr et al., 2003).
In New Zealand chemical control has been regularly used on L. scoparium since the herbicide 2,4,5-T was introduced in the late 1950s. Nowadays the herbicides most likely to be used are metsulfuron or glyphosate, although triclopyr amine, with or without picloram, is sometimes used. However, controlling existing plants of manuka rarely solves the problem because of germination of seeds already in the soil or blown in from nearby plants. Improved pasture competition (liming, fertiliser and improved pasture species) and controlled grazing must be combined with chemical control of existing plants if the manuka is to be effectively controlled.
However, farmers have been encouraged to consider the value and uses of existing manuka stands before spraying herbicides (Munro, 2006). Furthermore, scientists are now concentrating efforts on the use of herbicides to ensure good establishment of manuka for honey production rather than the use of herbicides for its' removal (K.C. Harrington, Massey University, New Zealand, personal communication, 2013).
Not relevant, at least in New Zealand.
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
Stephens (2005) pointed out the need for a thorough clarification of the species in New Zealand and Australia.
Apart from its reported invasiveness in Hawaii and possibly in South Africa, little information on its invasive nature is available, despite it having been planted in gardens, nurseries and botanical gardens in a range of areas for a number of years. More information on when it is likely to become invasive would also be useful.
ReferencesTop of page
Allan Herbarium, 2000. Nga Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plant Names Database. New Zealand: Landcare Research. http://nzflora.landcareresearch.co.nz/
Atlas of Living Australia, 2012. Atlas of Living Australia. Canberra ACT, Australia: GBIF. www.ala.org.au
Bennik RM, 2009. The effects of honeybees (Apis mellifera) on the biodiversity of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) patches. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Massey University, 134. http://mro.massey.nz/bitstream/handle/10179/1269/02whole
Bond WJ; Dickinson KJM; Mark AF, 2004. What limits the spread of fire-dependent vegetation? Evidence from geographic variation of serotiny in a New Zealand shrub. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 13(2):115-127.
Brockerhoff EG; Bain J, 2000. Biosecurity implications of exotic beetles attacking trees and shrubs in New Zealand. In: New Zealand Plant Protection Volume 53, 2000. Proceedings of a conference, Commodore Hotel, Christchurch, New Zealand, 8-10 August 2000 [ed. by Zydenbos, S. M.]. Rotorua, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 321-327.
DAISIE, 2012. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. http://www.europe-aliens.org/
Dawson MI, 2009. A history of Leptospermum scoparium in cultivation. New Zealand Garden Journal, 12:121-125.
Harrington KC; Gregory SJ, 2009. Field assessment of herbicides to release native plants from weeds. New Zealand Plant Protection [Proceedings of the New Zealand Plant Protection Society's Annual Conference, Otago Museum Conference Centre, Dunedin, New Zealand, 11-13 August 2009.], 62:368-373. http://www.nzpps.org/journal/62/nzpp_623680.pdf
Harris G, 2004. Our native plant invaders. The New Zealand Garden Journal, 5:6-8. http://www.rnzih.nz/pages/NativeWeeds
Hoy JM, 1961. Ericoccus orariensis Hoy and other Coccoidea (Homoptera) associated with Leptospermum Forst. species in New Zealand. DSIR Bulletin, 141.
ITIS, 2013. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution/NMNH. http://www.itis.gov/
Massey University, 2012. News: Manuka honey research to grow industry. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Massey University. http://www.massey.nz/massey/about-massey/news/article
Molloy BPJ, 1975. Manuka and kanuka. New Zealand's Nature Heritage, 6:2469-2474.
Munro V, 2006. Coutry-Wide Northern, Special Report: New Option for steep, erosion-prone land. Feilding, New Zea: NZX Agri. http://www.country-wide.nz/article/4996
PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
Primack RB; Lloyd D, 1980. Andromonoecy in the New Zealand montane shrub Leptospermum scoparium (Myrtaceae). American Journal of Botany, 67:361-368.
SABONET, 2002. Invasive alien plants in southern Africa., South Africa: SABONET (Southern African Botanical Diversity Network). http://www.sabonet.org.za/
Starr F; Starr K; Loope L, 2003. Leptospermum scoparium. Haleakala Field Station, Maui, USA: United States Geological Survey- Biological Research Division. http://www.hear.org/
Thompson J; Logan V, 2012. Leptospermum scoparium. Sydney, Australia: The Plant Information Network System of The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl
USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
Waikato Firewood Company, 2008. Waikato Firewood. New Zealand. http://www.waikatofirewood.co.nz/
Zieslin N; Gottesman V, 1986. Environmental factors involved in growth, flowering and post-harvest behaviour of flowers of Leptospermum scoparium J.R. & G.Forst. Israel Journal of Botany, 35(2):101-108.
OrganizationsTop of page
New Zealand: LCR Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln 7640, http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/home
New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Protection Society, NZPPS Secretary: Heather Pearson, Ministry for Primary Industries, Christchurch, http://www.nzpps.org/index.php
ContributorsTop of page
27/10/12: Original text by:
Ian Popay, consultant, New Zealand, with the support of Landcare Research.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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