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Lachnellula willkommii
(European larch canker)

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Datasheet

Lachnellula willkommii (European larch canker)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lachnellula willkommii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • European larch canker
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Leotiomycetes
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The European larch canker pathogen, L. willkommii, is apparently native to Japan, but established in Europe, where it became well known due to its damage to plantations of exotic and native Larix species...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lachnellula willkommii; apothecia. Original x7.5.
TitleApothecia
CaptionLachnellula willkommii; apothecia. Original x7.5.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Lachnellula willkommii; apothecia. Original x7.5.
ApotheciaLachnellula willkommii; apothecia. Original x7.5.USDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Lachnellula willkommii; asci and paraphyses. Original x1000. Note scale bar.
TitleAsci and paraphyses
CaptionLachnellula willkommii; asci and paraphyses. Original x1000. Note scale bar.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Lachnellula willkommii; asci and paraphyses. Original x1000. Note scale bar.
Asci and paraphysesLachnellula willkommii; asci and paraphyses. Original x1000. Note scale bar.USDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Lachnellula willkommii; ascospores. Original x1000. Note scale bar.
TitleAscospores
CaptionLachnellula willkommii; ascospores. Original x1000. Note scale bar.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory
Lachnellula willkommii; ascospores. Original x1000. Note scale bar.
AscosporesLachnellula willkommii; ascospores. Original x1000. Note scale bar.USDA-ARS/Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) Dennis 1962

Preferred Common Name

  • European larch canker

Other Scientific Names

  • Dasyscyphus willkommii (Hartig) Rehm 1881
  • Helotium willkommii (Hartig) Wettst. 1887
  • Lachnella willkommii (Hartig) Seaver 1951
  • Peziza willkommii Hartig 1874
  • Trichoscypha willkommii (Hartig) Boud. 1907
  • Trichoscyphella willkommii (Hartig) Nannf. 1932

International Common Names

  • English: European canker of larch; stem canker of larch
  • Spanish: chancro del alerce
  • French: chancre du meleze; maladie chancreuse du meleze

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Krebs: Laerche

EPPO code

  • LCHNWI (Lachnellula willkommii)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The European larch canker pathogen, L. willkommii, is apparently native to Japan, but established in Europe, where it became well known due to its damage to plantations of exotic and native Larix species, beginning in the nineteenth century. It attacks and spreads among the various species of Larix once it has been introduced. It was detected as an invasive to North America on two occasions; once in the northeastern USA in the 1920s (Hahn and Ayres, 1936) and once in the eastern maritime provinces of Canada in the 1980s (Magasi and Pond, 1982).

Efforts to prevent its introduction across natural barriers include regulation and restriction of trade and transport of susceptible species and bark-bearing products made from them. Control by destruction of infected plants or plant parts is often made difficult by the size of the trees concerned (Tegethoff, 1965). Local spread of the fungus between trees appears to depend on dissemination and survival of airborne ascospores. Climatic conditions of humidity and temperature appear to limit natural spread from regions of establishment (Ostaff, 1985).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Leotiomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Leotiomycetidae
  •                         Order: Helotiales
  •                             Family: Hyaloscyphaceae
  •                                 Genus: Lachnellula
  •                                     Species: Lachnellula willkommii

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The placement of this species in a genus has changed with the changing circumscriptions of genera (Oguchi, 1981). Dennis combined Nannfeldt’s genus of Trichoscyphella with Lachnellula, due to the difficulty of separating the genera on the basis of ascospore shape. Within the family, Lachnellula species are characterized by the form of their paraphyses, the colour of external hairs, the shape of ascospores, and their usual occurrence on conifers (Dennis, 1962). With respect to the species, Baral (1984) found that L. willkommii is difficult to distinguish from Lachnellulaoccidentalis on a morphological basis, and that the clearest difference is physiological, i.e. in the pathogenicity of L. willkommii and the saprobicity of L. occidentalis.

Description

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Ascomata: apothecial, 2-4 mm tall, conspicuous, solitary or gregarious, frequently in clusters from two to many, erumpent, breaking through the bark where canker developed; cup-shaped to discoid, with a short, stout stipe; the sides and disk margin covered with conspicuous white hairs, hairs white, cream, beige, pale-brown, to grey in dried specimens.

Disk: 3-4 (-6) mm diameter, orange to orange-yellowish when fresh, ochraceous to beige in dehydrated or rehydrated specimens, margin thick, enrolled.
 
Stipe: white to pale grey-brown, smooth, approximately 1 mm diameter wide at base, narrowing towards apex, 1 mm tall.
 
Hairs: simple or divided, cylindrical, (1.0-) 1.5-3 (-4) µm diameter, wider at the apex, clavate or lanceolate, (1.5-) 2-3.5 (-4) µm, septate, thick-walled, finely granulate, individual or agglutinated into pointed “hair tufts” or into rounded warts.
 
Asci: unitunicate, hyaline, clavate, apex obtuse to rounded, inoperculate, apical pore not bluing in iodine, (81-) 98-168 (-185) µm x (7-) 8-12 (13-) µm, 8-spored, uniseriate to partially biseriate.
 
Ascospores: hyaline, oblong-ellipsoid to elliptic-fusoid or obovoid; ends different, apex slightly acute, base round, (7-) 10-26 (-29) µm x (3-) 4-10 (-11) µm, smooth, generally 0-septate, when germinating 1-septate.
 
Paraphyses: with orange contents in young specimens, hyaline in older specimens, filiforme to inflated at the apex, (123-) 140-187 (-189) µm long, (0.5) 1.0-2.5 (-4) µm, slightly wider at apex, clavate to irregular (1-) 2-3.5 (-4) µm, septate, simple or branched towards base.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentIntroducedChen, 2002; EPPO, 2014Xinan Ling Mountains
JapanPresentEPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentKobayashi, 2007
-HonshuPresentBPI, US National Fungus Collections; Kobayashi, 2007

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentIntroduced Invasive Magasi and Pond, 1982; EPPO, 2014Introduced before 1958
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Magasi and Pond, 1982; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresent, few occurrencesSimpson and Harrison, 1993; Hilton, 2000; CFIA, 2008
USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-MainePresentIntroduced Invasive Miller-Weeks and Stark, 1983; EPPO, 2014Presence connected to occurences in Canada
-MassachusettsEradicatedIntroduced Invasive BPI, US National Fungus Collections; Spaulding, 1961; EPPO, 2014Introduced on nursery stock in 1928. Presumed to be eradicated

Europe

BelarusPresentUK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentUK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)WidespreadBPI, US National Fungus Collections; UK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentUK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaPresentUK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
FinlandPresentUK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentUK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentSchmid-Heckel, 1988; EPPO, 2014
HungaryWidespreadUK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
IcelandPresentRoll-Hansen, 1992
IrelandPresentMuskett and Malone, 1983; UK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentUK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentSpaulding, 1961
NetherlandsPresent, few occurrencesUK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
NorwayWidespreadUK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentSpaulding, 1961
PortugalPresentUK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentEPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionEPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentUK CAB International, 1989Leningrad
-Eastern SiberiaPresentMorozova and Tkacz, 1997As Dasyscyphus
-Russia (Europe)Restricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentChen, 2002
SerbiaPresentKaradzik, 1989; EPPO, 2014
SwedenWidespreadUK CAB International, 1989; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentSpaulding, 1961
UKWidespreadSpaulding, 1961; Dennis, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-ScotlandWidespreadEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentDudka et al., 2004
Yugoslavia (former)PresentIntroducedUK CAB International, 1989

History of Introduction and Spread

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The species is considered to be native to Asia, particularly Japan (Ito et al., 1963; Kobayashi, 1970). It is established and widespread in Europe, with awareness of its presence and damage in Europe increasing as larch plantations were created in the nineteenth century (Hahn and Ayres, 1936; Dominique, 2003). The fungus was found as an invasive in the USA (Massachusetts) in the 1920s and successfully eradicated by 1965 (Tegethoff, 1965). It appeared again in the USA (eastern Maine) in the 1980s, after it was found in eastern maritime Canada (Miller-Weeks and Stark, 1983), where the focus of introduction appeared to be the port of St. John in New Brunswick (Ostaff, 1985). The ages of cankers indicated that an introduction occurred as early as 1957. Prince Edward Island in Canada was surveyed for the pathogen during the next decade, but the fungus was not observed there until 1992. The infected material found on the island was destroyed (Simpson and Harrison, 1993), but a portion of the island remains in a regulated zone that includes parts of the other two affected provinces (see the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) website at http://www.inspection.gc.ca for further details). At about the same time, the fungus was identified as being present in Iceland (Roll-Hansen, 1992).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Maine <1971 Self-propelled (pathway cause)Miller-Weeks and Stark (1983) Accidental
Massachusetts UK 1904 Horticulture (pathway cause) No Tegethoff (1965) Accidental. Eradicated by 1965
New Brunswick <1958 Ostaff (1985) Accidental
Nova Scotia <1980 Magasi and Pond (1982) Accidental
Prince Edward Island <1993 No Simpson and Harrison (1993) Accidental

Risk of Introduction

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Introduction would result, as in the past, from trade in nursery stock, but also from larch wood and wood products bearing bark. Both Canada and the USA restrict movement of such materials from the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia (CFIA, 2008; USDA/APHIS, 2009). Nevertheless, the pathogen is able to spread naturally from tree to tree on land, and airborne ascospores may also have been its means of crossing water to reach Prince Edward Island, Canada.

Habitat

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The fungus prefers cool, moist forest conditions. In Japan, the disease occurs at altitudes of 1400-1700 m, on natural stands and in plantations in the central region of Honshu (Ito et al., 1963). In Europe, the damage is greater on trees grown in the lowlands compared to those of the Alps, though this may be due to lowland conditions affecting the health and vigour of Larix genotypes adapted to an alpine climate (Sylvestre-Guinot and Delatour, 1983). Highest rates of infection in the cold climate of New Brunswick, Canada, occurred near the coast, where rainfall was greatest, snowfall was least, and maximum and mean temperatures were greatest (Ostaff, 1985).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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There are reports of the fungus on, and labelled specimens from, other members of the Pinaceae (Abies, Pinus, Pseudotsuga spp.), but these are considered to be errors (Hahn and Ayres, 1936; Spaulding, 1961; Buczacki, 1975).

Symptoms

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The fungus kills the growing bark, resulting in swellings on twigs and branches, and sunken cankers on larger stems. The first circular or elliptical depressions often form around dwarf shoots. Resin is exuded. The bark cracks and is loosened. A ridge of wood develops around enlarging cankers on stems and trunks as the tree grows. Needles above the canker shrivel up and die or turn yellow early. If the stem or trunk is girdled, branches and young trees will die (Sinclair and Lyon, 2005).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / gummosis or resinosis

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

Apothecia are produced 1 to several years after infection (Sylvestre-Guinot and Delatour, 1983). Spore release can occur at any time of the year when temperature and rainfall conditions permit (Sylvestre-Guinot, 1981). Optimum conditions for ascospore germination in Japan were a temperature of 20°C and relative humidity greater than 92% (Ito et al., 1963). Wounded trees are susceptible to infection in all seasons of the year (Hahn and Ayers, 1943).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Although a microconidial form of the fungus does also appear on cankers (Hahn and Ayers, 1943; Sylvestre-Guinot and Delatour, 1983), airborne ascospores, produced 1 to several years after infection, are considered to be the inoculum carried between trees (Sinclair and Lyon, 2005).

Accidental Introduction

The fungus was introduced to Massachusetts, USA, on nursery stock in 1904 (Tegethoff, 1965) and in some way, presumably through the port of St. John, New Brunswick, Canada, before 1958 (Ostaff, 1985).

 

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Leaves

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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The pathogen can significantly affect the population of susceptible species. Infection rates ranged from 3 to 100% of trees examined at sites in New Brunswick, Canada (Magasi and Pond, 1982). In Serbia, approximately 48% of trees in a larch plantation were infected (Karadzik, 1989).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
Impact mechanisms
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Diagnosis

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A number of related and similar species occur on the susceptible trees, though most are saprobic, growing only on dead material (Hahn and Ayers, 1943). Microscopic examination of the ascospores, at least, is necessary for the identification of white-haired Lachnellula species found associated with dead parts of Larix and Pseudolarix species. Descriptions of individual species are available (Buczacki, 1975; Oguchi, 1981; Minter, 2005a-j), but a key to most Lachnellula species (Baral, 1984) is not very accessible.

Detection and Inspection

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Living trees and bark-bearing wood must be inspected for the presence of cankers and/or the ascomata of the pathogen. The CFIA regulation provides guidelines, noting that, “Young cankers appear as swellings on twigs and branches, or as depressions on larger stems and are accompanied by exuding resin”. The fruiting bodies “in or around the canker during most of the year” are also described. Inspectors must also watch for withered, dead and/or discolored needles, checking dead or dying branches and stems carefully (CFIA, 2008).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Among the species of Lachnellula occurring on Larix, most are primarily saprobic or only weakly pathogenic. Based on Minter’s descriptions (Minter, 2005a-j), L. willkommiii can be easily distinguished from Lachnellula arida and Lachnellula flavovirens by having white (instead of brown) external hairs and broader ascospores. Among the other white-haired species, it can be distinguished from most species (except Lachnellula occidentalis) by its broad, cylindrical ascospores. Ascospores of Lachnellula subtiliissima are fusiform and those of Lachnellula suecica are globose.

Lachnellula arida

Usually on dead branches. Ascomata olive-green to brown with brown hairs, up to 190 µm long. Ascospores shorter and narrower, 6-9 x 3.5-5.0 µm. Present in North America and Europe (Minter, 2005a).

Lachnellula calyciformis

Usually on dead branches. Ascospores narrow, 2.5-3.5 µm. Paraphyses significantly shorter (60-70). Present in North America, Asia and Europe (Minter, 2005b).

Lachnellula ellisiana

Spores fusiform and narrow, 15-22 x 2-3 µm. In North America (Baral, 1984).

Lachnellula flavovirens

Usually on dead branches. Hairs brown, up to 300 µm long. Ascospores narrow, 3.5-5.5 µm. Present in North America, Asia and Europe (Minter, 2005c).

Lachnellula laricis

In North America and Europe. Ascospores shorter and narrower, 12-16 x 5.5-7.5 µm. In USA and Europe (Baral, 1984).

Lachnellula occidentalis

Usually on dead branches. Has narrower ascospores, 5.0-8.5 µm wide. Present in North America, Asia and Europe (Minter, 2005e).

Lachnellula resinaria

Spores much shorter, (2.0-)2.5-4.0(-4.5) µm. In North America, Asia and Europe (Baral, 1984).

Lachnellula subtilissima

Usually on dead branches. Has short and narrow fusiform ascospores, 6-11 x 2.0-2.5 µm. Present in North America, Asia and Europe (Minter, 2005i).

Lachnellula suecica

Ascospores globose, 4-6(-7) µm diameter. Asci shorter, 60-70 µm long. Present in North America, Asia and Europe (Minter, 2005j).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures
 
Disease is more severe when trees are grown in poorer or less optimal conditions of soil and climate, and therefore a species, variety or genotype, which is well-adapted to the location, should be selected for planting (Hahn and Ayers, 1943; Ito et al., 1963; Sylvestre-Guinot and Delatour, 1983).
 
Physical/Mechanical Control
 
Canadian regulations on movement and importation of commodities likely to be infected, exempt those non-growing wood materials that are free of bark or that have been heat-treated to kill the pathogen (CFIA, 2008). However, the fungus is capable of infecting the xylem (Blanchette, 2001) and so could be present in logs without bark.
 
Movement Control
 
Quarantine regulations in both Canada and the USA are established to prevent further introductions of L. willkommii by importation and its spread from the areas in which it already occurs (CFIA, 2008; USDA/APHIS, 2009). In Canada, these controls relate to “All species, hybrids and horticultural varieties of Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp., including plants, plant parts (branches, twigs, scions, logs with bark, pulpwood, isolated bark), plant propagative material and seed with debris” as well as firewood, wood chips, bark chips, logs, telephone poles, cants, railway ties, and lumber (CFIA reg D-02-12) (CFIA, 2008).
 
Host Resistance (incl. vaccination)
 
No Larix or Pseudolarix species is known to be completely resistant. The Japanese larch (Lachnellula kaempferi) was considered to be resistant in Europe, but not in Japan (Ito et al., 1963). The hybrids, Lachnellula x marschlinsii and Lachnellula x leptoeuropaea are relatively resistant (Sinclair and Lyon, 2005). Susceptibility is increased by lack of vigour (Hahn and Ayers, 1943).
 
Eradication
 
The destruction of infected trees and branches appeared to be effective in eradicating the pathogen in Massachusetts, USA, over a period of 40 years (Tegethoff, 1965). A similar effort was made on Prince Edward Island, Canada (Simpson and Harrison, 1993). The removal and destruction of infected branches is still suggested as a means of control (The Nature Conservancy, 2009), but the effort and equipment needed may be considerable (Tegethoff, 1965).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Despite its presence in Japan, Russia and northeastern China, the fungus has not been reported in Korea.

References

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Baral HO, 1984. [English title not available]. (Taxonomische und okologische studien uber die koniferen bewohnenden europaischen arten der gattung Lachnellula Karsten.) Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Pilze Mitteleuropas, 1:143-156.

Blanchette JY, 2001. Microscopic observations of the early stages of the infection process by Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) Dennis artificially inoculated on larch (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) seedlings. Fredericton, Canada: The University of New Brunswick.

BPI (US National Fungus Collections), 2009. Fungal Databases - Specimens. Beltsville, USA: Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. www.nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/specimens/specimens.cfm

Buczacki ST, 1975. Trichoscyphella willkommii. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No. 45. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Sheet 450.

Bujakiewicz A, 1979. Fungi of Mt. Babca Eastern. I. Mycoflora of forests. Acta Mycologica, 15:213-294.

CFIA, 2008. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Ottawa, Canada: Government of Canada. http://www.inspection.gc.ca/

Chen MM, 2002. Forest fungi phytogeography: Forest fungi phytogeography of China, North America, and Siberia and international quarantine of tree pathogens. Sacramento, USA: Pacific Mushroom Research and Education Center, 469 pp.

Dennis RWG, 1962. A reassessment of Belonidium Mont. & Dur. Persoonia, 2:171-191.

Dennis RWG, 1986. Fungi of the Hebrides. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, 383 pp.

Dominique J, 2003. Amelioration du module de l'elasticite du bois de meleze hybride (Larix ?eurolepis Henry) par selection clonale ([English title not available]). Gembloux, Belgium: Faculte Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux.

Dudka IO; Heluta VP; Tykhonenko YY; Anrianova TV; Hayova VP; Prydiuk MP; Dzhagan VV; Isikov VP, 2004. Fungi of the Crimean Peninsula. Kiev, Ukraine: National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 452 pp.

EPPO, 2000. Report of the EPPO Forestry Project: Forest pests on the territories of the former USSR. Paris, France: EPPO, 234 pp. http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/forestry_project/EPPOforestry_project.pdf

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Farr DF; Rossman AY; Palm ME; McCray EB, 2009. Fungal Databases, Systematic Botany & Mycology Laboratory, ARS, USDA. USA: ARS, USDA. http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/

Hahn GG; Ayers TT, 1943. Role of Dasyscyphus willkommii and related fungi in the production of canker and dieback of larches. Journal of Forestry, 41:483-495.

Hahn GG; Ayres TT, 1936. The European Larch canker and its relation to certain other cankers of conifers in the United States. Journal of Forestry, 34(10):898-908 pp.

Hansbrough JR, 1964. FAO/IUFRO Symposium on Internationally Dangerous Forest Diseases and Insects, Oxford 1964, No. FAO/FORPEST 64. v + 237 pp.

Hilton S, 2000. Canadian Plant Disease Survey. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 80. 151.

Ito K; Zinno Y; Kobayashi T, 1963. Larch canker in Japan. Bull. For. Exp. Stn., Meguro, Tokyo, No. 155:23-47.

Karadzik D, 1989. The most frequent fungi occurring in plantations larch, scots pine and Macedonian pine on Kopaonik. Zastita Bilja, 40:309-317.

Kobayashi T, 1970. An evidence that the Larch canker fungus is native in Japan. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 69(4):366-8.

Kobayashi T, 2007. Index of Fungi Inhabiting Woody Plants in Japan. Host, Distribution and Literature., Japan: Zenkoku-Noson-Kyiku Kyokai Publishing Co., 1227 pp.

Magasi LP; Pond SE, 1982. European larch canker: a new disease in Canada and a new North American host record. Plant Disease, 66(4):339.

Miller-Weeks M; Stark D, 1983. European larch canker in Maine. Plant Disease, 67(4):448.

Minter DW, 2005. Lachnellula arida. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No.165. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, Sheet 1641.

Minter DW, 2005. Lachnellula calyciformis. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No.165. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, Sheet 1642.

Minter DW, 2005. Lachnellula flavovirens. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No.165. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, Sheet 1643.

Minter DW, 2005. Lachnellula fuscosanguinea. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No.165. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, Sheet 1644.

Minter DW, 2005. Lachnellula occidentalis. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No.165. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, Sheet 1645.

Minter DW, 2005. Lachnellula pini. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No.165. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, Sheet 1646.

Minter DW, 2005. Lachnellula pseudofarinacea. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No.165. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, Sheet 1647.

Minter DW, 2005. Lachnellula resinaria. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No.165. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, Sheet 1648.

Minter DW, 2005. Lachnellula subtilissima. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No.165. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, Sheet 1649.

Minter DW, 2005. Lachnellula suecica. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No.165. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, Sheet 1650.

Morozova TI; Tkacz B, 1997. Diseases in the forest. Eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East. In: Hansen EM, Lewis KJ, ed. Compendium of conifer diseases. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, USA: APS Press, 77-79.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)http://www.inspection.gc.ca/
Global Invasives Species Team / The Nature Conservancyhttp://tncinvasives.ucdavis.edu/
IPM Imageshttp://ipmimages.org/
ISSG database global Invasive Species Database)http://www.issg.org
US Dept of Agriculture - APHIShttp://www.aphis.usda.gov/

Contributors

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10/09/09 Original text by:

Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705, USA

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