Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Grapholita molesta
(Oriental fruit moth)

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Datasheet

Grapholita molesta (Oriental fruit moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Grapholita molesta
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Oriental fruit moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Oriental fruit moth larva on apple.
TitleLarva
CaptionOriental fruit moth larva on apple.
CopyrightLarry A. Hull
Oriental fruit moth larva on apple.
LarvaOriental fruit moth larva on apple.Larry A. Hull
Larva (arrowed), and damage by G. molesta, in peach fruit.
TitleLarva and damage
CaptionLarva (arrowed), and damage by G. molesta, in peach fruit.
CopyrightNOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland
Larva (arrowed), and damage by G. molesta, in peach fruit.
Larva and damageLarva (arrowed), and damage by G. molesta, in peach fruit.NOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Grapholita molesta (Busck)

Preferred Common Name

  • Oriental fruit moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Carpocapsa molesta Busck
  • Cydia molesta (Busck)
  • Laspeyresia molesta Busck

International Common Names

  • English: fruit moth, oriental
  • Spanish: gusano del brote del duraznero (Argentina); polilla oriental del melocotonero; tiñola orientale
  • French: tordeuse orientale du pêcher
  • Portuguese: mariposa oriental das frutas (Brasil)

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: mariposa oriental das frutas
  • Denmark: ferskenvikler
  • Germany: Pfirsichtriebbohrer; Triebbohrer, Pfirsich-; Wickler, Pfirsich-
  • Italy: tignola orientale del pesco; tortrice del pesco
  • Netherlands: Perzikmotje
  • Norway: ferskenvikler
  • Sweden: persikvecklare
  • Turkey: elma ic kurdu

EPPO code

  • LASPMO (Grapholita molesta)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Tortricidae
  •                             Genus: Grapholita
  •                                 Species: Grapholita molesta

Description

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The egg when first laid is translucent-white, later becoming yellow, slightly convex, round or slightly oval, measuring about 0.7 mm across. The full-grown larva has a length of approximately 12 mm, and is pink to almost red. The head, the prothoracic notum and the anal plate are brown. A black anal fork (anal comb), above the anal opening, is present.

The cocoon is a protective covering for the full-grown larva and pupa. It is made of silken threads and particles of the objects on which it rests. The pupa is reddish-brown. The adult has a wing span of 10-16 mm, and is dark-grey. When at rest, the wings are held in a roof-like position over the body, and the antennae are bent backwards over the wings. For exact identification, investigation of the genitalia is necessary.

Detailed morphology can be found in Balachowsky (1966).

Distribution

Top of page This pest is native to north-west China, and spread from Japan to Australia, central Europe, the east coast of the USA and Brazil at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since then the pest has been introduced into many other countries (Gonzalez, 1978).

See also the distribution map provided by CIE (1990).

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 76).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentEPPO, 2014
AzerbaijanPresentEPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentEPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentEPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentEPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentHang et al., 2000
-Hong KongPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentEPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentEPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentEPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentEPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentWang ZhenPing, 2000
-ShandongPresentEPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentZhi et al., 2008
-XinjiangPresentLin et al., 2006
-ZhejiangPresentEPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)PresentEPPO, 2014
JapanWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-HonshuWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentEPPO, 2014
-ShikokuWidespreadEPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentEPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentEPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentEPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentEPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
TurkeyRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentEPPO, 2014

Africa

MauritiusPresentEPPO, 2014
MoroccoRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
South AfricaWidespread1987Blomefield and Geertsema, 1990; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentEPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentBellerose et al., 2007
MexicoTransient: actionable, under eradicationNAPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
USAPresentEPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentJohnson et al., 2002
-ArkansasPresentEPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentJohnson et al., 2002
-GeorgiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentEPPO, 2014
-MissouriPresentEPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentUsmani and Shearer, 2000
-New YorkPresentEPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentEPPO, 2014
-OklahomaPresentJohnson et al., 2002
-PennsylvaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentEPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentEPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentEPPO, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentSouza et al., 2000
-ParanaPresentMonteiro et al., 2009
-Rio Grande do SulPresentEPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentMonteiro et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentEPPO, 2014
ChileWidespreadEPPO, 2014
UruguayWidespreadEPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
BulgariaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
CroatiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicWidespreadEPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentEPPO, 2014
FranceWidespreadEPPO, 2014
GermanyRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
GreecePresentEPPO, 2014
HungaryWidespreadEPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadEPPO, 2014
LatviaAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
LithuaniaEradicatedEPPO, 2014
MaltaPresentEPPO, 2014
MoldovaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
PortugalPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentEPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentEPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentEPPO, 2014
SpainRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
UKAbsent, intercepted onlyEPPO, 2014
UkraineRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentEPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentEPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-VictoriaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
New ZealandRestricted distribution1973Baker and, 1982

Risk of Introduction

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Adults of G. molesta can disperse locally by flight. International movement is likely to occur on fruit or plants for planting of host species, possibly in packing material.

The pest has, during the course of this century, spread from its east Asian origin to practically all the major stonefruit-growing areas of the world (Europe, North America, temperate South America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand). It has therefore classically been viewed as a serious quarantine pest. However, the areas where it does not now occur (for example, northern Europe) are of marginal importance for the main hosts of G. molesta, and the risk of establishment is also rather marginal. So it is debatable whether G. molesta now presents more than a rather minor phytosanitary risk.

Phytosanitary measures

Normal inspection and phytosanitary certification procedures can be expected to exclude G. molesta.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page The principal economic hosts are fruit trees of the genera Prunus, Malus and Pyrus, and Cydonia oblonga. The species also occurs on other fruit trees and ornamental trees of the Pomoideae (Cotoneaster, Crataegus).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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G. molesta causes damage of varying importance on peaches, nectarines and apricots. The larvae of the first generation are mostly found in buds and shoots of peaches, but occasionally also on shoots of apricots, plums, almonds, cherries, apples, pears and quinces. In young trees when terminal twigs are attacked, several lateral shoots will appear below them and grow rapidly. Under severe and continued attack, the tree may become somewhat bushy. Severe attacks on the rapidly growing shoots of recently budded peaches result in crooked stems.

In harvested peaches there are two distinct types of injury. One is caused by larvae that have abandoned the twigs, feeding on, or entering into, the side of the fruit early in the season when the fruit is small. It is frequently called 'old injury'. The second type of damage is caused by entrance at the stem, called 'new injury', and occurs when the fruit is almost fully grown. This injury is caused by newly hatched larvae that go directly to the fruit. The surface indications of the presence of maggots in the fruit are frequently obscure and occasionally lacking, and only a small part of such injured fruit can be detected during grading. The loss sustained by growers from this type of injury is in reduced prices for their fruit (USDA, 1958). In France, this pattern of injury is characteristically seen on nectarines. On downy-skinned peaches, the reverse may be seen (early attacks at the stalk, later attacks at the side of the fruit). G. molesta damage also favours brown-rot infection (Monilinia spp.). Fruits of other species are also occasionally attacked in the vicinity of peach orchards.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / internal feeding
Leaves / wilting
Stems / dieback
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting

Biology and Ecology

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The number of generations per year varies from four to six in the Black Sea region of Russia (Moiseeva, 1982), and depends on climatic conditions. In Italy, the flight of G. molesta normally begins in the second half of March. There are four to five distinct peaks of adult flight in April, June, July, August and September (Graziano and Viggiani, 1981). The adults of the first generation survive 30-40 days, compared with 11-17 in later generations (Enukidze, 1981). Egg deposition usually begins 2-5 days after the females emerge and continues for 7-10 days or longer. The eggs are laid singly and each female lays 50-200 eggs. In peach orchards, especially on young trees, most of the eggs are found on the under-surface of leaves near the tips of growing twigs. In quince and apple orchards the eggs are placed on the upper surface of the leaves (USDA, 1958).

G. molesta passes the winter as a full-grown larva in a cocoon. The cocoons are found in cracks and other rough places on the tree, under flakes of bark, under old bark wounds and in holes in twigs exposed by pruning. They are also found on the ground beneath infested trees, where they occur in the dried remains of fruits, in the stems of stubble and even in cracks of the soil. Early in the spring, at temperatures above 10°C, pupation takes place. The duration of the pupal stage averages 16 days, compared with a mean of 7 days in summer (Enukidze, 1981).

The larval development lasts 6-22 days, varying with temperature, humidity and feeding conditions. In spring the larvae infest the young shoots of numerous fruit trees, while in summer they feed on fruits. G. molesta attacks both wild and cultivated trees, but appears to prefer the latter.

The summer cocoons, covering the full-grown larvae and the pupae, may be found on fruit, in axils of twigs, and under pieces of bark.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agathis diversa Parasite Larvae USA peaches
Apistephialtes laspeyresiae Parasite USA peaches
Ascogaster quadridentatus Parasite Larvae Australia; USA peaches
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bassus conspicuus Parasite Larvae USA peaches
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Charmon extensor Parasite Larvae USA peaches
Copidosoma Parasite Eggs
Copidosoma floridanum Parasite Eggs
Copidosoma koehleri Parasite Eggs
Diadegma molestae Parasite Larvae Australia; USA peaches
Dibrachys cavus Parasite
Dolichogenidea anarsiae Parasite Larvae USA peaches
Elodia flavipalpis Parasite Larvae USA peaches
Eupelmus annulatus Parasite USA peaches
Eurytoma pini Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Eurytoma verticillata Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Glabridorsum stokesii Parasite
Glypta haesitator Parasite USA peaches
Glypta rufiscutellaris Parasite Larvae Australia; Italy; Japan peaches
Granulosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Ischnus stokesii Parasite USA peaches
Itoplectis alternans Parasite
Macrocentrus ancylivora Parasite Larvae Argentina;Australia;Brazil;Canada;Chile;France;Italy;Japan;Ontario;South Australia;Uruguay;USA;USSR fruit trees; peaches
Macrocentrus delicatus Parasite Larvae Australia; Italy peaches
Macrocentrus thoracicus Parasite Larvae USA peaches
Mesochorus iwatensis Parasite
Orgilus longiceps Parasite Larvae USA peaches
Parasierola angulata Parasite USA peaches
Phaeogenes haeusslier Parasite USA peaches
Phanerotoma grapholithae Parasite Larvae
Pristomerus vulnerator Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Trathala flavoorbitalis Parasite USA peaches
Trichogramma dendrolimi Parasite
Trichogramma funiculatum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma ivelae Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Trichomma enecator Parasite Eggs USA peaches

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

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G. molesta is a serious pest of economic importance of commercial stone and pome fruits around the world. G. molesta damages peaches, nectarines, plums, cherries, apricots, apples, pears, quinces and nashi (Asian pears) and can also attack and cause economic damage on other commercial fruits. In severe attacks, young trees can suffer distortion of growing shoots and stems, which makes pruning, training and shaping the tree canopy difficult, particularly for close-planting industrial systems such as Tatura trellis. One larva can damage many shoots by tunnelling deep into young shoot tips. Larvae move to feed on the green fruits usually after shoots mature and harden. One larva can damage many fruits, particularly when fruits are located close to each other.
 
In general, later maturing fruit varieties are more heavily damaged than early ones, as the populations build up during the growing season. Therefore, even relatively low populations of G. molesta can cause a severe economic damage (Rothschild and Vickers, 1991). Attacks on fruits considerably reduce their quality and their market value. Initial G. molesta fruit damage also attracts secondary pests, such as nitidulid beetles (Carpophilus spp.), which act as vectors of  brown rot (Monilinia spp.) fungal infection (Hossain et al., 2006).

Detection and Inspection

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The first signs of G. molesta infestation at the beginning of the growing season usually include clearly visible wilting, drying and brown lateral shoot tips (Il’ichev et al., 2003).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Damage by G. molesta on shoots and fruits can be similar to that of Anarsia lineatella.

Prevention and Control

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Cultural Control

Removing pruned material, as well as post-harvest fruits left on the tree and on the ground, can reduce the impact of G. molesta on orchards.

Chemical Control

Orchards can be protected against G. molesta by means of chemical control combined with cultural methods. Insecticide sprays can target newly hatched larvae, but applications are generally more effective if applied when G. molesata is capable of flight, preferably targeting the second and subsequent generations (Rice et al., 1996). The most appropriate time for insecticide application can be forecast by means of sex pheromone traps, which survey population levels and detect periods of flight. Early season insecticide treatments can reduce G. molesta populations in spring and can be followed by mating disruption applications for effective long-season control of G. molesta (Trimble et al., 2001; Kovanci et al., 2005).

Biological Control

There are numerous records of natural enemies of G. molesta, but none have been able to achieve control in the countries where G. molesta is an introduced pest.

In Australia, unsuccessful attempts were made to introduce natural enemies from the USA and Japan during 1935-1939 (Wilson, 1960) and a further unsuccessful attempt was made to introduce the braconid wasp Macrocentrus ancylivorus from the USA during 1977-1979 (Bailey, 1979).

In the USA, many different species were imported and released during the 1930s and 1940s. Although some species became established, they did not control G. molesta (Clausen, 1978). Introductions of M. ancylivorus were also attempted in Canada (McLeod, 1962), where G. molesta was already present; Argentina (Clausen, 1978); Brazil, Chile and Uruguay (Altieri et al., 1989); France and Italy (Greathead, 1976) and the former USSR (Izhevskii, 1988). Although M. ancylivorus became established in Argentina and the former USSR, no benefit resulted.

Investigations have been carried out on the use of biological control against G. molesta. Sprays of Bacillus thuringiensis have been found to have some effect against this pest.

Pheromonal Control

Pheromone-mediated mating disruption (MD) is now a major tool of long-term sustainable and area-wide integrated pest management (IPM) systems in horticulture. The release of large quantities of sex pheromone into a target crop can disrupt mate location and prevent or delay mating, thus reducing egg fertilisation and pest damage (Williams and Il’ichev, 2003).

Rothschild (1975) demonstrated that MD treatments could be as effective in controlling G. molesta as insecticides. Later research (Vickers et al., 1985) suggested that MD may become even more effective when all orchards in a district are treated, so as to reduce the likelihood of mated females migrating from untreated areas. In Australian orchards, hand-applied MD dispensers have been used successfully for long-term sustainable control of G. molesta for over 30 years. The initial approach was to treat individual orchard blocks and only known hosts with MD; however, an increase of G. molesta damage on the borders of MD treated blocks encouraged an area-wide application of MD for better crop protection (Il’ichev et al., 1999). An area-wide MD program, with more than 1,100 ha of 40 contiguous orchards covered with MD dispensers, applied to all fruit trees in northern Victoria, Australia, substantially improved protection against G. molesta damage (Il’ichev et al., 2002).

Long-term MD treatments have also been used successfully in many commercial orchards in Europe (Audemard et al., 1989; Zakharenko and Il’ichev, 2003; Witzgall and Arn, 1997), South Africa (Barnes and Blomefield, 1997) and America (Pree et al, 1994; Kovanci et al., 2004).

Although successful, an area-wide MD program to control G. molesta is expensive. To reduce the cost of an area-wide MD program, only infested blocks and border areas can be treated with MD (Il’ichev et al., 2004). Such a selective approach successfully controlled localised pest outbreaks and areas of increased infestation. Other trials investigated use of a reduced application rate of MD hand-applied dispensers (Il’ichev and Sexton, 2002), barrier MD treatments (Il’ichev et al., 2004) and new MD products, including sprayable microencapsulated sex pheromone formulations (Il’ichev et al., 2006), paraffin emulsion (Rice et al., 1997), wax-drop dispensers (Stelinski et al., 2005), aerosol puffers (Stelinski et al., 2007) and multispecies MD dispensers (Il’ichev et al., 2007). Sprayable microencapsulated pheromone products for MD have the advantage of easy application with standard spray equipment and compatibility with most insecticides and fungicides. Results of field trials demonstrated that fortnightly spray intervals provided G. molesta control equivalent to the performance of standard hand-applied MD dispensers and was more effective than monthly applications (Il’ichev et al., 2006). New multispecies hand-applied MD dispensers were also evaluated in seasonally replicated trials in Victoria, Australia, and Michigan, USA, over three years (Il’ichev and Williams, 2006).

Monitoring

Sex pheromone-based monitoring is the most effective survey method for detecting pest insects. It can be used for early detection and warning of pest invasion, taxonomic and biodiversity investigations, population density and dispersion trends estimation, forecasting and threshold determination, mapping of pest infested areas and risk assessment, recommendation of treatments and timing of application, measuring of treatment efficacy and impact on pest density (Sexton and Il’ichev, 2000).

Timing of chemical treatments can be determined by monitoring with sex pheromone traps and accumulation of degree-days (Rice et al., 1996). Different trap designs and sex pheromone lures were compared in field trials which suggested that sex pheromone traps could be used for monitoring seasonal abundance and determining biofix dates (male catches) for phenology models (Zalom, 1994).

Fermenting brown sugar, molasses, fruit juices and port wine have been used as bait traps to attract G. molesta males and females in fruit orchards, but were not species specific and also attracted many beneficial insects and pollinators (Yetter and Steiner, 1931). The addition of terpinyl acetate to fermenting brown sugar solution traps increased the attractiveness of bait traps to G. molesta males and, most importantly, mated females.

A comparison of sex pheromone and bait trap catches over a number of seasons in Australia demonstrated that they both recorded similar infestation figures and peak moth numbers (Rothschild et al., 1984). Sex pheromone traps designed to attract males in conventional orchards are not reliable under mating disruption. However, terpinyl acetate-fermenting brown sugar solution traps effectively attract G. molesta males and females in orchards under mating disruption treatment (Il’ichev et al., 1999; Il’ichev et al., 2002).

Recently, attempts had been made to combine both traps in one and use it for monitoring of G. molesta in disrupted orchards in Argentina and conventional orchards in Chile (Cichon et al., 2012). New host-plant attractants have recently been tested to improve pest monitoring, particularly for mated females of G. molesta in orchards treated with mating disruption (Il’ichev et al., 2009; Lu et al., 2012).

References

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Altieri MA; Trujillo J; Campos L; Klein-Koch C; Gold CS; Quezada JR, 1989. Classical biological control in Latin America in its historical context. Manejo Integrado de Plagas, 12:82-107.

Audemard H; Leblon C; Neumann U; Marboutie G, 1989. Evaluation of seven years of control experiments against the Oriental fruit moth Cydia molesta Busck (Lep., Tortricidae) by mating disruption. Journal of Applied Entomology, 108(2):191-207

Bailey P, 1979. An attempt to control oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta Busck. by mass releases of Macrocentrus ancylivorus Rohwer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 18(3):211-212

Baker RT, 1982. Oriental fruit moth in New Zealand. In: MJ Hartley, ed. Proceedings of the Thirty-Fifth New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference. Waikato Motor Hotel, August 9th to 12th, 1982. New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Inc. Palmerston North, New Zealand, 17-21

Balachowsky AS, 1966. Entomologie appliquée à l' agriculture. Tome II. LépidoptFres, 1er Volume. Masson et Cie, Paris.

Barnes BN; Blomefield TL, 1997. Goading growers towards mating disruption: the South African experience with Grapholita molesta and Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). In: Bulletin OILB/SROP, 20(1) [ed. by P. Witzgall\H. Arn]. 45-56.

Bellerose S; Chouinard G; Roy M, 2007. Occurrence of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in major apple-growing areas of southern Quebec. Canadian Entomologist, 139(2):292-295. http://pubservices.nrc-cnrc.ca/rp-ps/absres.jsp?jcode=ent&ftl=n06-058&lang=eng

Blomefield TL; Geertsema H3, 1990. First record of the Oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinp), a serious pest of peaches, in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 22(3):355-357

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Cichon L; Fuentes-Contreras E; Garrido S; Lago J; Barros-Parada W; Basoalto E; Hilton R; Knight A, 2013. Monitoring oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with sticky traps baited with terpinyl acetate and sex pheromone. Journal of Applied Entomology, 137(4):275-281. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418

CIE, 1990. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A No. 8, 2nd revision. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Enukidze NE, 1981. The biology of the oriental fruit moth in Abkhazia. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 6:38

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Gonzalez RH, 1978. Introduction and spread of agricultural pests in Latin America: analysis and prospects. Plant Protection Bulletin, FAO, 26(2):41-52

Graziano V; Viggiani G, 1981. Observations for four years on the flight and on the control of Cydia molesta (Busck) and Anarsia lineatella (Zell.) in peach orchards in Campania by means of synthetic pheromone traps. Annali della Facolta di Scienze Agraria della Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Portici, 15(2):93-110

Greathead DJ, 1976. A review of biological control in western and southern Europe. Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Technical Communication, No. 7. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 182 pp.

Hang HaiLong; Yan KeFeng; Sun XueHua; Ma JianXia, 2000. Investigation on the kinds of fruit moth in the western part of Henan province and their control. China Fruits, No. 2:44-45.

Hossain MS; Williams DG; Mansfield C; Bartelt RJ; Callinan L; Il'ichev AL, 2006. An attract-and-kill system to control Carpophilus spp. in Australian stone fruit orchards. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 118(1):11-19. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=eea

Il'ichev AL; Gut LJ; Williams DG; Hossain MS; Jerie PH, 2002. Area-wide approach for improved control of oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by mating disruption. General and Applied Entomology, 31:7-15.

Il'ichev AL; Hossain MS; Jerie PH, 1999. Migration of Oriental Fruit Moth Grapholita molesta Busk. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) under wide area mating disruption in Victoria, Australia. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Proceedings of the biennial meeting of the Working Group "Stone Fruit", held between 19th-22nd August 1998, in Godollo, Hungary.], 22(11):53-62.

Il'ichev AL; Kugimiya S; Williams DG; Takabayashi J, 2009. Volatile Compounds from Young Peach Shoots attract Males of Oriental Fruit Moth in the Field. Journal of Plant Interactions, 4(4):289-294.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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19/08/14 text updated by:

Alex Il'ichev, Department of Primary Industries Victoria, Australia

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