Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Grapholita funebrana
(red plum maggot)

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Datasheet

Grapholita funebrana (red plum maggot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Grapholita funebrana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red plum maggot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Plum fruit damaged by C. funebrana larvae.
TitleDamage symptoms on plum fruit
CaptionPlum fruit damaged by C. funebrana larvae.
CopyrightFabio Molinari
Plum fruit damaged by C. funebrana larvae.
Damage symptoms on plum fruitPlum fruit damaged by C. funebrana larvae.Fabio Molinari
Larva in a plum fruit.
TitleLarva
CaptionLarva in a plum fruit.
CopyrightFabio Molinari
Larva in a plum fruit.
LarvaLarva in a plum fruit.Fabio Molinari
Adult males on a pheromone trap.
TitleAdult males
CaptionAdult males on a pheromone trap.
CopyrightFabio Molinari
Adult males on a pheromone trap.
Adult malesAdult males on a pheromone trap.Fabio Molinari

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Grapholita funebrana Treitschke

Preferred Common Name

  • red plum maggot

Other Scientific Names

  • Carpocapsa funebrana (Treitschke)
  • Cydia funebrana (Treitschke, 1835)
  • Enarmonia funebrana (Treitschke)
  • Grapholitha funebrana (Treitschke)
  • Laspeyresia funebrana (Treitschke)
  • Opadia funebrana (Treitschke)
  • Tortrix funebrana (Treitschke)

International Common Names

  • English: plum fruit moth; prune moth
  • Spanish: gusano de las ciruelas; polilla de las ciruelas
  • French: carpocapse des prunes; carpocapse ver des prunes; ver des prunes
  • Portuguese: bichado das ameixas

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: blommevikler
  • Finland: kriikunakääriäinen
  • Germany: Pflaumenmade; Pflaumen-Wickler
  • Hungary: szilvamoly
  • Italy: cidia delle susine; tignola delle susine; verme delle susine
  • Netherlands: Pruimemot; Pruimenmade
  • Norway: plommevikler
  • Sweden: plommonvecklare
  • Turkey: erik ic kurdu

EPPO code

  • LASPFU (Cydia funebrana)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Tortricidae
  •                             Genus: Grapholita
  •                                 Species: Grapholita funebrana

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, LocalizedBalachowsky and Mesnil (1935); EPPO (2020)

Asia

ArmeniaPresentKasumyan and Mnatsakanyan (1986); EPPO (2020)
AzerbaijanPresentKostandyan (1990); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-JilinPresentKang et al. (1989)
-LiaoningPresentWOO (1961); EPPO (2020)
GeorgiaPresentEPPO (2020)
IranPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
JapanAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)CABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), 2016, personal communication to CABI
KazakhstanPresentEPPO (2020)
KyrgyzstanPresentEPPO (2020)
SyriaPresentEPPO (2020)
TajikistanPresentEPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentEPPO (2020)
TurkmenistanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
UzbekistanPresentPospielov (1914); Atanov and Gummel' (1991); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentEPPO (2020)
AustriaPresent, WidespreadBöhm (1948); Pindur (1980); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BelgiumPresentBelmans (1993); EPPO (2020)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentBatinica and Muratovic (1972); Radman and Batinica (1980); EPPO (2020)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadTchorbadzhiev (1925); Tchorbadzhiev (1929); Vasev (1985); Velcheva and Atanassov (2016); EPPO (2020)
CroatiaPresentEPPO (2020)
CyprusPresentMorris (1938); EPPO (2020)
CzechiaPresent, WidespreadKomarek (1987); Hrdý et al. (1989); Hrdý et al. (1994); EPPO (2020)
CzechoslovakiaPresent, WidespreadKomarek (1987); Molnár (1988); Hrdý et al. (1989); Hrdý et al. (1994); EPPO (2014)
DenmarkPresentFerdinandsen and Rostrop (1920); EPPO (2020)
EstoniaPresentEPPO (2020)
FinlandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
FrancePresent, LocalizedTouzeau (1972); Touzeau (1975); Carlot (1993); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GreecePresentCABI (Undated a)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadPapp (1972); EPPO (2020)
IrelandPresentCABI (Undated a)
ItalyPresentMolinari (1995); Molinari et al. (1997); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
-SicilyPresentEPPO (2020)
LatviaPresentCABI (Undated a)
LithuaniaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
LuxembourgPresentCABI (Undated a)
NetherlandsPresentEPPO (2020)
NorwayPresent, LocalizedSchoyen (1917); EPPO (2020)
PolandPresentKagan and Lewartowski (1978); Walczak et al. (1993); Kozłowski (1994); EPPO (2020)
PortugalPresentCABI (Undated a)
RomaniaPresentEPPO (2020)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Eastern SiberiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Russia (Europe)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Russian Far EastPresentEPPO (2020)
-SiberiaPresentSundukova et al. (1988); Glazunova (1994)
-Western SiberiaPresentEPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
SlovakiaPresent, WidespreadHrdý et al. (1994)
SloveniaPresentEPPO (2020)
SpainPresentEPPO (2020)
SwedenPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentKudina and Misyurenko (1987); EPPO (2020)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-EnglandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-ScotlandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / frass visible
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / obvious exit hole
Fruit / premature drop

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Angitia exareolata Parasite Larvae
Ascogaster quadridentatus Parasite Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Brachymeria rugulosa Parasite Turkmenistan plums
Bracon hebetor Parasite Larvae
Dibrachys cavus Parasite Turkmenistan plums
Ephialtes Parasite Larvae
Eurytoma verticillata Parasite
Hockeria micula Parasite
Iconella laspeyresiella Parasite Larvae
Lissonota artemisiae Parasite Larvae
Mesostenus transfuga Parasite
Pimpla spuria Parasite Turkmenistan plums
Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata Parasite
Trichogramma cacoeciae Parasite Eggs Germany
Trichogramma dendrolimi Parasite
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma telengai Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma turkeiensis Parasite Eggs
Venturia canescens Parasite

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Anon., 1972. Annual report for 1972 of the Rhineland-Palatinate Regional Plant Protection Service. CA: German Federal Republic, Landespflanzenschutzdienst Rheinland-Pfalz., 90 pp.

Arn H; Delley B; Baggiolini M; Charmillot PJ, 1976. Communication disruption with sex attractant for control of the plum fruit moth, Grapholitha funebrana: a two-year field study. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 19(2):139-147.

Atanov NM; Gummel' eR, 1991. Pheromone traps. Zashchita Rastenii^breve~ (Moskva), No. 3:49-50.

Audemard H, 1992. Mating disruption control in stone fruit orchards. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 15(5):43-51.

Baker CRB, 1963. Notes on the larvae and pupae of two fruit moths, Grapholita funebrana Treitschke and G. molesta Busck (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (A), 38:212-222.

Balachowsky A; Mesnil L, 1935. Laspeyresia funebrana Treits. In: Balachowsky A, Mesnil L 'Les insectes nuisibles aux plantes cultivées', Paris, France, 161-164.

Batinica J, 1970. A contribution to knowledge of the elements for determining the economic threshold of injuriousness for the species Grapholitha funebrana Tr. Zastita Bilja, 21(110/111):309-314.

Batinica J; Muratovic S, 1972. Importance of the plum moth (Grapholitha funebrana Tr.) for the plum variety 'Bilska rana'. Zastita Bilja, 23(117/118):11-24.

Belmans K, 1993. Integrated control in plums. Fruitteelt, 6(17):6-7.

Bhardwaj SP, 1987. Investigations on the response of lepidopteran sex pheromones of temperate fruit pests in Himachal Pradesh, India. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 19(1):87-91.

Bollow H; Otte W, 1963. Anleitung zur erkennung der drei hSufigsten wicklerraupen des Stein- und Kernobstes. Pfl. Sch. Informationen Bayr. Landesanst. f. Pfl. Bau u. Pfl. Schutz, 5:1-7.

Bovey P, 1937. Recherches sur le Carpocapse des prunes Laspeyresia (Grapholita) funebrana Tr.. Revue de Pathologie végétale et d'entomologie agricole de France, 24:189-317.

Bovey P, 1966. Super-famille des Tortricoidea. Les carpocapse des prunes. In: Balachowsky AS "Entomologie appliquée à l'agriculture", Vol. II (1), Ed. Masson et Cie, Paris, 746-763.

Bradley JD; Tremewan WG; Smith A, 1979. British tortricoid moths. Tortricidae: Olethreutinae. British tortricoid moths. Tortricidae: Olethreutinae. London, UK: The Ray Society, 336.

Böhm H, 1948. Investigation on the biology and control of the plum tortricid. Pflanzenschutzberichte, 2:1-15.

Carlot D, 1993. Phytosanitary protection. Arboriculture Fruitiere, No. 460:23-25.

Charmillot PJ, 1991. Possibilities and limitations of selective methods of control of tortricid pests of orchards. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 23(6):363-374; 83 ref.

Charmillot PJ; Blaser C, 1982. Mating disruption against the plum fruit moth (Grapholitha funebrana Tr.): II. Contribution to the study of adult behaviour and observations on the persistence of the attractant in dipensers. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 55(1/2):65-76

Charmillot PJ; Blaser C; Baggiolini M; Arn H; Delley B, 1982. Mating disruption against the plum fruit moth (Grapholitha funebrana Tr.): I. Control trials in orchards. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 55(1/2):55-63.

Charmillot PJ; Vallier R; Tagini-Rosset S, 1979. Plum fruit moth: (Grapholitha funebrana Tr.): a study of the cycle of development in relation to temperature sums and observations on the activity of adult moths. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 52(1):19-33.

Cravedi P; Molinari F, 1993. Synthetic pheromones in integrated pest management in peach and plum orchards in Italy. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 16(10):170-173.

Danilevski AS, 1958. The species of fruit moths (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Carposidinae, Tortricidae) injurious to fruit trees in the Far East. Rev. Ent. URSS, 37:282-293.

Danilevsky AS; Kuznetsov VI, 1968. Tortricidae: Laspeyresiini. Fauna SSSR, 5(1):1-635.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fedorinchik NS; Sogoyan RS, 1975. Microbial preparations for the control of tortricids in orchards on the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar region. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii, 42:110-121.

Ferdinandsen C; Rostrop S, 1920. Report on insect pests and fungus diseases of the field and orchard in 1918. Tidsskrift for Planteavl, Copenhagen, 26:683-733.

Geest LPS van der; Evenhuis HH(Editors), 1991. Tortricid pests: their biology, natural enemies and control. Amsterdam, Netherlands; Elsevier Science Publishers, xviii + 808 pp.

Ghizdavu J, 1982. Test on control of the plum moth, Grapholitha funebrana Tr., using the synthetic sex attractant. Revue Roumaine de Biologie, Biologie Animale, 27(2):145-154.

Glazunova IN, 1994. Insegar against tortricid plum moth. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), 11:33.

Glpser G, 1979. Report on the occurrence of important diseases and pests on cultivated plants in Austria in the year 1977. Pflanzenschutzberichte, 45(7/12):153-164.

G'onev G, 1975. Integrated and biological control in apple and plum orchards in the Stara Zagora district. Rastitelna Zashchita, 23(9):31-34.

Hassan SA, 1993. The mass rearing and utilization of Trichogramma to control lepidopterous pests: achievements and outlook. Pesticide Science, 37(4):387-391.

Hrdy I; Liska J; Hochmut R, 1989. New records on sex attractants for males and faunistic comments on moths (Lepidoptera) from Czechoslovakia. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 86(4):252-268.

Hrdy I; Marek J; Krampl F; Kuldovß J; Barabßs L, 1994. Distribution of the fruit tree pests Cydia molesta, Cydia funebrana and Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, Gelechiidae) in former Czechoslovakia as recorded by pheromone traps. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae, 58(1-2):53-60; 25 ref.

Ilieva S, 1973. The results of yield trials. 1. Control of Cydia funebrana and Tranzschelia pruni-spinosae. Rastitelna Zashchita, 21(3):5-6.

Kagan F; Lewartowski R, 1978. Characteristics of development, intensity of occurrence and noxiousness of the more important pests of fruit trees and small fruits in Poland in 1976. Biuletyn Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 62:331-421.

Kang ZX; Zhang FY; Sun Q; Lu X; Guo MZ, 1989. Application of sex attractant of Grapholitha molesta for forecasting and control of Grapholitha funebrana. Insect Knowledge, 26(3):142-145.

Karsholt O; Razowski J, 1996. The Lepidoptera of Europe: a distributional checklist. Stenstrup, Denmark: Apollo Books, 380 pp.

Kasumyan SA; Mnatsakanyan LS, 1986. When should the plum fruit moth be controlled? Zashchita Rastenii, 7:42.

Komai F, 1991. A taxonomic review of the genus Grapholita and allied genera (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the Palaearctic region. Entomologica Scandinavica, Supplement 55:226 pp.

Komarek S, 1987. Study on the species composition and the population dynamics of the family Tortricidae in some orchards in southern Bohemia using pheromone traps. Pflanzenschutzberichte, 48(1):2-23.

Kostandyan LV, 1990. Prognosis of the times of oviposition of the plum tortricid by the method of Podol'skii. Sadovodstvo i Vinogradarstvo, 5:19-20.

Kostrovsky K, 1914. Cydia (Grapholita) funebrana, Tr., its bionomics and methods of fighting it. Agriculture of Turkestan, 133-138.

Kozlowski J, 1994. Forecasting the occurrence and signalling the control date of the plum moth (Laspeyresia funebrana Tr.) in Wielkopolska. Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Ros^acute~lin, 35(1/2):48-52; 5 ref.

Kudina ZhD; Misyurenko IP, 1987. Attractiveness of the pheromone of the Oriental peach moth to tortricids. Zashchita Rastenii, 4:51.

Lipa JJ, 1975. Achievements in biological control in Poland during 1945-1975 and prospects for the future. Biuletyn Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 59:39-54.

Mani E; Arn H; Wildbolz T; Hauri H, 1978. A field trial of the mating disruption technique for the control of the plum fruit moth at high population density. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 51(4):307-313.

Meier NF, 1941. Results of the work of the laboratory of biological control at the Institute for Plant Protection. 121-124.

Miatello H, 1913. Enfermedades del ciruelo. Gaceta Rural, Buenos Aires, 76:333-337.

Molinari F, 1995. Notes on the biology and monitoring of Cydia funebrana (Treitschke). Bulletin OILB/SROP, 18(2):39-42.

Molinari F; Tiso R; Butturini A, 1997. Field validation of a developmental model for Cydia funebrana (Treitschke) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in northern Italy. In: Cravedi P, Hartfield C, Mazzoni E, eds. Proceedings of the meeting on Integrated plant protection in stone fruit, Zaragoza, Spain, 24-26/9/1996, Bulletin OILB/SROP 20(6):1-115.

Molnar J, 1988. Observation of flight time of the plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana Tr.) in relation to temperature. Vedecke Prace Vyskumneho Ustavu Ovocnych a Okrasnych a Okrasnych Drevin v Bojniciach, 7:69-81.

Morris HM, 1938. Annual Report of the Entomologist for 1937. Rep. Dep. Agric. Cyprus, 1937, 42-47.

Muesebeck CFW, 1932. Revision of the Nearctic Ichneumon-flies belonging to the genus Macrocentrus. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. Art. 23, n. 2923, 55.

Papp J, 1972. New Apanteles Forst. species from Hungary (Hymenoptera, Braconidae: Microgasterinae), I. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 64:335-345.

Pindur W, 1980. Practical experiences of the plant protection warning service in fruit culture. In: Proceedings of the international symposium of IOBC/WPRS on integrated control in agriculture, forestry. Workshop sessions. Vienna, Austria: International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section, 403.

Popova AI, 1971. The biology of the plum fruit worm Grapholitha funebrana Tr. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar territory. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 50(2):323-334.

Pospielov Th, 1914. A short review of the state of agriculture in the district of Katta-Kurgan in 1913. Agriculture of Turkestan. 6:560-569.

Radetsky AF, 1913. Carpocapsa pomonella, L., in the territory of Turkestan and the struggle against it. Turkestan Entomological Station Reports. Tashkent, 52.

Radman L; Batinica J, 1980. The advantages of supervised control on the plum tree against injurious insects and diseases in Yugoslavia (Bosna i Hercegovina). In: Proceedings of the international symposium of IOBC/WPRS on integrated control in agriculture, forestry. Workshop sessions. Vienna, Austria: International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section. 586-587.

Razowski J; Kumata T, 1985. Typenkatalog der von S. Matsumura beschriebenen Microlepidopteren. Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 17:1-28.

Saparmamedova NK, 1988. On the study of natural enemies of the plum moth Grapholitha funebrana Tr. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in the Prikopetdag zone. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR. Seriya Biologicheskikh Nauk, 4:40-43.

Saparmamedova NK, 1988. The role of entomophages in reducing the numbers of the plum tortricid in the foothill zone of the Koptedag. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR. Seriya Biologicheskikh Nauk, 3:34-38.

Saringer G; Deseö KV, 1972. The annual development of the plum fruit moth (Grapholitha funebrana Tr., Lep.; Tortricidae) in Hungary. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 7(4):427-438.

Schoyen TH, 1917. Beretning over Plantesygdome i Norge 1916. [Report on Plant Diseases in Norway in 1916]. Saertryk ur Landtbruksdirectörens Aarsberetning for 1916, Christiania, 1917, 37-85.

Seskevicius A, 1977. The effectiveness of Trichogramma against orchard pests. Lietuvos Zemdirbystes Mokslinio Tyrimo Instituto Darbai, 21:77-82.

Sogoyan RS, 1967. Tests with Entobakterin and Boverin against the plum fruit moth in the Black Sea zone of the Krasnodar territory. Byulleten Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchty Rastenii, 2(10):12-15.

Sogoyan RS, 1976. Biological data on fruit moths. Zashchita Rastenii, 12:33.

Stamenkovic T; Stamenkovic S; Pantelic Z, 1984. The population dynamics of Cydia (Laspeyresia) funebrana Treitsche (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) and its harmfulness. Zastita Bilja, 35(2):141-151.

Staubli A; Hohn H, 1988. The enemies of our orchards. A new series of 8 colour plates. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 20(6):347-354, 359-366.

Sundukova NE; Sazonov AP; Baryakina IK, 1988. Possibilities for the use of synthetic sex pheromones to control the plum fruit moth. Feromony nasekomykh i razrabotka putei ikh prakticheskogo ispol'zovaniya (Sazonov, AP, ed.). Leningrad, USSR; Vsesoyuzyni Nauchno-issledovatel'skii Institut Zashchity Rastenii, 87-94.

Tchorbadzhiev P, 1925. A review of injurious insects in Bulgaria in 1924 and their control. Mitt. bulgar. ent. Ges., 57-61.

Tchorbadzhiev P, 1929. Pests of cultivated plants in Bulgaria during 1927. Svedeniya po Zemled. Period. Byul., 10:3-59.

Telenga NA, 1939. Testing Trichogramma evanescens Westw. for the control of Laspeyresia funebrana Tr. Bull. Plant Prot., 1:77-78.

Touzeau J, 1972. The plum moth in France in the years 1966-1970. Phytoma, 24(236):21-28.

Touzeau J, 1975. Preliminary investigations for the introduction of integrated control in orchards of Ente plums in the region of Agen. Groupe de Travail pour la Lutte Integree en Arboriculture: Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Integrated Control in Orchards. Bolzano, 3-7 ix. 1974.: Comptes rendus du 5eme symposium sur la lutte integree en vergers. Bolzano, 3-7 ix. 1974. Wageningen, Netherlands: Section Regionale Ouest Palearctique, Organisation Internationale de Lutte Biologique contre les Animaux et les Plantes Nuisibles, 199-210.

Touzeau J, 1979. The use of sexual traps for agricultural warnings and risk forecasting. Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie Animale, 11(4):547-563.

Touzeau J, 1980. Use of pheromone traps in agricultural warning systems. Bulletin, Organization Europeenne et Mediterraneenne pour la Protection des Plantes, 10:97-104.

USDA, 1984. Pests not known to occur in the United States or of limited distribution. Plum fruit moth, Cydia funebrana, No. 49., USA: USDA.

Vasev A, 1985. Studies on damage, fruit quality and effectiveness of plant protection in plum orchards. Pochvoznanie, Agrokhimiya i Rastitelna Zashchita, 20(6):85-92.

Velcheva N; Atanassov A, 2016. Species diversity of parasitods reared from codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus 1758) and plum fruit moth, Grapholita funebrana (Treitschke 1835) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Bulgaria. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 22(2):272-277. http://www.agrojournal.org/

Vernon JDR, 1971. Observation on the biology and control of the plum fruit moth. Plant Pathology, 20(3):106-110.

Viggiani G; Cancellara I, 1975. Observations on Grapholitha funebrana (Tr.) in Campania, with the use of a synthetic sexual attractant. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri', Portici, 32:131-139.

Walczak F; Grendowicz L; Kagan F; Piekarczyk K; Romankow-Zmudowska A, 1993. Harmfulness of most important agrophages of cultivated plants in Poland in 1992 and preliminary forecasting for 1993. Materiay Sesji Instytutu Ochrony Ros^acute~lin, 33(1):202-224; 3 ref.

Wiackowski SK; Kot J, 1962. Preliminary tests on the biological control of Cydia funebrana by the introduction of the egg-parasite T. cacoeciae. Zeszyt. Prob. Postep+w Nauk roln., 35:167-175.

Wiackowski SK; Wiackowska I, 1966. Biological, microbiological and chemical control of the plum moth Laspeyresia funebrana Tr. (Lep. Tortricidae) in Poland. Entomophaga, 11:261-267.

Wiackowski SK; Wiackowska I; Crumpacker J; Kot J, 1963. The biological control of the plum-moth Cydia funebrana by means of the egg-parasite T. cacoeciae. Part 2. The influence of the parasite on the first and second generation of the pest. Roczn. Nauk roln., 87 (A):545-557.

Woo Wei-Chün, 1961. A new record of two species of fruit tree pests from North China. Acta ent. sin., 4-6:395-400.

Zoebelein G, 1966. Problems of the control of injurious insects in agriculture in Iran. Anz. SchSdlingsk., 39:3-8.

Distribution References

Atanov N M, Gummel' Ė R, 1991. Pheromone traps. Zashchita Rasteniĭ (Moskva). 49-50.

Balachowsky A, Mesnil L, 1935. Laspeyresia funebrana Treits. (Laspeyresia funebrana Treits.). In: Les insectes nuisibles aux plantes cultivées'. [ed. by Balachowsky A, Mesnil L]. Paris, France: 161-164.

Batinica J, Muratovic S, 1972. Importance of the plum moth (Grapholitha funebrana Tr.) for the plum variety 'Bilska rana'. (Znacaj sljivinog savijaca (Grapholitha funebrana Tr.) za sortu sljive Bilska rana.). Zastita Bilja. 23 (117/118), 11-24.

Belmans K, 1993. Integrated control in plums. (Geïntegreerde bestrijding bij pruim.). Fruitteelt. 6 (17), 6-7.

Böhm H, 1948. Investigation on the biology and control of the plum tortricid. Pflanzenschutzberichte. 1-15.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Carlot D, 1993. Phytosanitary protection. (La protection phytosanitaire.). Arboriculture Fruitière. 23-25.

EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Ferdinandsen C, Rostrop S, 1920. Report on insect pests and fungus diseases of the field and orchard in 1918. Tidsskrift for Planteavl, Copenhagen. 683-733.

Glazunova I N, 1994. Insegar against tortricid plum moth. Zashchita Rasteniĭ (Moskva). 33.

Hrdý I, Liška J, Hochmut R, 1989. New records on sex attractants for males and faunistic comments on moths (Lepidoptera) from Czechoslovakia. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca. 86 (4), 252-268.

Hrdý I, Marek J, Krampl F, Kuldová J, Barabás L, 1994. Distribution of the fruit tree pests Cydia molesta, Cydia funebrana and Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, Gelechiidae) in former Czechoslovakia as recorded by pheromone traps. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae. 58 (1-2), 53-60.

Kagan F, Lewartowski R, 1978. Characteristics of development, intensity of occurrence and noxiousness of the more important pests of fruit trees and small fruits in Poland in 1976. (Charakterystyka rozwoju, nasilenia wystepowania i szkodliwosci wazniejszych szkodnikow drzew i krzewow owocowych w Polsce w roku 1976.). Biuletyn Instytutu Ochrony Roslin. 331-421.

Kang Z X, Zhang F Y, Sun Q, Lu X, Guo M Z, 1989. Application of sex attractant of Grapholitha molesta for forecasting and control of Grapholitha funebrana. Insect Knowledge. 26 (3), 142-145.

Kasumyan S A, Mnatsakanyan L S, 1986. When should the plum fruit moth be controlled? Zashchita Rasteniĭ. 42.

Komarek S, 1987. Study on the species composition and the population dynamics of the family Tortricidae in some orchards in southern Bohemia using pheromone traps. (Studie über das Artenspektrum und die Populationsdynamik der Familie Tortricidae in einigen Obstanlagen in Südböhmen unter Verwendung von Pheromonfallen.). Pflanzenschutzberichte. 48 (1), 2-23.

Kostandyan L V, 1990. Prognosis of the times of oviposition of the plum tortricid by the method of Podol'skii. Sadovodstvo i Vinogradarstvo. 19-20.

Kozłowski J, 1994. Forecasting the occurrence and signalling the control date of the plum moth (Laspeyresia funebrana Tr.) in Wielkopolska. (Prognoza występowania i sygnalizacja terminu zwalczanie owocówki śliwkóweczki (Laspeyresia funebrana Tr.) w Wielkopolsce.). Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Roślin. 35 (1/2), 48-52.

Kudina Zh D, Misyurenko I P, 1987. Attractiveness of the pheromone of the Oriental peach moth to tortricids. Zashchita Rasteniĭ. 51.

Molinari F, 1995. Notes on the biology and monitoring of Cydia funebrana (Treitschke). In: Bulletin OILB/SROP, 18 (2) 39-42.

Molinari F, Tiso R, Butturini A, 1997. Field validation of a developmental model for Cydia funebrana (Treitschke) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in northern Italy. In: Bulletin OILB/SROP [Integrated plant protection in stone fruit. Proceedings of the meeting at Zaragoza, Spain, 24-26 September 1996.], 20 (6) [ed. by Cravedi P, Hartfield C, Mazzoni E]. 25-30.

Molnár J, 1988. Observation of flight time of the plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana Tr.) in relation to temperature. (Sledovanie letu obal'ovača slivkového (Cydia funebrana Tr.) vo vzthacek˜ahu k teplote.). Vedecké Práce Výskumného Ústavu Ovocných a Okrasných a Okrasných Drevín v Bojniciach. 69-81.

Morris H M, 1938. Rep. Dep. Agric. Cyprus 1937. Nicosia. 42-47 pp.

Papp J, 1972. New Apanteles Forst. species from Hungary (Hymenoptera, Braconidae: Microgasterinae), I. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici. 335-345.

Pindur W, 1980. Practical experiences of the plant protection warning service in fruit culture. (Praktische Erfahrungen beim Pflanzenschutzwarndienst im Obstbau.). In: Workshop sessions. [Workshop sessions.], [ed. by Proceedings International symposium of IOBC/WPRS on integrated control in agriculture, forestry Vienna 8th-12th October 1979: Russ K, Berger H]. Vienna, Austria: International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section. 403.

Pospielov Th, 1914. A short review of the state of agriculture in the district of Katta-Kurgan in 1913. Agriculture of Turkestan. 560-569.

Radman L, Batinica J, 1980. The advantages of supervised control on the plum tree against injurious insects and diseases in Yugoslavia (Bosna i Hercegovina). (Les avantages de la defense dirigee du prunier contre les insectes nuisibles et la maladies en Yougoslavie (Bosnie et Hercegovine).). In: Workshop sessions. [Workshop sessions.], [ed. by Proceedings International symposium of IOBC/WPRS on integrated control in agriculture, forestry Vienna 8th-12th October 1979: Russ K, Berger H]. Vienna, Austria: International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section. 586-587.

Schoyen T H, 1917. Saertryk ur Landtbruksdirectörens Aarsberetning for 1916, Christiania, 1917. 37-85.

Sundukova N Ė, Sazonov A P, Baryakina I K, 1988. Possibilities for the use of synthetic sex pheromones to control the plum fruit moth. In: Feromony nasekomykh i razrabotka puteĭ ikh prakticheskogo ispol'zovaniya. [ed. by Sazonov AP]. Leningrad, USSR: Vsesoyuzyni Nauchno-issledovatel'skii Institut Zashchity Rastenii. 87-94.

Tchorbadzhiev P, 1925. A review of injurious insects in Bulgaria in 1924 and their control. Mitt. bulgar. ent. Ges. 57-61.

Tchorbadzhiev P, 1929. Pests of cultivated plants in Bulgaria during 1927. Svedeniya po Zemled. period. Byul. 3-59.

Touzeau J, 1972. The plum moth in France in the years 1966-1970. (Le carpocapse des prunes en France au cours des annees 1966-1970.). Phytoma. 24 (236), 21-28.

Touzeau J, 1975. Preliminary investigations for the introduction of integrated control in orchards of Ente plums in the region of Agen. (Etudes preliminaires a l'introduction de la lutte integree en vergers de pruniers d'Ente dans la region d'Agen.). In: Groupe de Travail pour la Lutte Integree en Arboriculture: Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Integrated Control in Orchards. Bolzano, 3-7 ix. 1974.: Comptes rendus du 5eme symposium sur la lutte integree en vergers. Bolzano, 3-7 ix. 1974. [Groupe de Travail pour la Lutte Integree en Arboriculture: Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Integrated Control in Orchards. Bolzano, 3-7 ix. 1974.: Comptes rendus du 5eme symposium sur la lutte integree en vergers. Bolzano, 3-7 ix. 1974.], Wageningen, The, Netherlands: Section Regionale Ouest Palearctique, Organisation Internationale de Lutte Biologique contre les Animaux et les Plantes Nuisibles. 199-210.

Vasev A, 1985. Studies on damage, fruit quality and effectiveness of plant protection in plum orchards. Pochvoznanie, Agrokhimiya i Rastitelna Zashchita. 20 (6), 85-92.

Velcheva N, Atanassov A, 2016. Species diversity of parasitods reared from codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus 1758) and plum fruit moth, Grapholita funebrana (Treitschke 1835) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Bulgaria. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 22 (2), 272-277. http://www.agrojournal.org/

Walczak F, Grendowicz L, Kagan F, Piekarczyk K, Romankow-Żmudowska A, 1993. Harmfulness of most important agrophages of cultivated plants in Poland in 1992 and preliminary forecasting for 1993. (Szkodliwość ważniejszych agrofagów roślin uprawnych w Polsce w 1992 roku oraz wstępne prognozy na rok 1993.). Materiały Sesji Instytutu Ochrony Roślin. 33 (1), 202-224.

WOO Wei-chün, 1961. A new record of two species of fruit tree pests from North China. Acta Entomologica Sinica. 10 (4-6), 395-400 pp.

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