Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Lasius neglectus
(invasive garden ant)



Lasius neglectus (invasive garden ant)


  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lasius neglectus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • invasive garden ant
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Lasius neglectus, known as the invasive garden ant, is a recent arrival in Europe from the Middle East, first recognised in Hungary in 1990. Some populations have attained pest status but at other sites, the ant...

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Lasius neglectus (invasive garden ant); worker, museum set specimen. Origin, Belgium. First discovered in the United Kingdom at Hidcote Manor, Gloucestershire (August, 2009), the invasive garden ant is native to eastern Asia.
TitleWorker, museum set specimen.
CaptionLasius neglectus (invasive garden ant); worker, museum set specimen. Origin, Belgium. First discovered in the United Kingdom at Hidcote Manor, Gloucestershire (August, 2009), the invasive garden ant is native to eastern Asia.
CopyrightApril Nobile/© - CC-BY-SA-3.0
Lasius neglectus (invasive garden ant); worker, museum set specimen. Origin, Belgium. First discovered in the United Kingdom at Hidcote Manor, Gloucestershire (August, 2009), the invasive garden ant is native to eastern Asia.
Worker, museum set specimen.Lasius neglectus (invasive garden ant); worker, museum set specimen. Origin, Belgium. First discovered in the United Kingdom at Hidcote Manor, Gloucestershire (August, 2009), the invasive garden ant is native to eastern Asia.April Nobile/© - CC-BY-SA-3.0


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lasius neglectus Van Loon, Boomsma & Andrásfalvy, 1990

Preferred Common Name

  • invasive garden ant

Summary of Invasiveness

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Lasius neglectus, known as the invasive garden ant, is a recent arrival in Europe from the Middle East, first recognised in Hungary in 1990. Some populations have attained pest status but at other sites, the ant is still in an arrested state, perhaps in the lag-phase lacking the major characteristics of invaders. Negative effects are reported in buildings, where the ants are a nuisance to residents, a pest in food preparation areas and cause damage to electrical installations, and also where high numbers of ants tend aphids on trees producing quantities of honey dew and the ensuing sooty mould. There is some evidence that native ant species have been displaced.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Formicidae
  •                             Genus: Lasius
  •                                 Species: Lasius neglectus


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L. neglectus was only described in 1990 from a population in Budapest, Hungary (Van Loon et al., 1990). It is a member of the sub-family Formicinae. The length of the worker, queen and male are 2.5-3mm (worker), 5.5-6mm (queen), 2.5mm (male); the mandibles are 7-toothed; hairs are lacking on the scape (first segment of antenna) and usually on the legs. Their colour is yellowish-brown with the thorax somewhat paler. The live weight of the worker is 0.65-0.80mg and the queen, 6.8-9.6mg. Espadaler and Bernal (2004) observed that "the female is immediately recognisable within the European Lasius by its comparatively reduced size and proportionately smaller gaster (swollen part of abdomen), as compared with the thorax. The male is the smallest within the European Lasius (s .str.) species".

Polygyny in the nest (the presence of more than one functional queen), and the enormous numbers of workers travelling up and down trees is also a characteristic of the species.



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The native range of L. neglectus is Turkey and Uzbekistan according to ISSG (2011) and Turkey and Iran according to the recently developed AntMaps.

L. neglectus has expanded westwards to many European countries and has reached the Canary Islands (Espadaler and Bernal, 2003). It was first reported from the UK in Hidcote Manor Garden, Gloucestershire in 2009, but is believed to have been present for several decades (Boase, 2014). Records of L. alienus in the Netherlands since the 1960s are now believed to be L. neglectus (Mabelis et al., 2010).

Specimen records are available from AntWeb.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


Georgia (Republic of)PresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
IranPresentPaknia and Kami, 2007; ISSG, 2011
IsraelPresentIntroducedAntWiki, 2016
KyrgyzstanPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
TurkeyPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
UzbekistanPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011


-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedEspadaler and Bernal, 2003; ISSG, 2011


AndorraPresentIntroducedAntWeb, 2016
BelgiumPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
BulgariaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
FrancePresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
GermanyPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
GreecePresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
HungaryPresentIntroduced Invasive Van Loon et al., 1990; Espadaler and Rey, 2001; ISSG, 2011
ItalyPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Mabelis et al., 2010Recorded as L. alienus since 1960s
PolandPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
RomaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
SpainPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-Spain (mainland)PresentIntroduced Invasive Castro et al., 2010; ISSG, 2011
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedNeumeyer, 2008
UKPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1990 Invasive Fox, 2010; Boase, 2014First UK record, from Hidcote Manor, Gloucestershire in 1990

History of Introduction and Spread

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The invasion history of L. neglectus in Europe was reconstructed by complementary analyses of 14 populations by genetic microsatellites, cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression behaviour by Ugelvig et al. (2008) who concluded that they arose from only very few independent introductions from the native range (somewhere near the Black Sea), and that new infestations were typically started through introductions from other invasive populations.

Risk of Introduction

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L. neglectus has already shown high invasive potential in Europe and could be inadvertently introduced or spread further through human transport.


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In Europe L. neglectus is found in urban areas, from city streets to semi-urban lots with some natural vegetation, gardens, woodlands, agricultural areas and inside buildings. Trees are a key resource for the ant. In Asia Minor it is found in natural steppe habitats (Seifert, 2000).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Buildings Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Feeding is mainly based on sugary foods (aphid honeydew, nectar, vegetal juices). In spring the ants look for aphids at the base of herbs and small vegetation, where the ant constructs temporary earth shelters. In summer, when tree aphids are abundant, the ants shift to this nearly ubiquitous resource.
The colony grows by budding, involving the displacement of queens with some workers at short distances (a few metres). In laboratory studies, isolated queens have also been shown to be able to found new colonies, although it is not known if this possibility exists under natural conditions. The carbohydrate content of newly mated queens is consistent with the observed loss of mating flight of this species although the relative wing area indicates that L. neglectus queens should be able to fly. See Espadaler and Rey (2001) for further information. 
Lifecycle stages
Lifecycle stages (data from one colony in north-east Spain): eggs (from April to October), larvae (all year around), worker pupae (May, June, September, October), sexuals pupae (May, June), winged sexuals (May, June).
See Cremer et al. (2008) for a comparison of the behaviour, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus with the non-invasive congeneric species L. turcicus.


Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Laboulbenia formicarum Pathogen Tragust et al., 2015

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Introduction pathways to new locations
Transportation of habitat material: Movement of potted plants, turf peat, soil from construction.

Local dispersal methods
Natural dispersal (local): Movement of soil or cuttings of vegetation, nest budding.

The introduction and spread of this ant is facilitated through accidental movement by humans (Esapdaler et al., 2007).



Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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Economic/livelihood Negative
Native flora Negative


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L. neglectus may invade homes and other buildings and has been reported as a nuisance by residents and a pest in food preparation areas and can occupy electrical conduits, causing short-circuits or damage to electro-mechanical devices (Castro et al., 2010; Boase, 2014). Outdoors, it nests at the base of plants and attends aphids on trees, "milking" them for their honeydew which may be produced in large quantities, in turn causing sooty mould to grow on leaves and structures under trees. Native ants are reported to have been displaced by L. neglectus in a location in the UK (Boase, 2014).

Not all populations seem to be invasive, in Spain only three out of eleven populations have been denounced as damaging or invasive. This is probably due to climatic constraints, especially dryness during the Mediterranean summer (ISSG, 2011).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Size and coloration are similar to Lasius austriacus but L. austriacus has a single nest queen, smaller relative eye size in workers, and is not invasive. Lasius turcicus is a 'king size' version of L. neglectus. But for a bigger worker and queen size and monogyny (=a single nest queen), both species are very similar. L. neglectus could be a recent evolutionary offshot of L. turcicus (ISSG, 2011).


Prevention and Control

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Compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

1.0 Preventative measures
Prevention, quarantine and rapid response are the best management strategies for preventing the establishment of invasive ants. To be successful they require active surveying, early detection and subsequent rapid treatment procedures often along with quarantines. This type of management approach remains the most practical strategy for dealing with invasive ants (Krushelnycky Loope and Reimer 2005).
1.1 Risk assessments
The first step to solving any problem is to identify whether it exists and define what it is. Preparing risk assessments is a vital management tool for addressing the issue of invasive ants in a country or region. Mapping the potential range of invasive ant species is also a useful tool for assessing risk, preparing risk assessments and estimating the potential threat an invasive ant poses to people and the environment.
In New Zealand an invasive ant risk assessment project (prepared for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research) identified ant species which pose the greatest potential threat to New Zealand. This project was divided into five sections: (i) gathering data on native and non-native New Zealand ants, (ii) producing a preliminary risk, (iii) producing information sheets on medium-risk and high-risk taxa, (iv) producing a detailed pest risk assessment for the eight highest-risk species, and (v) re-ranking these eight species.Of the 75 ant taxa which were ranked the following ants present the greatest potential risk to New Zealand: Anoplolepis gracilipes, Lasius neglectus, Monomorium destructor, Paratrechina longicornis, Solenopsis geminata, Solenopsis richteri, Tapinoma melanocephalum and Wasmannia auropunctata (Harris undated). An assessment of the current risk of L. neglectus establishing itself in New Zealand (based on climate similarity of native and introduced ranges) lead to the prediction that it would be "likely to establish significant distribution in NZ, particularly in urban areas and disturbed habitat" (R. Harris unpubl. data, in Stanley 2004). On the other hand, according to Stabley (2004)L. neglectus has a low likelihood of arrival in New Zealand (Stanley 2004).
1.2 Ant Prevention in the Pacific Region
The Pacific island region includes over 25 countries, most of which are served by two important regional international organizations, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), which addresses agricultural issues, and the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), which addresses biodiversity issues. The biodiversity of the Pacific is particularly vulnerable to effects of invasive species (SPREP 2000).
Special concern regarding ant invasions has arisen now that the red imported fire ant occurs at or near the coast on both sides of the Pacific, and the little fire ant has arrived in Hawaii and is spreading in the western Pacific. These and other species threaten all Pacific islands, including Hawaii and the U.S. affiliated islands of Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Federated States of Micronesia, American Samoa, and Palau.
The SPC-Plant Protection Service (SPC-PPS) works in partnership with 22 Pacific members to maintain effective quarantine systems and to assist with regionally coordinated eradication/containment efforts. Priorities for emphasis are determined by member countries, which meet periodically as the Pacific Plant Protection Organization (PPPO).
A workshop sponsored by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of IUCN was held in Auckland, New Zealand, in September 2003, and resulted in the compilation of a draft Pacific Ant Prevention Plan (Pacific Invasive Ant Group 2004). The Pacific Ant Prevention Plan was presented to and embraced by 21 Pacific island countries and territories present at a PPPO meeting, the “Regional Biosecurity, Plant Protection and Animal Health” meeting held by SPC in Suva, Fiji, in March 2004 (Pacific Plant Protection Organization 2004). Like Hawaii’s Red Imported Fire Ant Prevention Plan, the Pacific Ant Prevention Plan is still a conceptual work, but ISSG and others are working toward obtaining the international funding needed to implement the plan with the assistance of SPC. The project presents an exceptional opportunity for agriculture and conservation interests to work together with international and bilateral aid entities at regional and country levels to build much needed quarantine capacity. Increased quarantine protection is desperately needed by PICT in order to address invasions that jeopardize both agriculture and biodiversity.
The information for this section was sourced directly from Krushelnycky Loope and Reimer (2005).
2.0 Chemical
2.1 General Considerations
Most if not all ant eradications have employed the use of baits and toxicants, many of which are developed for agriculture or urban settings. However, indiscriminate pesticide use in natural areas and fragile island ecosystems is not advocated. While some toxins such as hydramethylnon break down quickly in the environment, any and all pesticide use is likely to be accompanied by at least some undesirable non-target effects. These include increased runoff or drift outside the intended area, adverse affects on beneficial insects and non-target impacts on native species (Krushelnycky Loope and Reimer 2005).
Non-target impacts must be weighed up carefully against the benefits of ant eradication. Cleary, treating whole ecosystems or islands is too risky as entire populations of rare invertebrates may be at risk of extinction. On the other hand, eradicating populations of exotic ants before they become established in a natural ecosystem or island has the potential to prevent the potentially disastrous consequences of ant invasions (Krushelnycky Loope and Reimer 2005).
Baits should be designed with the specific foraging strategies of the target ant in mind. The preferred size, type and dispersal of bait and the nesting, foraging and behavioural traits of the ant should be considered in the planning stages of the operation. The use of appropriately designed and chosen baits and toxins will help reduce the impact of toxins on native ants and non-target fauna (McGlynn 1999).
3.2 Bait Design
There is a lack of specific information on the attractants preferred by L. neglectus, but in Spain it appears highly dependent on honeydew sources (Espadaler and Bernal 2004, in Stanley 2004). No trials on food attractants have been carried out, but L. neglectus has similar food preferences as L. humile (X. Espadaler, pers. comm., in Stanley 2004). Field trials testing the attractiveness and efficacy of ant baits in controlling L. neoniger have been carried out on golf courses in the USA (Shetlar et al. 1994, Lopez et al. 2000, in Stanley 2004). Advance Granular Carpenter® ant bait (soy bean oil corn grits combined with meat and sugar) was preferred to all other baits tested (Lopez et al. 2000, in Stanley 2004). The Advance Granular® ant bait (soybean oil corn grits only) was not attractive, suggesting it was the addition of meat (protein) and sugar (carbohydrate) that accounted for the enhanced attractiveness of Advance Granular Carpenter® ant bait (Lopez et al. 2000). Maxforce® (protein – ground silkworm pupae) and NAF–464 (protein and sugar) were relatively attractive, but still much less so than Advance Granular Carpenter® ant bait (Lopez et al. 2000, in Stanley 2004). L. neglectus may prefer similar food attractants to L. neoniger; that is, protein and sugar bait matrix, rather than lipid baits, such as the traditional S. invicta soybean oil corn grit baits.
3.3 Ant Toxins
Ant toxins can be classed into three categories: “stomach” poisons (or metabolic inhibitors), Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs) and neurotoxins. Stomach toxins include hydramethylnon (eg: Maxforce® or Amdro®), sulfuramid and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (eg: Borax). IGRs include compounds such as methoprene, fenoxycarb or pyriproxyfen. Neurotoxins include fipronil (eg: Xstinguish®). Stomach poison kills all workers and reproductives it comes into contact with. IGRs work by disrupting development of the queens ovarian tissues, effectively sterilising the colony. Neurological inhibitors disrupt insect central nervous systems by blocking neuron receptors. The onset of mortality is contingent upon the type of active ingredient. In general, ant baits that contain active ingredients that are metabolic inhibitors have a two to three day delay before extensive mortality occurs in the colony (Oi Vail and Williams 2000). Baits containing IGRs take several weeks before colony populations are reduced substantially (Oi Vail and Williams 2000). The latter (IGRs) provide gradual long-term control, while metabolic inhibitors provide short-term, localised and rapid control (Oi Vail and Williams 2000). This is because while stomach poisons are faster than IGRs, they sometimes eliminate workers before the toxin can be effectively distributed throughout the colony (O’Dowd Green and Lake 1999).
Stanley (2004) recommends using protein and carbohydrate as the attractants in baits for controlling L. neglectus, rather than lipid-based baits. Xstinguish® (already registered and available in New Zealand) should be used as it is expected to be attractive to and effective at controlling L. neglectus. Presto® (fipronil) and Xstinguish® (fipronil) appear to be highly effective at controlling the species for which they have been tested (A. gracilipes and L. humile respectively), and the protein-based matrices of these baits make them highly attractive to species previously thought difficult to attract with baits. These baits may also be attractive to L. neglectus and T. melanocephalum, which have similar food preferences as L. humile.
A variety of toxins have been tested against L. neglectus in Spain (Rey and Espadaler in prep., in Stanley 2004). Unfortunately, the control trials primarily tested the efficacy of contact insecticide sprays. Blattanex® bait stations (0.08% foxim + sugar matrix) were trialled in houses, along with perimeter spraying, and monitored for two years (Espadaler and Bernal 2004, Rey and Espadaler in prep., in Stanley 2004). However, bait stations were used continuously, rather than in one-off applications suitable for large-scale control programmes, and perimeter spraying also contributed to effective control of L. neglectus. Field trials on L. neoniger in the USA, have found Advance Granular Carpenter® ant bait (0.011% avermectin) and Maxforce® (0.9% hydramethylnon) were most effective at eliminating L. neoniger mounds when they were spot-treated with the bait, and were also effective when applied by broadcasting (Lopez et al. 2000, in Stanley 2004). Again, these commercial baits may be effective in controlling L. neglectus, a closely related species. However, researchers in Spain have found this bait to be ineffective in controlling L. humile (somewhat attractive, but low mortality) and believe it would also be unattractive to L. neglectus (X. Espadaler, pers. comm., in Stanley 2004). Products used to control L. humile (eg: Xstinguish®) would be the most likely candidates for control of L. neglectus (X. Espadaler, pers. comm., in Stanley 2004).
4.0 Integrated Management
Usual measures against domestic ants are not expected to be effective. The enormous numbers of ants that integrate in the supercolonies are to be controlled by an Integrated Pest Management strategy, involving both chemical control on trees and soil, physical management of trees (cutting branches in contact with the premises) and limiting irrigation as much as possible (Rey and Espadaler 2005).
5.0 Research
5.1 Bait and Toxin Research
Stanley (2004) recommends focussing research efforts on the species that lack effective strategies and pose some risk to New Zealand (P. longicornis, T. melanocephalum and L. neglectus) to determine which baits can be used to effectively manage them. In an incursion event now, Xstinguish® is recommended but more research is required to determine the most effective baits (Stanley 2004).
Stanley (2004) suggests that future research on L. neglectus focuson:
·         Testing the relative attractiveness and efficacy of the commercial ants baits Maxforce®, Presto® and Xstinguish® on L. neglectus
·         Testing attractiveness of various foods to L. neglectus
5.2 Biosecurity New Zealand
Biosecurity New Zealand, the branch of government responsible for invasive species, has responded to a series of incursions of exotic invasive ant species by relying heavily on a small number of baits and toxins. The absence of a wide variety of effective baits may compromise the success of incursion responses. As a first step to ensuring effective incursion response, Biosecurity New Zealand commissioned Landcare Research to research and review international literature about the baits and toxins used for ant control (see Stanley 2004). The next step will be testing the most promising of these against a selected group of high-risk invasive ant species.
Harris, R. Undated. Invasive Ant Pest Risk Assessment Project. [Accessed 29 March 2007, from:] This document describes an ant risk assessment and ranking project.
Krushelnycky, P.D., Loope, L.L. and Reimer, N.J. 2005. The Ecology, Policy, and Management of Ants in Hawaii, Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 37. Accessed 2 April 2007, from]
O’Dowd, D.J., Green, P.T. and Lake, P.S. 1999. Status, Impact, and Recommendations for Research and Management of Exotic Invasive Ants in Christmas Island National Park. Centre for the Analysis and Management of Biological Invasions: Clayton (Victoria, Australia). [Accessed 4 April 2007, from:]
Oi, D.H., Vail, K.M. and Williams, D.F. 2000. Bait distribution among multiple colonies of Pharaoh ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Journal of Economic Entomology 93 (4): 1247 - 1255. [Accessed 13 Friday 2007, from:]
Rey, A and Espadaler, X. 2005. Area-wide Management of the Invasive Garden Ant Lasius neglectus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Northeast Spain, J.Agric. Urban Entom.
Stanley, M.C. 2004. Review of the Efficacy of Baits Used for Ant Control and Eradication (Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0405/044). [Accessed 29 March 2007, from:]



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ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.

Mabelis BA; Van Loon AJ; Dekoninck W, 2010. Is Lasius neglectus invading The Netherlands? (Verovert de plaagmier Nederland?.) Entomologische Berichten, 70(2):30-36.

Neumeyer R, 2008. Additions to the species list of the free-living ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Switzerland. (Ergänzungen zur Artenliste der frei lebenden Ameisen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in der Schweiz.) Entomo Helvetica, No.1:43-48.

Paknia O; Kami HG, 2007. New and additional records for the formicid fauna (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Iran. Zoology in the Middle East, 40:85-90.

Tragust S; Feldhaar H; Espadaler X; Pedersen JS, 2015. Rapid increase of the parasitic fungus Laboulbenia formicarum in supercolonies of the invasive garden ant Lasius neglectus. Biological Invasions, 17(10):2795-2801.

Ugelvig LV; Drijfhout FP; Kronauer DJC; Boomsma JJ; Pedersen JS; Cremer S, 2008. The introduction history of invasive garden ants in Europe: integrating genetic, chemical and behavioural approaches. BMC Biology, 6(11):(26 February 2008).

Van Loon AJ; Boomsma JJ; Andrasfalvy A, 1990. A new polygynous Lasius species (Hymenoptera; Formicidae) from Central Europe I. Description and general biology. Insectes Sociaux, 37(4):349-362.

Links to Websites

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Ant web (for pictures and identification assistance)
Antmaps.orghttp://antmaps.orgMap visualization service for the GABI project (Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics)a long-term collective project developed and led by Benoit Guénard and Evan Economo in collaboration with Michael Weiser, Kiko Gómez, and Nitish Narula
AntWiki page for each ant species plus extensive related information contributed and updated by experts across the world
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS) source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Lasius neglectus: a polygynous, sometimes invasive, ant


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Reviewed by: Xavier Espadaler CREAF-Unitat d'Ecologia Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Spain

Principal sources: Van Loon et al. 1990; Boomsma et al. 1990; Seifert, 2000; Espadaler & Rey, 2001; Espadaler and Bernal, 2004

    Compiled by: Wayne J. Crans, Director - Mosquito Research, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. USA & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Last Modified: Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Distribution Maps

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