Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Sarocladium strictum
(acremonium wilt)



Sarocladium strictum (acremonium wilt)


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sarocladium strictum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • acremonium wilt
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sarocladium strictum (W. Gams) Summerb.

Preferred Common Name

  • acremonium wilt

Other Scientific Names

  • Acremonium strictum W. Gams
  • Cephalosporium acremonium Corda
  • Haplotrichum acremonium (Corda) Pound & Clem.
  • Hyalopus acremonium (Corda) M.A.J. Barbosa

International Common Names

  • English: black bundle disease of maize; kernel rot of maize

EPPO code

  • ACREST (Acremonium strictum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Genus: Sarocladium
  •                                 Species: Sarocladium strictum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


-JilinPresentLiu et al., 2008
-ShandongUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-SichuanPresentKang and He, 2004
IndiaPresentBandyopadhyay et al., 1987; Singh et al., 2004
-Andhra PradeshPresentLingam and Venkatesh, 2005
-KarnatakaPresentRaj et al., 2007
-MaharashtraPresentTini et al., 2003
-RajasthanUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-Uttar PradeshUnconfirmed recordBandyopadhyay et al., 1987
IranPresentGooya et al., 2000
PakistanPresentAnjum and Akram, 2014
SyriaUnconfirmed recordAl-Ahmad, 1993
TurkeyPresentDemirci and Kordali, 2000


Burkina FasoPresentSomda et al., 2008
CameroonPresentTagne et al., 2002
EgyptPresentSabet et al., 1962
LibyaPresentYoussef, 2009
NigeriaPresentOwolade et al., 2000
South AfricaUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
UgandaPresentTaligoola et al., 2004

North America

MexicoPresentGonzález-Pérez et al., 2009
USAPresentChristenson & Wilcoxon, 1966

South America

ArgentinaPresentCastillo et al., 2004
BrazilPresentTeixeira et al., 2004
ChilePresentHormazabal and Piontelli, 2009


Czech RepublicPresentSamek et al., 2006; Remesová et al., 2007
Czechoslovakia (former)Unconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
ItalyPresentSolari et al., 2005
NetherlandsUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
PolandPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
Russian FederationPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992


AustraliaUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-New South WalesUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / wilting

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Growing medium accompanying plants hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport


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Al-Ahmad M, 1993. Vascular and vascular-like diseases of grain sorghum in Syria. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 11(1):39-44; 8 ref.

Anjum T; Akram W, 2014. First record of acremonium wilt in tomato from Pakistan. Plant Disease, 98(1):155.

Bandyopadhyay R; Mughogho LK; Satyanarayana MV, 1987. Systemic infection of sorghum by Acremonium strictum and its transmission through seed. Plant Disease, 71(7):647-650

Basandrai AK; Aulakh KS; Grewal RK, 1986. Role of seedborne mycoflora of brinjal in causing fruit rots. Plant Disease Research, 1(1-2):86-87

Castillo MD; González HHL; Martínez EJ; Pacin AM; Resnik SL, 2004. Mycoflora and potential for mycotoxin production of freshly harvested black bean from the Argentinean main production area. Mycopathologia, 158(1):107-112.

Christensen JJ; Wilcoxson RD, 1966. Stalk Rot of Corn. Monogr. 3. St. Paul, MN, USA: American Phytopathological Society.

Coutinho WM; Silva-Mann R; Vieira Mdas GGC; Machado CF; Machado JC, 2007. Health and physiological quality of maize seeds submitted to thermotherapy and physiological preconditioning. (Qualidade sanitária e fisiológica de sementes de milho submetidas a termoterapia e condicionamento fisiológico.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 32(6):458-464.

Demirci E; Kordali s, 2000. Fungi isolated from corn kernels in the Eastern Black Sea Region. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 29(2/3):79-84; 14 ref.

Dhanraj KS; Mathur SB, 1965. Ear rot of maize caused by Cephalosporium acremonium Corda, a new record for India. Indian Phytopathol., 18:393-394.

Dharmaputra OS; Retnowati I, 1996. Fungi isolated from groundnuts in some locations of West Java. BIOTROPIA, No. 9:15-25; 16 ref.

Domsch KH; Gams W; Anderson TH, 1980. Compendium of soil fungi. Volumes 1 and 2. London, UK: Academic Press Ltd. 859 pp.

Gams W, 1971. Cephalosporium-artige Schimmelpilze (Hyphomycetes). Stuttgart, Germany: G Fisher.

González-Pérez E; Yáñez-Morales Mde J; Ortega-Escobar HM; Velázquez-Mendoza J, 2009. Comparative analysis among pathogenic fungal species that cause gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus Hort.) corm rot in Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología, 27(1):45-52.

Gooya M; Ershad D; Riahi H, 2000. An investigation on mycoflora of sesame seeds in Iran. Rostaniha, 1(1/4):27-31; 43 ref.

Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Harris MR, 1936. The relationship of Cephalosporium acremonium to the black bundle disease of corn. Phytopathology, 26:965-980.

Hooker AL; White DG, 1976. Prevalence of corn stalk rot fungi in Illinois. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(12):1032-1034

Hormazabal E; Piontelli E, 2009. Endophytic fungi from Chilean native gymnosperms: antimicrobial activity against human and phytopathogenic fungi. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 25(5):813-819.

Kabore KB; Couture L, 1983. Mycoflora of sorghum seeds grown in Upper Volta. Naturaliste Canadien, 110(4):453-457

Kang XiaoHui; He XinSheng, 2004. Biological features of disease of Agaricus bisporus caused by Acremonium strictum and screening of fungicides. Plant Protection, 30(1):28-31.

Khan MQ; Bhutta AR, 1994. Seed-borne fungi of wheat cultivars in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 37(9):397-398; 10 ref.

Kushal Raj; Saharan GS, 1994. Seed mycoflora of sunflower and its effect on seed and plant health. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 24(1):15-19; 10 ref.

Lal S; Raju CA; Agarwal VK, 1976. A note on fungi associated with white streaks on maize kernels. Seed Res., 5:64-66.

Lingam SS; Venkatesh S, 2005. New source of resistance to post-flowering stalk rots in maize. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 33(1):99-101.

Liu ShuXia; Zhou Ping; Zhao LanPo; Shi MingLei; Li Yu; Qin ZhiJia, 2008. Diversity of soil fungi in black soil planted with corn in Jilin Province. Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 36(7):42-46.

Muhammad Mushtaq; Haq MA; Hashmi MH, 1996. Addition to seed-borne mycoflora of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany, 28(2):233; 9 ref.

Mushtaq M; Hashmi MH, 1997. Fungi associated with wilt disease of Capsicum in Sindh, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 29(2):217-222; 21 ref.

Natural MP; Frederiksen RA; Rosenow DT, 1982. Acremonium wilt of sorghum. Plant Disease, 66(9):863-865

Owolade BF; Fawole B; Osikanlu YOK, 2000. Fungi associated with maize seed abnormalities in south-western Nigeria. Crop Research (Hisar), 20(3):476-481; 14 ref.

Pelhate J, 1981. Mycoflore seminicole des mais. 11 Conservation en epis. Crypt. Mycol., 2:61-84.

Raj MH; Niranjana SR; Nayaka SC; Shetty HS, 2007. Health status of farmers' saved paddy, sorghum, sunflower and cowpea seeds in Karnataka, India. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(2):167-177.

Raju CA; Lal S, 1976. Relationship of Cephalosporium acremonium and Fusarium moniliforme with stalk rots of maize. Indian Phytopathology, 29(3):227-231

Raju CA; Lal S, 1977. Efficacy of fungicides in controlling seed-borne infection of Cephalosporium acremonium and Fusarium moniliforme in maize. Indian Phytopathology, 30(1):17-20

Remesová J; Kolarík M; Prásil K, 2007. Microfungi on the kernels of transgenic and non-transgenic maize damaged by the European corn borer. Czech Mycology, 59(2):205-213.

Sabet KA; Samra AS; Hingorani MK; Fad FAM, 1962. Further studies on the etiology of stalk and root rots of maize in the United Arab Republic. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 10:132-133.

Sabet KA; Samra AS; Mansour IM, 1970. Saprophytic behaviour of Cephalosporium maydis and C. acremonium. Ann. Appl. Biol., 66:265-271.

Samek T; Novotný D; Jankovský L, 2006. Infection of wintering pupae of horse-chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic. by Verticillium lecanii (Zimmerman) Viégas. Journal of Forest Science, 52(3):136-140.

Saravanan T; Karuppiah R, 2005. Effects of fungicides, biocontrol agents and plant extracts on sorghum seed infection. Journal of Ecobiology, 17(5):461-465.

Singh RS; Chaube HS; Singh N, 1971. Toxicity of systemic fungicides against internally seed-borne pathogens of maize (Zea mays). Indian J. Agric. Sci., 41:572-576.

Singh SK; Srivastava KD; Singh DV, 2004. Pathogenic behaviour of leaf blight organisms on wheat. Indian Phytopathology, 57(3):319-322.

Solari N; Guglielminetti M; Caretta G, 2005. Seasonal behaviour of keratinophilic fungi isolated from parks soil in Milan. Boletín Micológico, 20:9-13.

Somda I; Sanou J; Sanon P, 2008. Seed-borne infection of farmer-saved maize seeds by pathogenic fungi and their transmission to seedlings. Plant Pathology Journal (Faisalabad), 7(1):98-103.

Sumner DR, 1966. Histology of corn kernels and seedlings infected with Fusarium moniliforme and Cephalosporium sp. (Abstr.) Phytopathology, 56:903.

Tagne A; Neergaard E; Hansen HJ; The C, 2002. Studies of host-pathogen interaction between maize and Acremonium strictum from Cameroon. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 108(2):93-102.

Taligoola HK; Ismail MA; Chebon SK, 2004. Mycobiota associated with rice grains marketed in Uganda. Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(3):271-278.

Teixeira H; Machado Jda C, 2003. Transmissibility and effect of Acremonium strictum in maize seeds. (Transmissibilidade e efeito de Acremonium strictum em sementes de milho.) Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 27(5):1045-1052.

Teixeira H; Vieira Mdas GGC; Machado JC, 2004. Morphophysiological and isoenzymatic markers in a genetic diversity analysis of Acremonium strictum isolates. (Marcadores morfofisiológicos e isoenzimáticos na análise da diversidade genética de isolados de Acremonium strictum.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 29(4):413-418.

Tini Pillai; Raut BT; Paulkar PK; Agarkar GD; Thakare AR, 2003. Assessment of different methods for detection of mycoflora of sesamum. Annals of Plant Physiology, 17(2):153-156.

Tribhuwan Singh; Dalbir Singh, 1983. Seed borne mycoflora of sesame with special reference to Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 13(1):32-41; [3 fig., 3 tab.]; 4 ref.

Vakili NG, 1984. The role of fungicolous fungi in biological control of saprophytic and phytopathogenic fungi of corn kernels. (Abstr.) Phytopathology, 74:1272.

Xu XiuDe; Zhao TingChang; Liu ZhiHeng, 1995. Study on Acremonium wilt in sorghum. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 22(2):123-128; 1 ref.

Yap LR; Kulshrestha DD, 1975. A preliminary survey of seed-borne fungi of maize from Visayas Philippines. Seed Res., 3:86-89.

Youssef MS, 2009. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi on Libyan corn with special reference to mycotoxin control. Research Journal of Toxins, 1(1):8-22.

Zhdanova NN; Zakharchenko VA; Artyshkova LV; Schkolny AT; Vasilevskaya AI, 2001. Mycobiota of radionuclides polluted soils of the limits zone of the ChNPP in 14 years after the accident. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 35(6):1-8.

Zhdanova NN; Zakharchenko VA; Vember VV; Nakonechnaya LT, 2000. Fungi from Chernobyl: mycobiota of the inner regions of the containment structures of the damaged nuclear reactor. Mycological Research, 104(12):1421-1426.

Distribution Maps

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