Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Spodoptera exigua
(beet armyworm)

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Datasheet

Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Spodoptera exigua
  • Preferred Common Name
  • beet armyworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult (museum set specimen).
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult (museum set specimen).
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Adult (museum set specimen).
AdultAdult (museum set specimen).©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)

Preferred Common Name

  • beet armyworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Caradrina exigua Hübner
  • Laphygma exigua Hübner
  • Laphygma flavimaculata
  • Noctua exigua Hübner
  • Spodoptera flavimaculata (Harvey)
  • Susunai exigua (Hübner)

International Common Names

  • English: asparagus fern caterpillar; berseem armyworm; cottonworm, lesser; inchworm; lesser armyworm; lesser cottonworm; lucerne armyworm; onion armyworm; pigweed caterpillar; small mottled willow moth; sugarbeet armyworm
  • Spanish: gardama; gardama de la remolacha; gusano del frijol de costa; gusano quelitero; gusano soldado de la remolacha; gusano verde del cogollero
  • French: légionnaire de la betterave; noctuelle de la betterave

Local Common Names

  • Dominican Republic: gusano de la cebolla
  • Germany: Eule, Zuckerrueben-; Heerwurm
  • India: lucerne caterpillar
  • Indonesia: ulat bawang
  • Israel: halaphygma
  • Italy: nottua della barbabietola
  • Mexico: gusano soldado del algodonero
  • Netherlands: Sjalottenuil
  • South Africa: Kleinkommandowurm
  • Turkey: cizgili kurt karadrina

EPPO code

  • LAPHEG (Spodoptera exigua)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Spodoptera
  •                                 Species: Spodoptera exigua

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
BeninPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
BotswanaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
Burkina FasoPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
BurundiPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
CameroonPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1972)
Côte d'IvoirePresentUK, CAB International (1972)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
EswatiniPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
LesothoPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
MaliPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1972)
NigerPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
RwandaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
Saint HelenaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-AscensionPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
SenegalPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
SomaliaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
TogoPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
TunisiaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1972)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
ArmeniaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
AzerbaijanPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
BangladeshPresentUK, CAB International (1972); APPPC (1987)
CambodiaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-BeijingPresentFeng et al. (2003)
-FujianPresentWang MaoMing (2006)
-GuangdongPresentLi DunSong et al. (2004)
-HainanPresentNiu ChengWei et al. (2006)
-HenanPresentNiu ChengWei et al. (2006)
-HubeiPresentNiu ChengWei et al. (2006)
-JiangxiPresentNiu ChengWei et al. (2006)
-ShandongPresentNiu ChengWei et al. (2006)
-ShanghaiPresentWang Wei et al. (2006)
-SichuanPresentNiu ChengWei et al. (2006)
-YunnanPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-ZhejiangPresentSong ChangQi et al. (2004)
Hong KongPresentAPPPC (1987)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-Andhra PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-AssamPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-BiharPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-ChhattisgarhPresentPatel and Thakur (2005)
-HaryanaPresentRishi Kumar et al. (2004)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-KarnatakaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-Madhya PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-MaharashtraPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-OdishaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-PunjabPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-SikkimPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-Tamil NaduPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-Uttar PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-West BengalPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
IndonesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1972); Waterhouse (1993)
-Irian JayaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1972); Arbabtafti and Ebrahimi (2013); Karimi-Malati et al. (2014)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
JordanPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
KazakhstanPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
LaosPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
MalaysiaPresentWaterhouse (1993)
MyanmarPresentUK, CAB International (1972); Waterhouse (1993)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
SyriaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
TajikistanPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1972); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
TurkmenistanPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
UzbekistanPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
VietnamPresentUK, CAB International (1972); Waterhouse (1993)
YemenPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-SocotraPresentUK, CAB International (1972)

Europe

BelgiumPresentSmagghe et al. (2000)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1972)
GermanyPresentHalter et al. (2001)
GibraltarPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1972)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-SicilyPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
NetherlandsPresentSmagghe et al. (2000); Rossem et al. (1977)
PolandPresentWiniarska (2002)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-MadeiraPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1972);
SerbiaPresentVajgand et al. (2004)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-Canary IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
SwedenPresentLindeborg (2008)
UkrainePresentUK, CAB International (1972)
United KingdomPresentTremewan (2002);

North America

CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
Costa RicaPresentCABI (Undated a)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1972); Aragón García et al. (2011)
NicaraguaPresentPérez et al. (2000)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-ArizonaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-ArkansasPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-ColoradoPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-IllinoisPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-MarylandPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-MassachusettsPresentMeagher et al. (2008)
-MississippiPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-NevadaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-New MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-North CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-OklahomaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-OregonPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-South CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-TennesseePresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-VirginiaPresentCordero et al. (2006)
-WyomingPresentUK, CAB International (1972)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-Northern TerritoryPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1972)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus cereus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis entomocidus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Barylypa humeralis Parasite
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Brachymeria ovata Parasite Pupae
Bracon brevicornis Parasite Larvae
Bracon platynotae Parasite Larvae
Calosoma affine Predator Larvae
Campoletis sonorensis
Carabidae Predator Larvae
Chelonus curvimaculatus Parasite Larvae
Chelonus formosanus Parasite Larvae
Chelonus inanitus Parasite Larvae
Chelonus insularis Parasite Larvae Honduras Lactuca sativa
Chrysoperla carnea Predator
Cotesia marginiventris Parasite Larvae Honduras Capsicum annuum
Cotesia plutellae Parasite
Cotesia telengai Parasite Larvae
Deraeocoris nebulosus Predator
Drino imberbis Parasite Larvae
Eocanthecona furcellata Predator
Eriborus argenteopilosus Parasite
Erynia radicans Pathogen
Euplectrus bicolor Parasite Arbabtafti and Ebrahimi, 2013
Euplectrus laphygmae Parasite
Euplectrus platyhypenae Parasite
Exorista larvarum Parasite Larvae
Exorista segregata Parasite Larvae
Exorista xanthaspis Parasite Larvae
Geocoris pallens Predator
Geocoris punctipes Predator
Glabromicroplitis croceipes Parasite
Glabromicroplitis croceipes Parasite
Glyptapanteles ashmeadi Parasite Larvae
Gonia bimaculata Parasite Larvae
Granulosis virus Pathogen
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Parasite
Heterorhabditis heliothidis Parasite
Hyposoter didymator Parasite
Hyposoter exiguae Parasite
Hypovoria hilaris Parasite Larvae
Ichneumon promissorius Parasite
Lespesia archippivora Parasite
Lygus hesperus Predator
Meteorus autographae Parasite Larvae
Microchelonus blackburni Parasite Larvae
Microchelonus heliopae Parasite Larvae
Microplitis fulvicornis Parasite Larvae Karimi-Malati et al., 2014
Microplitis rufiventris Parasite Larvae Egypt
Nabis americoferus Predator
Nomuraea rileyi Pathogen Larvae
Nosema bombycis Pathogen
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Orgilus parcus Parasite Larvae
Orius tristicolor Predator
Ovomermis albicans Parasite
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
Pales pavida Parasite Larvae
Palesisa maculosa Parasite Larvae
Parapanteles gerontogeae Parasite Larvae
Pediobius Parasite Ghazali et al., 2014
Peribaea orbata Parasite Larvae
Peribaea palaestina Parasite Larvae
Peribaea tibialis Parasite Larvae
Phryxe magnicornis Parasite Larvae
Podisus acutissimus Predator
Podisus maculiventris Predator
Podisus sagitta Predator
Pseudogonia rufifrons Parasite Larvae
Rogas pellucens Parasite Larvae
Sinophorus xanthostomus Parasite
Solenopsis invicta Predator
Spallanzania hebes Parasite Larvae
Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite
Steinernema feltiae Parasite
Steinernema glaseri Parasite
Steinernema scapterisci Parasite
Tachina praeceps Parasite Larvae
Telenomus hawai Parasite Egypt
Telenomus nawaii Parasite Eggs Egypt
Telenomus remus Parasite Eggs
Therion circumflexum Parasite
Trichogramma chilonis Parasite
Trichogramma pretiosum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma principium Parasite Eggs
Voria ruralis Parasite Larvae
Xenorhabdus nematophilus Pathogen
Zele nigricornis Parasite Larvae
Zelus renardii Predator

References

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Adams DB; McPherson RM; Jones DC; Horton DL, 1989. Soybean insects. In: Douce GK, McPherson RM (eds). Summary of losses from insect damage and costs of control in Georgia, 1988. Special Publication 64. Georgia, USA: Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Georgia, 36-37.

Alborn HT; Turlings TCJ; Jones TH; Stenhagen G; Loughrin JH; Tumlinson JH, 1997. An elicitor of plant volatiles from beet armyworm oral secretion. Science (Washington), 276(5314):945-949; 7 ref.

Anon., 1997. Insect Control Guide. Ohio, USA: Meister Publishing Co., 442 pp.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Aragón García A; Damián Huato MÂ; Huerta Lara M; Sáenz-de-Cabezón FJ; Pérez-Moreno I; Marco-Mancebón V; López-Olguín JF, 2011. Insect occurrence and losses due to phytophagous species in the amaranth Amaranthus hypocondriacus L. crop in Puebla, Mexico. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(27):5924-5929. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar/PDF/pdf2011/19%20Nov/Garcia%20et%20al.pdf

Arbabtafti R; Ebrahimi E, 2013. New record of Euplectrus bicolor (Hym.: Eulophidae) parasitoid of Spodoptera exigua (Lep.: Noctuidae). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 46(15):1895-1896. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20

Brewer MJ; Meade T; Trumble JT, 1995. Development of insecticide-resistant and -susceptible Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) exposed to furanocoumarins found in celery. Environmental Entomology, 24(2):392-401.

Brown ES; Dewhurst CF, 1975. The genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Africa and the Near East. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 65(2):221-262.

CIE, 1972. Distribution Maps of Pests. Map No. 302. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cordero RJ; Kuhar TP; Speese J III; Youngman RR; Lewis EE; Bloomquist JR; Kok LT; Bratsch AD, 2006. Field efficacy of insecticides for control of lepidopteran pests on collards in Virginia. Plant Health Progress, January:1-9. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/sub/php/research/2006/collard/

Davis FM; Baker GT; Williams WP, 1995. Anatomical characteristics of maize resistant to leaf feeding by southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 12(1):55-65.

Estruch JJ; Warren GW; Mullins MA; Nye GJ; Craig JA; Koziel MG, 1996. Vip3A, a novel Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with a wide spectrum of activities against lepidopteran insects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93(11):5389-5394; 23 refs.

Feng HQ; Wu KM; Cheng DF; Guo YY, 2003. Radar observations of the autumn migration of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and other moths in northern China. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 93(2):115-124.

Ghazali SZ; Md-Zain BM; Yaakop S, 2014. Determination of Pediobius sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a new species record of endoparasitoid associate with beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidea) from Malaysia using DNA barcode. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 37(2):285-291. http://www.pertanika.upm.edu.my/Pertanika%20PAPERS/JTAS%20Vol.%2037%20(2)%20May.%202014/08%20Page%20285%20to%20292%20(JTAS%200520-2013).pdf

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Hardee DD; Herzog GA, 1996. 49th Annual conference report on cotton insect research and control. 1996 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Nashville, TN, USA, January 9-12, 1996: Volume 2., 643-669.

Huffman R, 1996. The beet armyworm in Texas and Oklahoma 1995. 1996 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Nashville, TN, USA, January 9-12, 1996: Volume 1., 113-115.

Karimi-Malati A; Fathipour Y; Talebi AA; Lozan AI, 2014. The first report of Microplitis fulvicornis (Hym.: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) as a parasitoid of Spodoptera exigua (Lep.: Noctuidae) from Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 33(4):71-72. http://www.entsociran.ir/journal/files/site1/user_files_9765c9/fathipour-A-11-32-2-2a71476.pdf

King ABS; Saunders JL, 1984. The invertebrate pests of annual food crops in Central America. A guide to their recognition and control. London, UK: Overseas Development Administration.

Kranz J; Schmutterer H; Koch W, eds. , 1977. Diseases, pests and weeds in tropical crops. Berlin, German Federal Republic: Verlag Paul Parey, 666 pp.

Lambert WR; Adams DB; Herzog GA; Horton DL; Hudson RD; Jones DC, 1989. Cotton insects. In: Douce GK, McPherson RM (eds). Summary of losses from insect damage and costs of control in Georgia, 1988. Special Publication 64. Georgia, USA: Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Georgia, 4-6.

Lee SD; Ahn SB; Cho WS; Choi KM, 1991. Effects of temperature on the development of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration, Crop Protection, 33(2):58-62.

Levy R; Habeck DH, 1976. Descriptions of the larvae of Spodoptera sunia and S. latifascia with a key to the mature Spodoptera larvae of the eastern United States (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 69(4):585-588.

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Mihm JA; Smith ME; Deutsch JA, 1988. Development of open-pollinated varieties, non-conventional hybrids and inbred lines of tropical maize with resistance to fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), at CIMMYT. Florida Entomologist, 71(3):262-268.

Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería Servicio Fitosanitario del Estado (Costa Rica), 2009. Listado de Plagas (insectos y ácaros) en cultivos de importancia económica en Costa Rica (C). http://www.protecnet.go.cr/laboratorios/plagcul/cultivoc.htm

Moar WJ; Pusztai-Carey M; Faassen Hvan; Bosch D; Frutos R; Rang C; Luo K; Adang MJ, 1995. Development of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIC resistance by Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61(6):2086-2092; 35 ref.

Niu ChengWei; Zhang QingWen; Ye ZhiHua; Luo LiZhi, 2006. Analysis of genetic diversity in different geographic populations of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with AFLP technique. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 49(5):867-873.

Oerke EC; Dehne HW; Schönbeck F; Weber A, 1994. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops., xxii + 808 pp.; [ref. at ends of chapters, available from publishers at PO Box 1991, Amsterdam, Netherlands or PO Box 945, Madison Square Station, NY 10160-0757, USA].

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Pérez CJ; Alvarado P; Narváez C; Miranda F; Hernández L; Vanegas H; Hruska A; Shelton AM, 2000. Assessment of insecticide resistance in five insect pests attacking field and vegetable crops in Nicaragua. Journal of Economic Entomology, 93(6):1779-1787.

Rishi Kumar; Sucheta; Khokhar KS, 2004. Relative abundance of noctuids (Lepidoptera) associated with cotton and other crops in Haryana. Journal of Cotton Research and Development, 18(1):99-101.

Rivnay E, 1962. Field crop pests in the Near East. Monographiae Biologicae, 10:194-199.

Rossem G van; Bund CF van de; Burger HC, 1977. Unusual instances of damage by insects in 1976. Entomologische Berichten, 37(7):97-98.

Ruberson JR; Herzog GA; Lambert WR; Lewis WJ, 1994. Management of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton: role of natural enemies. Florida Entomologist, 77(4):440-453.

Salama HS; Saleh MR; Moawed S; El-Din AS, 1990. Evaluation of microbial and chemical insecticides for the control of Spodoptera exigua (Lep., Noctuidae) on soybean plants. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 63(5):100-102; 15 ref.

Salama HS; Zaki FN; Salem SA; Hamdy MK; Megahed M, 1993. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. on the lesser cotton leafworm Spodoptera exigua Hbn. (Lep., Noctuidae) in corn and sunflower cultivations in Egypt. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 66(2):29-31; 8 ref.

Shorey HH; Summers CG; Sisk CB; Gerber RG, 1994. Disruption of pheromone communication in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in tomatoes, alfalfa, and cotton. Environmental Entomology, 23(6):1529-1533.

Smagghe G; Medina P; Schuyesmans S; Tirry L; Viñuela E, 2000. Insecticide resistant monitoring of tebufenozide for managing Spodoptera exigua (Hübner [1808]). (Estudios de resistencia a tebufenocida en Spodoptera exigua (Hübner [1808]).) Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 26(4):475-481.

Song ChangQi; Pan YueXing; Xu HuoZhong; Lan JianJun, 2004. The application of sex lure to forecasting of vegetable pests. Entomological Knowledge, 41(1):77-78.

Todd EL; Poole RW, 1980. Keys and illustrations for the armyworm moths of the noctuid genus Spodoptera Guenee from the Western Hemisphere. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 73(6):722-738.

Tremewan WG, 2002. Interesting Lepidoptera at m. v. light in West Cornwall (V.C. 1), 2001. Entomologist's Gazette, 53(1):24.

Vajgand D; Forgic G; To?ev M, 2004. Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, 1808) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), and flight dynamics data in the Sombor Region. (Sovica Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, 1808) (Lep., Noctuidae) i podaci o dinamici leta leptira na podrucju Sombora.) Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor), 32(1):27-31.

Wang MaoMing, 2006. Current status of vegetable diseases and insect pests and comprehensive control in Fujian. Fujian Agricultural Science and Technology, No.2:60-63.

Wang Wei; Mo JianChu; Cheng Jia'an; Zhuang PeiJun; Tang ZhenHua, 2006. Selection and characterization of spinosad resistance in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 84(3):180-187. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WP8-4HC6KP5-2&_user=3891418&_handle=V-WA-A-W-AA-MsSAYVA-UUW-U-AAZAECCBDA-AACECBZADA-ACDCUZABE-AA-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2006&_rdoc=4&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236984%232006%23999159996%23616486!&_cdi=6984&view=c&_acct=C000028398&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=3891418&md5=140936b438b0110ed16543997e7db4c5

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Winiarska G, 2002. Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) in urban habitats: the moths of Warsaw. I. Noctuidae, Pantheidae, Nolidae. Fragmenta Faunistica, 45(2):131-145.

Distribution References

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Aragón García A, Damián Huato M Á, Huerta Lara M, Sáenz-de-Cabezón F J, Pérez-Moreno I, Marco-Mancebón V, López-Olguín J F, 2011. Insect occurrence and losses due to phytophagous species in the amaranth Amaranthus hypocondriacus L. crop in Puebla, Mexico. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 6 (27), 5924-5929. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar/PDF/pdf2011/19%20Nov/Garcia%20et%20al.pdf

Arbabtafti R, Ebrahimi E, 2013. New record of Euplectrus bicolor (Hym.: Eulophidae) parasitoid of Spodoptera exigua (Lep.: Noctuidae). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 46 (15), 1895-1896. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20 DOI:10.1080/03235408.2013.778450

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cordero R J, Kuhar T P, Speese J III, Youngman R R, Lewis E E, Bloomquist J R, Kok L T, Bratsch A D, 2006. Field efficacy of insecticides for control of lepidopteran pests on collards in Virginia. Plant Health Progress. 1-9.

Feng H Q, Wu K M, Cheng D F, Guo Y Y, 2003. Radar observations of the autumn migration of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and other moths in northern China. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 93 (2), 115-124. DOI:10.1079/BER2002221

Halter L, Habegger R, Schnitzler W H, 2001. Recommendations for growing artichokes. (Empfehlungen für den Anbau von Artischocken.). Gemüse (München). 37 (12), 22-24.

Karimi-Malati A, Fathipour Y, Talebi A A, Lozan A I, 2014. The first report of Microplitis fulvicornis (Hym.: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) as a parasitoid of Spodoptera exigua (Lep.: Noctuidae) from Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran. 33 (4), 71-72. http://www.entsociran.ir/journal/files/site1/user_files_9765c9/fathipour-A-11-32-2-2a71476.pdf

Li DunSong, Zhang BaoXin, Huang ShaoHua, Feng Li, 2004. The occurrence and damages of insect pests on sweet corn in Guangdong Province. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica. 31 (1), 6-12.

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Niu ChengWei, Zhang QingWen, Ye ZhiHua, Luo LiZhi, 2006. Analysis of genetic diversity in different geographic populations of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with AFLP technique. Acta Entomologica Sinica. 49 (5), 867-873.

Patel R K, Thakur B S, 2005. Insect pest complex and seasonal incidence in linseed with particular reference to bud fly (Dasineura lini Barnes). Journal of Plant Protection and Environment. 2 (2), 102-107.

Pérez C J, Alvarado P, Narváez C, Miranda F, Hernández L, Vanegas H, Hruska A, Shelton A M, 2000. Assessment of insecticide resistance in five insect pests attacking field and vegetable crops in Nicaragua. Journal of Economic Entomology. 93 (6), 1779-1787. DOI:10.1603/0022-0493-93.6.1779

Rishi Kumar, Sucheta, Khokhar K S, 2004. Relative abundance of noctuids (Lepidoptera) associated with cotton and other crops in Haryana. Journal of Cotton Research and Development. 18 (1), 99-101.

Rossem G Van, Bund C F Van de, Burger H C, 1977. Unusual instances of damage by insects in 1976. (Bijzondere aantastingen door insekten in 1976.). Entomologische Berichten. 37 (7), 97-98.

Smagghe G, Medina P, Schuyesmans S, Tirry L, Viñuela E, 2000. Insecticide resistant monitoring of tebufenozide for managing Spodoptera exigua (Hübner [1808]). (Estudios de resistencia a tebufenocida en Spodoptera exigua (Hübner [1808]).). Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas. 26 (4), 475-481.

Song ChangQi, Pan YueXing, Xu HuoZhong, Lan JianJun, 2004. The application of sex lure to forecasting of vegetable pests. Entomological Knowledge. 41 (1), 77-78.

Tremewan W G, 2002. Interesting Lepidoptera at m. v. light in West Cornwall (V.C. 1), 2001. Entomologist's Gazette. 53 (1), 24.

UK, CAB International, 1972. Spodoptera exigua. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 302.

Vajgand D, Forgić G, Tošev M, 2004. Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, 1808) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), and flight dynamics data in the Sombor Region. (Sovica Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, 1808) (Lep., Noctuidae) i podaci o dinamici leta leptira na području Sombora.). Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor). 32 (1), 27-31.

Wang MaoMing, 2006. Current status of vegetable diseases and insect pests and comprehensive control in Fujian. Fujian Agricultural Science and Technology. 60-63.

Wang Wei, Mo JianChu, Cheng Jia'an, Zhuang PeiJun, Tang ZhenHua, 2006. Selection and characterization of spinosad resistance in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 84 (3), 180-187. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WP8-4HC6KP5-2&_user=3891418&_handle=V-WA-A-W-AA-MsSAYVA-UUW-U-AAZAECCBDA-AACECBZADA-ACDCUZABE-AA-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2006&_rdoc=4&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236984%232006%23999159996%23616486!&_cdi=6984&view=c&_acct=C000028398&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=3891418&md5=140936b438b0110ed16543997e7db4c5 DOI:10.1016/j.pestbp.2005.07.002

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Winiarska G, 2002. Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) in urban habitats: the moths of Warsaw. I. Noctuidae, Pantheidae, Nolidae. Fragmenta Faunistica. 45 (2), 131-145.

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