Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Spodoptera exigua
(beet armyworm)

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Datasheet

Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Spodoptera exigua
  • Preferred Common Name
  • beet armyworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult (museum set specimen).
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult (museum set specimen).
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Adult (museum set specimen).
AdultAdult (museum set specimen).©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)

Preferred Common Name

  • beet armyworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Caradrina exigua Hübner
  • Laphygma exigua Hübner
  • Laphygma flavimaculata
  • Noctua exigua Hübner
  • Spodoptera flavimaculata (Harvey)
  • Susunai exigua (Hübner)

International Common Names

  • English: asparagus fern caterpillar; berseem armyworm; cottonworm, lesser; inchworm; lesser armyworm; lesser cottonworm; lucerne armyworm; onion armyworm; pigweed caterpillar; small mottled willow moth; sugarbeet armyworm
  • Spanish: gardama; gardama de la remolacha; gusano del frijol de costa; gusano quelitero; gusano soldado de la remolacha; gusano verde del cogollero
  • French: légionnaire de la betterave; noctuelle de la betterave

Local Common Names

  • Dominican Republic: gusano de la cebolla
  • Germany: Eule, Zuckerrueben-; Heerwurm
  • India: lucerne caterpillar
  • Indonesia: ulat bawang
  • Israel: halaphygma
  • Italy: nottua della barbabietola
  • Mexico: gusano soldado del algodonero
  • Netherlands: Sjalottenuil
  • South Africa: Kleinkommandowurm
  • Turkey: cizgili kurt karadrina

EPPO code

  • LAPHEG (Spodoptera exigua)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Spodoptera
  •                                 Species: Spodoptera exigua

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
BeninPresent
BotswanaPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
BurundiPresent
CameroonPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EswatiniPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
LesothoPresent
LibyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MaliPresent
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigerPresent
RwandaPresent
Saint HelenaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AscensionPresent
SenegalPresent
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
TunisiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
ArmeniaPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-BeijingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-HainanPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
JordanPresent
KazakhstanPresent
LaosPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent
MyanmarPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TajikistanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent
-SocotraPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CyprusPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GibraltarPresent
GreecePresent
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresent
NetherlandsPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
-MadeiraPresent
RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
Costa RicaPresent
JamaicaPresent
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MississippiPresent
-NevadaPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus cereus Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis entomocidus Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Barylypa humeralis Parasite
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Brachymeria ovata Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Bracon brevicornis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Bracon platynotae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Calosoma affine Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Campoletis sonorensis
Carabidae Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Chelonus curvimaculatus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Chelonus formosanus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Chelonus inanitus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Chelonus insularis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Honduras Lactuca sativa
Chrysoperla carnea Predator
Cotesia marginiventris Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Honduras Capsicum annuum
Cotesia plutellae Parasite
Cotesia telengai Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Deraeocoris nebulosus Predator
Drino imberbis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Eocanthecona furcellata Predator
Eriborus argenteopilosus Parasite
Erynia radicans Pathogen
Euplectrus bicolor Parasite Arbabtafti and Ebrahimi (2013)
Euplectrus laphygmae Parasite
Euplectrus platyhypenae Parasite
Exorista larvarum Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Exorista segregata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Exorista xanthaspis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Geocoris pallens Predator
Geocoris punctipes Predator
Glabromicroplitis croceipes Parasite
Glabromicroplitis croceipes Parasite
Glyptapanteles ashmeadi Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Gonia bimaculata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Granulosis virus Pathogen
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Parasite
Heterorhabditis heliothidis Parasite
Hyposoter didymator Parasite
Hyposoter exiguae Parasite
Hypovoria hilaris Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Ichneumon promissorius Parasite
Lespesia archippivora Parasite
Lygus hesperus Predator
Meteorus autographae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Microchelonus blackburni Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Microchelonus heliopae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Microplitis fulvicornis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Karimi-Malati et al. (2014)
Microplitis rufiventris Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Egypt
Nabis americoferus Predator
Nomuraea rileyi Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Nosema bombycis Pathogen
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Orgilus parcus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Orius tristicolor Predator
Ovomermis albicans Parasite
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
Pales pavida Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Palesisa maculosa Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Parapanteles gerontogeae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Pediobius Parasite Ghazali et al. (2014)
Peribaea orbata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Peribaea palaestina Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Peribaea tibialis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Phryxe magnicornis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Podisus acutissimus Predator
Podisus maculiventris Predator
Podisus sagitta Predator
Pseudogonia rufifrons Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Rogas pellucens Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Sinophorus xanthostomus Parasite
Solenopsis invicta Predator
Spallanzania hebes Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite
Steinernema feltiae Parasite
Steinernema glaseri Parasite
Steinernema scapterisci Parasite
Tachina praeceps Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Telenomus hawai Parasite Egypt
Telenomus nawaii Parasite Eggs Egypt
Telenomus remus Parasite Eggs
Therion circumflexum Parasite
Trichogramma chilonis Parasite
Trichogramma pretiosum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma principium Parasite Eggs
Voria ruralis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Xenorhabdus nematophilus Pathogen
Zele nigricornis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Zelus renardii Predator

References

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Adams DB; McPherson RM; Jones DC; Horton DL, 1989. Soybean insects. In: Douce GK, McPherson RM (eds). Summary of losses from insect damage and costs of control in Georgia, 1988. Special Publication 64. Georgia, USA: Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Georgia, 36-37.

Alborn HT; Turlings TCJ; Jones TH; Stenhagen G; Loughrin JH; Tumlinson JH, 1997. An elicitor of plant volatiles from beet armyworm oral secretion. Science (Washington), 276(5314):945-949; 7 ref.

Anon., 1997. Insect Control Guide. Ohio, USA: Meister Publishing Co., 442 pp.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Aragón García A; Damián Huato MÂ; Huerta Lara M; Sáenz-de-Cabezón FJ; Pérez-Moreno I; Marco-Mancebón V; López-Olguín JF, 2011. Insect occurrence and losses due to phytophagous species in the amaranth Amaranthus hypocondriacus L. crop in Puebla, Mexico. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(27):5924-5929. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar/PDF/pdf2011/19%20Nov/Garcia%20et%20al.pdf

Arbabtafti R; Ebrahimi E, 2013. New record of Euplectrus bicolor (Hym.: Eulophidae) parasitoid of Spodoptera exigua (Lep.: Noctuidae). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 46(15):1895-1896. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20

Brewer MJ; Meade T; Trumble JT, 1995. Development of insecticide-resistant and -susceptible Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) exposed to furanocoumarins found in celery. Environmental Entomology, 24(2):392-401.

Brown ES; Dewhurst CF, 1975. The genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Africa and the Near East. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 65(2):221-262.

CIE, 1972. Distribution Maps of Pests. Map No. 302. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cordero RJ; Kuhar TP; Speese J III; Youngman RR; Lewis EE; Bloomquist JR; Kok LT; Bratsch AD, 2006. Field efficacy of insecticides for control of lepidopteran pests on collards in Virginia. Plant Health Progress, January:1-9. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/sub/php/research/2006/collard/

Davis FM; Baker GT; Williams WP, 1995. Anatomical characteristics of maize resistant to leaf feeding by southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 12(1):55-65.

Estruch JJ; Warren GW; Mullins MA; Nye GJ; Craig JA; Koziel MG, 1996. Vip3A, a novel Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with a wide spectrum of activities against lepidopteran insects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93(11):5389-5394; 23 refs.

Feng HQ; Wu KM; Cheng DF; Guo YY, 2003. Radar observations of the autumn migration of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and other moths in northern China. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 93(2):115-124.

Ghazali SZ; Md-Zain BM; Yaakop S, 2014. Determination of Pediobius sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a new species record of endoparasitoid associate with beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidea) from Malaysia using DNA barcode. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 37(2):285-291. http://www.pertanika.upm.edu.my/Pertanika%20PAPERS/JTAS%20Vol.%2037%20(2)%20May.%202014/08%20Page%20285%20to%20292%20(JTAS%200520-2013).pdf

Halter L; Habegger R; Schnitzler WH, 2001. Recommendations for growing artichokes. (Empfehlungen für den Anbau von Artischocken.) Gemüse (München), 37(12):22-24.

Hardee DD; Herzog GA, 1996. 49th Annual conference report on cotton insect research and control. 1996 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Nashville, TN, USA, January 9-12, 1996: Volume 2., 643-669.

Huffman R, 1996. The beet armyworm in Texas and Oklahoma 1995. 1996 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Nashville, TN, USA, January 9-12, 1996: Volume 1., 113-115.

Karimi-Malati A; Fathipour Y; Talebi AA; Lozan AI, 2014. The first report of Microplitis fulvicornis (Hym.: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) as a parasitoid of Spodoptera exigua (Lep.: Noctuidae) from Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 33(4):71-72. http://www.entsociran.ir/journal/files/site1/user_files_9765c9/fathipour-A-11-32-2-2a71476.pdf

King ABS; Saunders JL, 1984. The invertebrate pests of annual food crops in Central America. A guide to their recognition and control. London, UK: Overseas Development Administration.

Kranz J; Schmutterer H; Koch W, eds. , 1977. Diseases, pests and weeds in tropical crops. Berlin, German Federal Republic: Verlag Paul Parey, 666 pp.

Lambert WR; Adams DB; Herzog GA; Horton DL; Hudson RD; Jones DC, 1989. Cotton insects. In: Douce GK, McPherson RM (eds). Summary of losses from insect damage and costs of control in Georgia, 1988. Special Publication 64. Georgia, USA: Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Georgia, 4-6.

Lee SD; Ahn SB; Cho WS; Choi KM, 1991. Effects of temperature on the development of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration, Crop Protection, 33(2):58-62.

Levy R; Habeck DH, 1976. Descriptions of the larvae of Spodoptera sunia and S. latifascia with a key to the mature Spodoptera larvae of the eastern United States (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 69(4):585-588.

Li DunSong; Zhang BaoXin; Huang ShaoHua; Feng Li, 2004. The occurrence and damages of insect pests on sweet corn in Guangdong Province. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 31(1):6-12.

Lindeborg M, 2008. Remarkable records of Macrolepidoptera in Sweden 2007. (Intressanta fynd av storfjärilar (Macrolepidoptera) i Sverige 2007.) Entomologisk Tidskrift, 129(1):43-52. http://www.sef.nu/

McLeod PJ; Young SY III; Yearian WC, 1978. Effectiveness of microbial and chemical insecticides on beet armyworm larvae on soybeans. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 13(3):266-269

Meagher RL; Brambila J; Hung E, 2008. Monitoring for exotic Spodoptera species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 91(4):517-522. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

Mihm JA; Smith ME; Deutsch JA, 1988. Development of open-pollinated varieties, non-conventional hybrids and inbred lines of tropical maize with resistance to fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), at CIMMYT. Florida Entomologist, 71(3):262-268.

Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería Servicio Fitosanitario del Estado (Costa Rica), 2009. Listado de Plagas (insectos y ácaros) en cultivos de importancia económica en Costa Rica (C). http://www.protecnet.go.cr/laboratorios/plagcul/cultivoc.htm

Moar WJ; Pusztai-Carey M; Faassen Hvan; Bosch D; Frutos R; Rang C; Luo K; Adang MJ, 1995. Development of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIC resistance by Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61(6):2086-2092; 35 ref.

Niu ChengWei; Zhang QingWen; Ye ZhiHua; Luo LiZhi, 2006. Analysis of genetic diversity in different geographic populations of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with AFLP technique. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 49(5):867-873.

Oerke EC; Dehne HW; Schönbeck F; Weber A, 1994. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops., xxii + 808 pp.; [ref. at ends of chapters, available from publishers at PO Box 1991, Amsterdam, Netherlands or PO Box 945, Madison Square Station, NY 10160-0757, USA].

Oerke EC; Dehne HW; Schönbeck F; Weber A, 1994. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops., xxii + 808 pp.; [ref. at ends of chapters, available from publishers at PO Box 1991, Amsterdam, Netherlands or PO Box 945, Madison Square Station, NY 10160-0757, USA].

Patel RK; Thakur BS, 2005. Insect pest complex and seasonal incidence in linseed with particular reference to bud fly (Dasineura lini Barnes). Journal of Plant Protection and Environment, 2(2):102-107.

Pérez CJ; Alvarado P; Narváez C; Miranda F; Hernández L; Vanegas H; Hruska A; Shelton AM, 2000. Assessment of insecticide resistance in five insect pests attacking field and vegetable crops in Nicaragua. Journal of Economic Entomology, 93(6):1779-1787.

Rishi Kumar; Sucheta; Khokhar KS, 2004. Relative abundance of noctuids (Lepidoptera) associated with cotton and other crops in Haryana. Journal of Cotton Research and Development, 18(1):99-101.

Rivnay E, 1962. Field crop pests in the Near East. Monographiae Biologicae, 10:194-199.

Rossem G van; Bund CF van de; Burger HC, 1977. Unusual instances of damage by insects in 1976. Entomologische Berichten, 37(7):97-98.

Ruberson JR; Herzog GA; Lambert WR; Lewis WJ, 1994. Management of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton: role of natural enemies. Florida Entomologist, 77(4):440-453.

Salama HS; Saleh MR; Moawed S; El-Din AS, 1990. Evaluation of microbial and chemical insecticides for the control of Spodoptera exigua (Lep., Noctuidae) on soybean plants. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 63(5):100-102; 15 ref.

Salama HS; Zaki FN; Salem SA; Hamdy MK; Megahed M, 1993. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. on the lesser cotton leafworm Spodoptera exigua Hbn. (Lep., Noctuidae) in corn and sunflower cultivations in Egypt. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 66(2):29-31; 8 ref.

Shorey HH; Summers CG; Sisk CB; Gerber RG, 1994. Disruption of pheromone communication in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in tomatoes, alfalfa, and cotton. Environmental Entomology, 23(6):1529-1533.

Smagghe G; Medina P; Schuyesmans S; Tirry L; Viñuela E, 2000. Insecticide resistant monitoring of tebufenozide for managing Spodoptera exigua (Hübner [1808]). (Estudios de resistencia a tebufenocida en Spodoptera exigua (Hübner [1808]).) Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 26(4):475-481.

Song ChangQi; Pan YueXing; Xu HuoZhong; Lan JianJun, 2004. The application of sex lure to forecasting of vegetable pests. Entomological Knowledge, 41(1):77-78.

Todd EL; Poole RW, 1980. Keys and illustrations for the armyworm moths of the noctuid genus Spodoptera Guenee from the Western Hemisphere. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 73(6):722-738.

Tremewan WG, 2002. Interesting Lepidoptera at m. v. light in West Cornwall (V.C. 1), 2001. Entomologist's Gazette, 53(1):24.

Vajgand D; Forgic G; To?ev M, 2004. Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, 1808) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), and flight dynamics data in the Sombor Region. (Sovica Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, 1808) (Lep., Noctuidae) i podaci o dinamici leta leptira na podrucju Sombora.) Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor), 32(1):27-31.

Wang MaoMing, 2006. Current status of vegetable diseases and insect pests and comprehensive control in Fujian. Fujian Agricultural Science and Technology, No.2:60-63.

Wang Wei; Mo JianChu; Cheng Jia'an; Zhuang PeiJun; Tang ZhenHua, 2006. Selection and characterization of spinosad resistance in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 84(3):180-187. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WP8-4HC6KP5-2&_user=3891418&_handle=V-WA-A-W-AA-MsSAYVA-UUW-U-AAZAECCBDA-AACECBZADA-ACDCUZABE-AA-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2006&_rdoc=4&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236984%232006%23999159996%23616486!&_cdi=6984&view=c&_acct=C000028398&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=3891418&md5=140936b438b0110ed16543997e7db4c5

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Winiarska G, 2002. Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) in urban habitats: the moths of Warsaw. I. Noctuidae, Pantheidae, Nolidae. Fragmenta Faunistica, 45(2):131-145.

Distribution References

Adamczyk J J Jr, Williams M R, Reed J T, Hubbard D W, Hardee D D, 2003. Spatial and temporal occurrence of beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) moths in Mississippi. Florida Entomologist. 86 (3), 229-232. DOI:10.1653/0015-4040(2003)086[0229:SATOOB]2.0.CO;2

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Aragón García A, Damián Huato M Á, Huerta Lara M, Sáenz-de-Cabezón F J, Pérez-Moreno I, Marco-Mancebón V, López-Olguín J F, 2011. Insect occurrence and losses due to phytophagous species in the amaranth Amaranthus hypocondriacus L. crop in Puebla, Mexico. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 6 (27), 5924-5929. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar/PDF/pdf2011/19%20Nov/Garcia%20et%20al.pdf

Arbabtafti R, Ebrahimi E, 2013. New record of Euplectrus bicolor (Hym.: Eulophidae) parasitoid of Spodoptera exigua (Lep.: Noctuidae). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 46 (15), 1895-1896. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20 DOI:10.1080/03235408.2013.778450

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cordero R J, Kuhar T P, Speese J III, Youngman R R, Lewis E E, Bloomquist J R, Kok L T, Bratsch A D, 2006. Field efficacy of insecticides for control of lepidopteran pests on collards in Virginia. Plant Health Progress. 1-9.

Feng H Q, Wu K M, Cheng D F, Guo Y Y, 2003. Radar observations of the autumn migration of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and other moths in northern China. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 93 (2), 115-124. DOI:10.1079/BER2002221

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