Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Spodoptera exigua
(beet armyworm)



Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm)


  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Spodoptera exigua
  • Preferred Common Name
  • beet armyworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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Adult (museum set specimen).
CaptionAdult (museum set specimen).
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Adult (museum set specimen).
AdultAdult (museum set specimen).©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)

Preferred Common Name

  • beet armyworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Caradrina exigua Hübner
  • Laphygma exigua Hübner
  • Laphygma flavimaculata
  • Noctua exigua Hübner
  • Spodoptera flavimaculata (Harvey)
  • Susunai exigua (Hübner)

International Common Names

  • English: asparagus fern caterpillar; berseem armyworm; cottonworm, lesser; inchworm; lesser armyworm; lesser cottonworm; lucerne armyworm; onion armyworm; pigweed caterpillar; small mottled willow moth; sugarbeet armyworm
  • Spanish: gardama; gardama de la remolacha; gusano del frijol de costa; gusano quelitero; gusano soldado de la remolacha; gusano verde del cogollero
  • French: légionnaire de la betterave; noctuelle de la betterave

Local Common Names

  • Dominican Republic: gusano de la cebolla
  • Germany: Eule, Zuckerrueben-; Heerwurm
  • India: lucerne caterpillar
  • Indonesia: ulat bawang
  • Israel: halaphygma
  • Italy: nottua della barbabietola
  • Mexico: gusano soldado del algodonero
  • Netherlands: Sjalottenuil
  • South Africa: Kleinkommandowurm
  • Turkey: cizgili kurt karadrina

EPPO code

  • LAPHEG (Spodoptera exigua)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Spodoptera
  •                                 Species: Spodoptera exigua

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentCIE, 1972
ArmeniaPresentCIE, 1972
AzerbaijanPresentCIE, 1972
BangladeshPresentCIE, 1972; APPPC, 1987
CambodiaPresentCIE, 1972
ChinaPresentCIE, 1972
-BeijingPresentFeng et al., 2003
-FujianPresentWang MaoMing, 2006
-GuangdongPresentLi et al., 2004
-HainanPresentNiu et al., 2006
-HenanPresentNiu et al., 2006
-Hong KongPresentAPPPC, 1987
-HubeiPresentNiu et al., 2006
-JiangxiPresentNiu et al., 2006
-ShandongPresentNiu et al., 2006
-ShanghaiPresentWang et al., 2006
-SichuanPresentNiu et al., 2006
-YunnanPresentCIE, 1972
-ZhejiangPresentSong et al., 2004
IndiaPresentCIE, 1972
-Andhra PradeshPresentCIE, 1972
-AssamPresentCIE, 1972
-BiharPresentCIE, 1972
-ChhattisgarhPresentPatel and Thakur, 2005
-HaryanaPresentRishi et al., 2004
-Indian PunjabPresentCIE, 1972
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCIE, 1972
-KarnatakaPresentCIE, 1972
-Madhya PradeshPresentCIE, 1972
-MaharashtraPresentCIE, 1972
-OdishaPresentCIE, 1972
-SikkimPresentCIE, 1972
-Tamil NaduPresentCIE, 1972
-Uttar PradeshPresentCIE, 1972
-West BengalPresentCIE, 1972
IndonesiaPresentCIE, 1972; Waterhouse, 1993
-Irian JayaPresentCIE, 1972
IranPresentCIE, 1972; Arbabtafti and Ebrahimi, 2013; Karimi-Malati et al., 2014
IraqPresentCIE, 1972
IsraelPresentCIE, 1972
JapanPresentCIE, 1972
JordanPresentCIE, 1972
KazakhstanPresentCIE, 1972
Korea, Republic ofPresentCIE, 1972
LaosPresentCIE, 1972
LebanonPresentCIE, 1972
MalaysiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993
MyanmarPresentCIE, 1972; Waterhouse, 1993
PakistanPresentCIE, 1972
PhilippinesPresentCIE, 1972
Russian Federation
-Russia (Asia)PresentCIE, 1972
Saudi ArabiaPresentCIE, 1972
Sri LankaPresentCIE, 1972
SyriaPresentCIE, 1972
TaiwanPresentCIE, 1972
TajikistanPresentCIE, 1972
ThailandPresentCIE, 1972; APPPC, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993
TurkeyPresentCIE, 1972
TurkmenistanPresentCIE, 1972
UzbekistanPresentCIE, 1972
VietnamPresentCIE, 1972; Waterhouse, 1993
YemenPresentCIE, 1972


AlgeriaPresentCIE, 1972
BeninPresentCIE, 1972
BotswanaPresentCIE, 1972
Burkina FasoPresentCIE, 1972
BurundiPresentCIE, 1972
CameroonPresentCIE, 1972
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentCIE, 1972
Côte d'IvoirePresentCIE, 1972
EgyptPresentCIE, 1972
EthiopiaPresentCIE, 1972
GhanaPresentCIE, 1972
GuineaPresentCIE, 1972
KenyaPresentCIE, 1972
LesothoPresentCIE, 1972
LibyaPresentCIE, 1972
MadagascarPresentCIE, 1972
MalawiPresentCIE, 1972
MaliPresentCIE, 1972
MoroccoPresentCIE, 1972
MozambiquePresentCIE, 1972
NigerPresentCIE, 1972
RwandaPresentCIE, 1972
Saint HelenaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AscensionPresentCIE, 1972
SenegalPresentCIE, 1972
SomaliaPresentCIE, 1972
South AfricaPresentCIE, 1972
-Canary IslandsPresentCIE, 1972
SudanPresentCIE, 1972
SwazilandPresentCIE, 1972
TanzaniaPresentCIE, 1972
TogoPresentCIE, 1972
TunisiaPresentCIE, 1972
-SocotraPresentCIE, 1972
ZimbabwePresentCIE, 1972

North America

CanadaPresentCIE, 1972
-British ColumbiaPresentCIE, 1972
MexicoPresentCIE, 1972; Aragón et al., 2011
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentCIE, 1972
-ArizonaPresentCIE, 1972
-ArkansasPresentCIE, 1972
-CaliforniaPresentCIE, 1972
-ColoradoPresentCIE, 1972
-FloridaPresentCIE, 1972
-GeorgiaPresentCIE, 1972
-HawaiiPresentCIE, 1972
-IllinoisPresentCIE, 1972
-MarylandPresentCIE, 1972
-MassachusettsPresentMeagher et al., 2008
-MississippiPresentCIE, 1972
-NevadaPresentCIE, 1972
-New MexicoPresentCIE, 1972
-North CarolinaPresentCIE, 1972
-OklahomaPresentCIE, 1972
-OregonPresentCIE, 1972
-South CarolinaPresentCIE, 1972
-TennesseePresentCIE, 1972
-TexasPresentCIE, 1972
-VirginiaPresentCordero et al., 2006
-WyomingPresentCIE, 1972

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresent
JamaicaPresentCIE, 1972
NicaraguaPresentPérez et al., 2000


BelgiumPresentSmagghe et al., 2000
BulgariaPresentCIE, 1972
CyprusPresentCIE, 1972
FrancePresentCIE, 1972
GermanyPresentHalter et al., 2001
GibraltarPresentCIE, 1972
GreecePresentCIE, 1972
ItalyPresentCIE, 1972
-SicilyPresentCIE, 1972
NetherlandsAbsent, intercepted onlyRossem et al., 1977; Smagghe et al., 2000
NetherlandsPresentRossem et al., 1977; Smagghe et al., 2000
PolandPresentWiniarska, 2002
PortugalPresentCIE, 1972
-MadeiraPresentCIE, 1972
Russian FederationPresentCIE, 1972
SerbiaPresentVajgand et al., 2004
SpainPresentCIE, 1972
SwedenPresentLindeborg, 2008
UKPresentTremewan, 2002
-England and WalesPresentTremewan, 2002
UkrainePresentCIE, 1972
Yugoslavia (former)PresentCIE, 1972


AustraliaPresentCIE, 1972
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentCIE, 1972
-New South WalesPresentCIE, 1972
-QueenslandPresentCIE, 1972
-South AustraliaPresentCIE, 1972
-VictoriaPresentCIE, 1972
-Western AustraliaPresentCIE, 1972

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus cereus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis entomocidus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Barylypa humeralis Parasite
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Brachymeria ovata Parasite Pupae
Bracon brevicornis Parasite Larvae
Bracon platynotae Parasite Larvae
Calosoma affine Predator Larvae
Campoletis sonorensis
Carabidae Predator Larvae
Chelonus curvimaculatus Parasite Larvae
Chelonus formosanus Parasite Larvae
Chelonus inanitus Parasite Larvae
Chelonus insularis Parasite Larvae Honduras Lactuca sativa
Chrysoperla carnea Predator
Cotesia marginiventris Parasite Larvae Honduras Capsicum annuum
Cotesia plutellae Parasite
Cotesia telengai Parasite Larvae
Deraeocoris nebulosus Predator
Drino imberbis Parasite Larvae
Eocanthecona furcellata Predator
Eriborus argenteopilosus Parasite
Erynia radicans Pathogen
Euplectrus bicolor Parasite Arbabtafti and Ebrahimi, 2013
Euplectrus laphygmae Parasite
Euplectrus platyhypenae Parasite
Exorista larvarum Parasite Larvae
Exorista segregata Parasite Larvae
Exorista xanthaspis Parasite Larvae
Geocoris pallens Predator
Geocoris punctipes Predator
Glabromicroplitis croceipes Parasite
Glabromicroplitis croceipes Parasite
Glyptapanteles ashmeadi Parasite Larvae
Gonia bimaculata Parasite Larvae
Granulosis virus Pathogen
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Parasite
Heterorhabditis heliothidis Parasite
Hyposoter didymator Parasite
Hyposoter exiguae Parasite
Hypovoria hilaris Parasite Larvae
Ichneumon promissorius Parasite
Lespesia archippivora Parasite
Lygus hesperus Predator
Meteorus autographae Parasite Larvae
Microchelonus blackburni Parasite Larvae
Microchelonus heliopae Parasite Larvae
Microplitis fulvicornis Parasite Larvae Karimi-Malati et al., 2014
Microplitis rufiventris Parasite Larvae Egypt
Nabis americoferus Predator
Nomuraea rileyi Pathogen Larvae
Nosema bombycis Pathogen
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Orgilus parcus Parasite Larvae
Orius tristicolor Predator
Ovomermis albicans Parasite
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
Pales pavida Parasite Larvae
Palesisa maculosa Parasite Larvae
Parapanteles gerontogeae Parasite Larvae
Pediobius Parasite Ghazali et al., 2014
Peribaea orbata Parasite Larvae
Peribaea palaestina Parasite Larvae
Peribaea tibialis Parasite Larvae
Phryxe magnicornis Parasite Larvae
Podisus acutissimus Predator
Podisus maculiventris Predator
Podisus sagitta Predator
Pseudogonia rufifrons Parasite Larvae
Rogas pellucens Parasite Larvae
Sinophorus xanthostomus Parasite
Solenopsis invicta Predator
Spallanzania hebes Parasite Larvae
Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite
Steinernema feltiae Parasite
Steinernema glaseri Parasite
Steinernema scapterisci Parasite
Tachina praeceps Parasite Larvae
Telenomus hawai Parasite Egypt
Telenomus nawaii Parasite Eggs Egypt
Telenomus remus Parasite Eggs
Therion circumflexum Parasite
Trichogramma chilonis Parasite
Trichogramma pretiosum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma principium Parasite Eggs
Voria ruralis Parasite Larvae
Xenorhabdus nematophilus Pathogen
Zele nigricornis Parasite Larvae
Zelus renardii Predator


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Adams DB; McPherson RM; Jones DC; Horton DL, 1989. Soybean insects. In: Douce GK, McPherson RM (eds). Summary of losses from insect damage and costs of control in Georgia, 1988. Special Publication 64. Georgia, USA: Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Georgia, 36-37.

Alborn HT; Turlings TCJ; Jones TH; Stenhagen G; Loughrin JH; Tumlinson JH, 1997. An elicitor of plant volatiles from beet armyworm oral secretion. Science (Washington), 276(5314):945-949; 7 ref.

Anon., 1997. Insect Control Guide. Ohio, USA: Meister Publishing Co., 442 pp.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Aragón García A; Damián Huato MÂ; Huerta Lara M; Sáenz-de-Cabezón FJ; Pérez-Moreno I; Marco-Mancebón V; López-Olguín JF, 2011. Insect occurrence and losses due to phytophagous species in the amaranth Amaranthus hypocondriacus L. crop in Puebla, Mexico. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(27):5924-5929.

Arbabtafti R; Ebrahimi E, 2013. New record of Euplectrus bicolor (Hym.: Eulophidae) parasitoid of Spodoptera exigua (Lep.: Noctuidae). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 46(15):1895-1896.

Brewer MJ; Meade T; Trumble JT, 1995. Development of insecticide-resistant and -susceptible Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) exposed to furanocoumarins found in celery. Environmental Entomology, 24(2):392-401.

Brown ES; Dewhurst CF, 1975. The genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Africa and the Near East. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 65(2):221-262.

CIE, 1972. Distribution Maps of Pests. Map No. 302. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cordero RJ; Kuhar TP; Speese J III; Youngman RR; Lewis EE; Bloomquist JR; Kok LT; Bratsch AD, 2006. Field efficacy of insecticides for control of lepidopteran pests on collards in Virginia. Plant Health Progress, January:1-9.

Davis FM; Baker GT; Williams WP, 1995. Anatomical characteristics of maize resistant to leaf feeding by southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 12(1):55-65.

Estruch JJ; Warren GW; Mullins MA; Nye GJ; Craig JA; Koziel MG, 1996. Vip3A, a novel Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with a wide spectrum of activities against lepidopteran insects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93(11):5389-5394; 23 refs.

Feng HQ; Wu KM; Cheng DF; Guo YY, 2003. Radar observations of the autumn migration of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and other moths in northern China. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 93(2):115-124.

Ghazali SZ; Md-Zain BM; Yaakop S, 2014. Determination of Pediobius sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a new species record of endoparasitoid associate with beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidea) from Malaysia using DNA barcode. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 37(2):285-291.

Halter L; Habegger R; Schnitzler WH, 2001. Recommendations for growing artichokes. (Empfehlungen für den Anbau von Artischocken.) Gemüse (München), 37(12):22-24.

Hardee DD; Herzog GA, 1996. 49th Annual conference report on cotton insect research and control. 1996 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Nashville, TN, USA, January 9-12, 1996: Volume 2., 643-669.

Huffman R, 1996. The beet armyworm in Texas and Oklahoma 1995. 1996 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Nashville, TN, USA, January 9-12, 1996: Volume 1., 113-115.

Karimi-Malati A; Fathipour Y; Talebi AA; Lozan AI, 2014. The first report of Microplitis fulvicornis (Hym.: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) as a parasitoid of Spodoptera exigua (Lep.: Noctuidae) from Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 33(4):71-72.

King ABS; Saunders JL, 1984. The invertebrate pests of annual food crops in Central America. A guide to their recognition and control. London, UK: Overseas Development Administration.

Kranz J; Schmutterer H; Koch W, eds. , 1977. Diseases, pests and weeds in tropical crops. Berlin, German Federal Republic: Verlag Paul Parey, 666 pp.

Lambert WR; Adams DB; Herzog GA; Horton DL; Hudson RD; Jones DC, 1989. Cotton insects. In: Douce GK, McPherson RM (eds). Summary of losses from insect damage and costs of control in Georgia, 1988. Special Publication 64. Georgia, USA: Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Georgia, 4-6.

Lee SD; Ahn SB; Cho WS; Choi KM, 1991. Effects of temperature on the development of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration, Crop Protection, 33(2):58-62.

Levy R; Habeck DH, 1976. Descriptions of the larvae of Spodoptera sunia and S. latifascia with a key to the mature Spodoptera larvae of the eastern United States (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 69(4):585-588.

Li DunSong; Zhang BaoXin; Huang ShaoHua; Feng Li, 2004. The occurrence and damages of insect pests on sweet corn in Guangdong Province. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 31(1):6-12.

Lindeborg M, 2008. Remarkable records of Macrolepidoptera in Sweden 2007. (Intressanta fynd av storfjärilar (Macrolepidoptera) i Sverige 2007.) Entomologisk Tidskrift, 129(1):43-52.

McLeod PJ; Young SY III; Yearian WC, 1978. Effectiveness of microbial and chemical insecticides on beet armyworm larvae on soybeans. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 13(3):266-269

Meagher RL; Brambila J; Hung E, 2008. Monitoring for exotic Spodoptera species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 91(4):517-522.

Mihm JA; Smith ME; Deutsch JA, 1988. Development of open-pollinated varieties, non-conventional hybrids and inbred lines of tropical maize with resistance to fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), at CIMMYT. Florida Entomologist, 71(3):262-268.

Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería Servicio Fitosanitario del Estado (Costa Rica), 2009. Listado de Plagas (insectos y ácaros) en cultivos de importancia económica en Costa Rica (C).

Moar WJ; Pusztai-Carey M; Faassen Hvan; Bosch D; Frutos R; Rang C; Luo K; Adang MJ, 1995. Development of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIC resistance by Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61(6):2086-2092; 35 ref.

Niu ChengWei; Zhang QingWen; Ye ZhiHua; Luo LiZhi, 2006. Analysis of genetic diversity in different geographic populations of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with AFLP technique. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 49(5):867-873.

Oerke EC; Dehne HW; Schönbeck F; Weber A, 1994. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops., xxii + 808 pp.; [ref. at ends of chapters, available from publishers at PO Box 1991, Amsterdam, Netherlands or PO Box 945, Madison Square Station, NY 10160-0757, USA].

Oerke EC; Dehne HW; Schönbeck F; Weber A, 1994. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops., xxii + 808 pp.; [ref. at ends of chapters, available from publishers at PO Box 1991, Amsterdam, Netherlands or PO Box 945, Madison Square Station, NY 10160-0757, USA].

Patel RK; Thakur BS, 2005. Insect pest complex and seasonal incidence in linseed with particular reference to bud fly (Dasineura lini Barnes). Journal of Plant Protection and Environment, 2(2):102-107.

Pérez CJ; Alvarado P; Narváez C; Miranda F; Hernández L; Vanegas H; Hruska A; Shelton AM, 2000. Assessment of insecticide resistance in five insect pests attacking field and vegetable crops in Nicaragua. Journal of Economic Entomology, 93(6):1779-1787.

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Rivnay E, 1962. Field crop pests in the Near East. Monographiae Biologicae, 10:194-199.

Rossem G van; Bund CF van de; Burger HC, 1977. Unusual instances of damage by insects in 1976. Entomologische Berichten, 37(7):97-98.

Ruberson JR; Herzog GA; Lambert WR; Lewis WJ, 1994. Management of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton: role of natural enemies. Florida Entomologist, 77(4):440-453.

Salama HS; Saleh MR; Moawed S; El-Din AS, 1990. Evaluation of microbial and chemical insecticides for the control of Spodoptera exigua (Lep., Noctuidae) on soybean plants. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 63(5):100-102; 15 ref.

Salama HS; Zaki FN; Salem SA; Hamdy MK; Megahed M, 1993. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. on the lesser cotton leafworm Spodoptera exigua Hbn. (Lep., Noctuidae) in corn and sunflower cultivations in Egypt. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 66(2):29-31; 8 ref.

Shorey HH; Summers CG; Sisk CB; Gerber RG, 1994. Disruption of pheromone communication in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in tomatoes, alfalfa, and cotton. Environmental Entomology, 23(6):1529-1533.

Smagghe G; Medina P; Schuyesmans S; Tirry L; Viñuela E, 2000. Insecticide resistant monitoring of tebufenozide for managing Spodoptera exigua (Hübner [1808]). (Estudios de resistencia a tebufenocida en Spodoptera exigua (Hübner [1808]).) Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 26(4):475-481.

Song ChangQi; Pan YueXing; Xu HuoZhong; Lan JianJun, 2004. The application of sex lure to forecasting of vegetable pests. Entomological Knowledge, 41(1):77-78.

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Tremewan WG, 2002. Interesting Lepidoptera at m. v. light in West Cornwall (V.C. 1), 2001. Entomologist's Gazette, 53(1):24.

Vajgand D; Forgic G; To?ev M, 2004. Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, 1808) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), and flight dynamics data in the Sombor Region. (Sovica Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, 1808) (Lep., Noctuidae) i podaci o dinamici leta leptira na podrucju Sombora.) Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor), 32(1):27-31.

Wang MaoMing, 2006. Current status of vegetable diseases and insect pests and comprehensive control in Fujian. Fujian Agricultural Science and Technology, No.2:60-63.

Wang Wei; Mo JianChu; Cheng Jia'an; Zhuang PeiJun; Tang ZhenHua, 2006. Selection and characterization of spinosad resistance in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 84(3):180-187.!&_cdi=6984&view=c&_acct=C000028398&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=3891418&md5=140936b438b0110ed16543997e7db4c5

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Distribution Maps

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