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Datasheet

Lambdina fiscellaria
(eastern hemlock looper)

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Datasheet

Lambdina fiscellaria (eastern hemlock looper)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 May 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lambdina fiscellaria
  • Preferred Common Name
  • eastern hemlock looper
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
L. fiscellaria; adult male (museum set specimen).
TitleAdult
CaptionL. fiscellaria; adult male (museum set specimen).
CopyrightG. Smith/Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre Collection/Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2004
L. fiscellaria; adult male (museum set specimen).
AdultL. fiscellaria; adult male (museum set specimen).G. Smith/Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre Collection/Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2004
L. fiscellaria; pupa.
TitlePupa
CaptionL. fiscellaria; pupa.
CopyrightT. Bates/Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre Collection/Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2004
L. fiscellaria; pupa.
PupaL. fiscellaria; pupa.T. Bates/Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre Collection/Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2004
L. fiscellaria; late-instar larva feeding on western hemlock.
TitleLarva
CaptionL. fiscellaria; late-instar larva feeding on western hemlock.
CopyrightDon P. Ostaff
L. fiscellaria; late-instar larva feeding on western hemlock.
LarvaL. fiscellaria; late-instar larva feeding on western hemlock.Don P. Ostaff
L. fiscellaria; late instar larva.  Note characteristic geometrid larval shape.
TitleLarva
CaptionL. fiscellaria; late instar larva. Note characteristic geometrid larval shape.
CopyrightT. Bates/Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre Collection/Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2004
L. fiscellaria; late instar larva.  Note characteristic geometrid larval shape.
LarvaL. fiscellaria; late instar larva. Note characteristic geometrid larval shape.T. Bates/Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre Collection/Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2004
L. fiscellaria; eggs deposited on lichen.
TitleEggs
CaptionL. fiscellaria; eggs deposited on lichen.
CopyrightG. Smith/Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre Collection/Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2004
L. fiscellaria; eggs deposited on lichen.
EggsL. fiscellaria; eggs deposited on lichen.G. Smith/Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre Collection/Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2004
L. fiscellaria; defoliation in an old growth stand of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and red cedar (Thuja plicata).
TitleDefoliation
CaptionL. fiscellaria; defoliation in an old growth stand of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and red cedar (Thuja plicata).
CopyrightDon P. Ostaff
L. fiscellaria; defoliation in an old growth stand of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and red cedar (Thuja plicata).
DefoliationL. fiscellaria; defoliation in an old growth stand of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and red cedar (Thuja plicata).Don P. Ostaff
L. fiscellaria; defoliation of understory vegetation.
TitleDefoliation
CaptionL. fiscellaria; defoliation of understory vegetation.
CopyrightDon P. Ostaff
L. fiscellaria; defoliation of understory vegetation.
DefoliationL. fiscellaria; defoliation of understory vegetation.Don P. Ostaff

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée, [1858])

Preferred Common Name

  • eastern hemlock looper

Other Scientific Names

  • Ellopia fiscellaria Guenée
  • Ellopia somniaria Hulst
  • Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria Guenée
  • Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa Hulst
  • Lambdina lugubrosa (Hulst)
  • Lambdina somniaria (Hulst)
  • Therina fiscellaria
  • Therina lugubrosa Hulst
  • Therina somniaria

International Common Names

  • English: hemlock looper; hemlock looper, western; hemlock spanworm; oak looper; oak looper, western; oakworm; western hemlock looper; western oak looper
  • French: arpenteuse de la pruche; arpenteuse de la pruche de l'ouest; arpenteuse du chene

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Hemlockspanner

EPPO code

  • LAMBFI (Lambdina fiscellaria)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Geometridae
  •                             Genus: Lambdina
  •                                 Species: Lambdina fiscellaria

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

CanadaPresent
-British ColumbiaWidespreadNativeSilver, 1962; Grant, 1964
-New BrunswickRestricted distributionNativeCarter and Hartling, 1992; MacLean and Ebert, 1999
-Newfoundland and LabradorWidespreadNativeOtvos et al., 1979
-Nova ScotiaRestricted distributionNativeBalch, 1931; Watson, 1934; Smith, 1988; Anon, 1993
-OntarioRestricted distributionNativede and Gryse Schedl, 1934
-Prince Edward IslandRestricted distributionNativeAnon, 1969; Anon, 1970
-QuebecWidespreadNativeJobin, 1996
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlaskaRestricted distributionNativeUnited States Forest Service, 1965; Crosby and Baker, 1966; Torgersen and Baker, 1967; Crosby and Curtis, 1968
-CaliforniaRestricted distributionNativeThomas and Poinar, 1973
-ConnecticutRestricted distributionNativeUnited States Department of Agriculture, 1952; United States Forest Service, 1956
-GeorgiaRestricted distributionNativeHébert and Jobin, 2001
-IdahoRestricted distributionNativeTerrell, 1937; Evenden, 1938; Dewey et al., 1972; Dooley and Dewey, 1973
-MaineRestricted distributionNativeTrial, 1993b; Trial, 1990; Trial, 1991; Trial and Devine, 1994
-MassachusettsPresentHood, 1972; Hood, 1973; Burnham and Lokitis, 1988
-MichiganRestricted distributionNativeDibble, 1926; de and Gryse Schedl, 1934; Herrick, 1935; Graham, 1938
-MinnesotaPresentGraham and Knight, 1965
-MontanaRestricted distributionNativeEvenden, 1938; Evenden, 1940
-New HampshireRestricted distributionNativeAnon, 1950b; Conklin, 1952; Conklin and Hastings, 1965
-New YorkRestricted distributionNativede and Gryse Schedl, 1934
-OhioRestricted distributionNativeHouser, 1927
-OregonWidespreadNativeEssig, 1926; Craighead and Middleton, 1930; Olsen, 1946; Hemlock Looper Study Committee, 1964; Wickman et al., 2002
-PennsylvaniaRestricted distributionNativeSimons, 1974; Nichols, 1976; Simons, 1993
-Rhode IslandRestricted distributionNativeKerr, 1971
-VermontRestricted distributionNativeAnon, 1950a; Teillon et al., 1990; Teillon et al., 1991; Miller-Weeks, 1993
-WashingtonWidespreadNativeEssig, 1926; Olsen, 1946; Buckthorn, 1953; Buffam, 1964; Wickman et al., 2002
-WisconsinRestricted distributionNativeFracker, 1925; de and Gryse Schedl, 1934; Anon, 1967; Fowler et al., 1986

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cold lands / tundra Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Marine Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / frass visible
Growing point / frass visible
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / frass visible
Stems / visible frass
Stems / visible frass
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Actia interrupta Parasite Larvae
Agria housei Parasite Larvae
Aoplus cestus Parasite Pupae
Aoplus velox occidentalis Parasite Larvae
Apechthis annulicornis Parasite Pupae
Apechthis ontario Parasite Pupae
Aureobasidium pullulans Antagonist Larvae
Bacillus cereus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Blondelia eufitchiae Parasite Larvae
Calosoma sycophanta Predator Larvae
Clostridium brevifaciens Pathogen Larvae
Cordyceps militaris Pathogen
Dusona ellopiae Parasite Larvae
Entomophaga aulicae Pathogen Larvae
Entomophthora shpaerosperma Pathogen Larvae
Erynia radicans Pathogen Larvae
Erynnia tortricis Parasite Larvae
Granulosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Parasite Larvae
Homolobus truncator Parasite Larvae
Itoplectis conquisator Parasite Pupae
Itoplectis quadricingulata Parasite Pupae
Leidyana canadensis Pathogen Larvae
Madremyia saundersii Parasite Larvae
Mastrus aciculatus Parasite Pupae
Mastrus laplantei Parasite Larvae
Nemorilla pyste Parasite Larvae
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Phaeogenes gaspesianus Parasite Larvae
Phryxe pecosensis Parasite Larvae
Pimpla hesperus Parasite Pupae
Pimpla pedalis Parasite Pupae
Pteromalus puparum? Parasite Pupae
Sporotrichum globuliferum Pathogen
Telenomus coloradensis Parasite Eggs
Telenomus dalmanni Parasite Eggs
Telenomus droozi Parasite Eggs
Telenomus flavotibiae Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Winthemia occidentis Parasite Larvae

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark eggs; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Alfaro RI, Taylor S, Brown G, Wegwitz E, 1999. Tree mortality caused by the western hemlock looper in landscapes of central British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, 124(2/3):285-291; 12 ref.

Anon, 1950. Hemlock looper. Department of Agriculture, Montpelier, Vermont. In: Twenty-fifth Biennial Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture of the State of Vermont, 1949-1950, 42.

Anon, 1950. Minor insect problems. Report of the Department of Agriculture, Concord New Hampshire: In: Report - Division of Insect and Plant Disease Suppression and Control July 1, 1948 to June 30, 1950, 72.

Anon, 1967. Canadian Insect Pest Review, 1923-1967. Ottawa, ON, Canada: Dominion of Canada, Department of Agriculture, Entomology Branch.

Anon, 1969. Summary report of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey-Maritimes Region. Canadian Forestry Service, Forest Research Laboratory. Fredericton, NB, Canada: Canada Department of Fisheries and Forestry, Report (unpublished).

Anon, 1970. Summary report of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey-Maritimes Region. Canadian Forestry Service, Forest Research Laboratory. Fredericton, NB, Canada: Canada Department of Fisheries and Forestry, Report (unpublished).

Anon, 1993. Status of some forest pests in Nova Scotia. In: Report of the Twenty-first Annual Forest Pest Control Forum, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, 96-108.

Balch R, 1931. The black-headed budworm and other spruce and balsam insects in Cape Breton. Nova Scotia, Canada: Department of Lands and Forests, Report for 1930, 38-45.

Beaupré P, Nadeau G, 1991. Problématique de l’aménagement de I’île d’Anticosti et réflexion sur les actions à prendre face à l’épidémie d’arpenteuse de la pruche, annoncée pour 1992. Ministère des Forêts, Dir. Régionale de la Côte-Nord. Rapport Interne, (unpublished).

Benoit P, Desaulniers R, 1972. Past and present hemlock looper outbreaks in Quebec. Bi-monthly Research Notes, 29(2/3):8-9

Bhiry N, Filion L, 1996. Characterization of the soil hydromorphic conditions in a paludified dunefield during the mid Holocene hemlock decline near Quebec City, Quebec. Quaternary Research, 46:281-297.

Bhiry N, Filion L, 1996. Mid Holocene hemlock decline in eastern North America linked with phytophagous insect activity. Quaternary Research, 45:312-320.

Bowers W, 1993. Impact of eastern hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria (Guen.), on balsam fir forests in Newfoundland. In: Proceedings, combined meeting, Northeastern Forest Pest Council and 25th Annual Northeastern Forest Insect Work Conference, Latham NY, 17-18.

Bowers W, West R, 1997. Development of a pheromone-based detection and monitoring system for eastern hemlock looper. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Newfoundland and Labrador Region. St. John’s, Newfoundland: The eastern hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria (Guen.) (Lepidoptera:Geometridae) in Newfoundland, 1983-1995, Information Report, N-X-302. 13-16.

British Columbia Ministry of Forests, 1984. British Columbia’s forest insect defoliators. Pest Management Branch, Victoria, BC, Canada: Pest Topics 10.

Buckthorn W, 1953. Hemlock looper situation on the Grays River area in Washington, January 1953. USDA, Agriculture Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology, Plant Quarantine, Forest Insect Laboratory, Office Report (unpublished).

Buffam P, 1964. Evaluation of western hemlock looper larval populations within the boundaries of the 1963 control project in southwest Washington. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Report, R-6.

Burnham C, Lokitis J, 1988. Aerial survey sketch maps. Massachusetts Department of Environment Management, Division Forests & Parks, Bureau of Shade Tree Management Pest Control.

Campbell D, 1946. Western hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa Hlst.) parasitism. Department Agriculture, Science Service, Division Entomology, Forest Insect Investigations, Bi-Monthly Progress Report, 2:3-4.

Capps H, 1943. Some American geometrid moths of the subfamily Ennominae heretofore associated with or closely related to Ellopia Treitschke. In: Proceedings US National Museum, 93:120-128.

Carolin V, Johnson N, Buffam P, McComb D, 1964. Sampling egg populations of western hemlock looper in coastal forests. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest Experimental Station: Research Paper PNW-14.

Carroll A, 1997. The dynamics of eastern hemlock looper populations. In: Hudak J, ed. The Eastern Hemlock Looper, Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria (Guen.)(Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Newfoundland, 1983-1995. St. John’s Newfoundland: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Newfoundland and Labrador Region, 7-12.

Carroll A, Hudak J, Meades J, Power J, Gillis T, McNamee P, Wedeles C, Sutherland G, 1995. EHLDSS-A decision support system for management of the eastern hemlock looper. American Society for Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: Proceedings, Decision Support 2001, 807-824.

Carroll A, Meades J, 1997. The eastern hemlock looper decision support system. In: Hudak J, ed. The Eastern Hemlock Looper, Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria (Guen.) (Lepidoptera:Geometridae) in Newfoundland, 1983-1995. St. John’s Newfoundland, Canada: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Newfoundland and Labrador Region, 59-67.

Carroll AL, 1999. Physiological adaptation to temporal variation in conifer foliage by a caterpillar. Canadian Entomologist, 131(5):659-669; 49 ref.

Carroll WJ, 1956. History of the Hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria (Guen.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Newfoundland, and notes on its biology. Canad. Ent. 88 (10), (587-99). 11 refs.

Carroll WJ, 1956. Investigations on the spruce budworm, balsam woolly aphid and hemlock looper conducted by the Forest Insect Survey in Newfoundland 1955. Department Agriculture, Forest Biology Division, Forest Biology Laboratory. Corner Brook NF, Canada: Interim Report 1995 (unpublished).

Carter N, Hartling L, 1992. Hemlock looper in New Brunswick in 1992. Forestry Canada, Ottawa, In: Report of the Twentieth Annual Forest Pest Control Forum, Nov. 17-19, 1992, 161-164.

Clark R, Otvos I, Pardy K, 1973. Biological agents introduced and released in Newfoundland for the contol of forest insect pests. Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Newfoundland Forest Research Centre. Information Report, N-X-96.

Clopton RE, Lucarotti CJ, 1997. Leidyana canadensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) from larval eastern hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 44(5):383-387; 38 ref.

Cohen P, 1979. Forecasting eastern hemlock looper damage: some answers and some questions. Environment Canada, Computers and Applied Statistics Directorate. Ottawa, ON Project No. P596.

Conklin J, 1952. Hemlock looper. State of New Hampshire, Department Agriculture: Report-Division of Insect and Plant Disease Suppression and Control, Plan and progress of work 1951-1952, Circular No. 30:80-81.

Conklin J, Hastings A, 1965. Hemlock looper infestation at Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire. New Hampshire State Department Agriculture: Biology Evaluation Report.

Cottrell C, Monts J, 1970. History of population fluctuations and infestations of important forest insects in the Mainland Section, Vancouver Forest District. Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Pacific Forest Research Centre. Internal Report (unpublished) BC-9, 3-8.

Craighead F, Middleton W, 1930. An annotated list of the important North American forest insects. Washington DC, USA: USDA, Miscellaneous Publication 19.

Crosby D, Baker B, 1966. Forest insect and disease conditions in Alaska during 1966. USDA, Forest Service, Division Timber Management, Region 10, 6-7.

Crosby D, Curtis D, 1968. Forest insect and disease conditions in Alaska during 1968. USDA, Forest Service, Division Timber Management, Alaska Region, 6.

de Gryse J, Schedl K, 1934. An account of the eastern hemlock looper, Ellopia fiscellaria Gn., on hemlock, with notes on allied species. Science and Agriculture, 14:523-539.

Delisle J, West RJ, Bowers WW, 1998. The relative performance of pheromone and light traps in monitoring the seasonal activity of both sexes of the eastern hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 89(1):87-98; 43 ref.

Desaulniers R, Breton L, 1979. Les principaux insects défoliateurs des arbes du Québec. Government Québec, Ministere d’Énergie et Ressources, Service d’Entomologie et Pathologie, 88.

Dewey J, Ciesla W, Lood R, 1972. Status of the western hemlock looper in the Northern Region, 1972: a potentially devastating forest pest. USDA, Forest Service, Northern Regional Technical Report, 72-10.

Dibble C, 1926. The Hemlock measuring-worm (Ellopia fiscellaria). Michigan Quarterly Bulletin, 8:145-148.

Dooley O, Dewey J, 1973. Forest insect and disease conditions - Northern Region - 1972. USDA, Forest Service, Division State and Private For., Northern Region, Report No. 73-1, 6-7.

Downes W, 1920. The life history of Apeteticus crocatus Uhl. (Hemiptera). Proceedings Entomological Society of British Columbia, 16:21.

Dyar H, 1900. Life histories of North American Geometridae X. Psyche, 9:10-11.

Erickson R, 1984. The western hemlock looper. Canadian Forestry Service, Pacific Forest Research Centre, Pest Leaflet FPL-21.

Essig EO, 1926. Insects of Western North America. New York, USA: Macmillan.

Evenden J, 1938. Ellopia infestations within the Inland Empire, 1937. USDA, Forest Service, Forest Insect Laboratory. Coeur d’Alene ID: Special Report (unpublished).

Evenden J, 1940. Annual forest insect status report-Idaho and Montana-1939. USDA, Forest Service, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Northern Region, Report:13.

Evenden ML, Borden JH, Sickle GA van, Gries G, 1995. Development of a pheromone-based monitoring system for western hemlock looper (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): effect of pheromone dose, lure age, and trap type. Environmental Entomology, 24(4):923-932

Evenden ML, Borden JH, Sickle GAvan, 1995. Predictive capabilities of a pheromone-based monitoring system for western hemlock looper (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Environmental Entomology, 24(4):933-943

Fletcher J, 1892. Report of the entomologist and botanist (Historical resume). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Experimental Farms, Appendix to the Report of the Minister of Agriculture for 1891, 190.

Fletcher J, 1893. Report of the entomologist and botanist (Parasites of the Vancouver Island oak-looper, Ellopia somnaria, Hulst). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Experimental Farms, Appendix to the Report of the Minister of Agriculture for 1892, 160.

Fowler RF, Wilson LF, Paananen DM, 1986. Insect suppression in Eastern Region national forests: 1930-1980. General Technical Report, North Central Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. NC-103:56pp.

Fracker S, 1925. Hemlocks attacked by a little-known geometrid. Journal of Economic Entomology, 18:837.

Franklin S, 1989. Classification of hemlock looper defoliation using SPOT HRV imagery. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 15:178-182.

Franklin S, 1994. Remote sensing in integrated forest pest management with special reference to the eastern spruce budworm. In: Proceedings Eastern Spruce Budworm Work Conference, St. John’s, NF, April 14-16, 1994, 27-28.

Franklin S, Hudak J, 1989. Classification of hemlock looper defoliation from satellite imagery. In: Proceedings Forest Research Marketplace, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry Canada, Toronto Ontario, Nov. 21-23, 1989, 102.

Franklin S, Hudak J, 1992. Classification of hemlock looper defoliation from satellite imagery. USDA, Forest Service Denver CO. In: Proceedings North American Forest Insect Work Conference, PNW-GTR 294:164.

Franklin S, Raske A, West R, 1988. Progress in detecting defoliation by space satellite imagery. Nova Scotia Agriculture College. Bible Hill, NS. In: Proceedings 48th Annual Meeting Acadian Entomological Society, Report 43.

Graham S, 1938. Relation of insects to primitive and present-day forests. Journal of Forestry, 36:998-1004.

Graham SA, Knight FB, 1965. Principles of forest entomology. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Grant J, 1964. East Kamloops District, 1964. Canadian Forestry Service, Can. Forest Biology Laboratory. Victoria, BC: In: Annual District Reports, Forest Insect and Disease Survey, British Columbia, 1964, 115-117.

Gries G, Gries R, Borden JH, Li JX, Slessor KN, King GGS, Bowers WW, West RJ, Underhill EW, 1991. 5,11-Dimethylheptadecane and 2,5-dimethylheptadecane: sex pheromone components of the geometrid moth, Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria. Naturwissenschaften, 78(7):315-317

Gries G, Gries R, Krannitz SH, Li J, King GGS, Slessor KN, Borden JH, Bowers WW, West RJ, Underhill EW, 1993. Sex pheromone of the western hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19(5):1009-1019

Hardy G, 1950. Notes on the life history of the garry oak looper, Lambdina fiscellaria somniaria Hlst. (Lepidoptera Geometridae). Proceedings Entomological Society of British Columbia, 46:13-14.

Harris JWE, 1971. Aerial photography (35-mm): aid to forest pest surveys. Bi-m. Res. Notes 27 (3), (20). [2 ref.].

Harris JWE, 1972. High-level photography for forest insect damage surveillance in British Columbia. Department Energy, Mines and Resources. Ottawa, Ontario. In: Proceedings First Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, Ottawa ON, Feb. 1972, 1:145-148.

Harris JWE, 1974. Small-scale imagery in forest pest surveys in British Columbia. Canadian Surveyor, 28:155-161.

Harris JWE, Dawson AF, Brown RG, 1982. The western hemlock looper in British Columbia 1911-1980. Report, Pacific Forest Research Centre, Canada, No. BC-X-234, 18 pp.; 23 ref.

Hartling L, Carter N, 1990. 1990 hemlock looper spray program in New Brunswick. Ottawa, ON, Canada: Forestry Canada, Report of the Eighteenth Annual Forest Pest Control Forum, Nov. 20-22, 1991, 127-136.

Hartling L, McNutt P, Carter N, 1991. Hemlock looper in New Brunswick: notes on biology and survey methods. Fredericton, NB, Canada: Timber Management Branch, Forest Pest Management Section, Department of Natural Resources and Energy.

Hébert C, Jobin L, Auger M, Dupont A, 2003. Oviposition traps to survey eggs of Lambdina fiscellaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 96:768-776.

Hemlock Looper Study Committee, 1964. Status Report-1963 Willapa hemlock looper infestation control project. Washington State Department Natural Resources, USDA, Forest Service, Weyerhaeuser Co., Crown Zellerbach Corp., and Industrial Forestry Association.

Herrick G, 1935. Insect enemies of shade-trees. Ithaca NY, USA: Comstock Publ. Co. Inc.

Hewitt C, 1920. The Introduction and colonization of parasitic insects. In: A study of natural control of insects and the introduction and colonization of parasitic insects. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Department Agriculture Appendix to the Report of the Dominion Entomologist and Consulting Zoologist for the Two Years 1917 and 1918, 9-10.

Hiscock HI, Hudak J, Meades JP, 1978. Effect of saprot on pulping properties of balsam fir killed by the eastern hemlock looper in Newfoundland. Information Report, Newfoundland Forest Research Centre, No. N-X-161, III + 41 pp.; 11 ref.

Hoffman J, 1924. Natural regeneration of Douglas fir in the Pacific NW. Washington DC, USA: USDA, Department Bulletin No. 1200, 54.

Hood C, 1972. Annual Report. Massachusetts Department of Environment Management, Division Forests and Parks, Bur. Insect Pest Control, 5.

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