Lamium amplexicaule (henbit deadnettle)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Lamium amplexicaule L.
Preferred Common Name
- henbit deadnettle
Other Scientific Names
- Galeobdolon amplexicaule (L.) Moench
- Lamiopsis amplexicaulis (L.) Opiz
- Lamium paczoskianum Vorosch.
- Lamium rumelicum Velen.
- Lamium stepposum Kossko
- Pollichia amplexicaulis (L.) Willd.
International Common Names
- English: henbit
- Spanish: ortiga muerta de hojas abrazantes
- French: lamier amplexicaule
- Portuguese: chuchapitos; menta-selvagem
Local Common Names
- Germany: Stengelumfassende Taubnessel
- Italy: erba ruota; lamio rotondo
- Japan: hotokenoza; sangaigusa
- Netherlands: hoenderbeet
- Spain: conejitos
- Sweden: mjukplister
- UK: henbit dead-nettle
- USA: bee nettle; blind nettle; common dead nettle; dead nettle
- LAMAM (Lamium amplexicaule)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page L. amplexicaule can be very competitive with crops and other plants, particularly winter cereals, turf grasses, and ornamental/landscaping species. It is important to restrict the spread of this weed due to its ability to out-compete such desirable vegetation. It is able to spread widely, and several states of the USA and provinces of Canada have categorized L. amplexicaule as an invasive alien weed (Anon., 1996; Cranston et al., 2002; USDA-NRCS, 2002).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Lamiales
- Family: Lamiaceae
- Genus: Lamium
- Species: Lamium amplexicaule
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page L. amplexicaule is a winter annual, herbaceous, broadleaved weed and is a member of the Lamiaceae (or Labiatae) or mint family. There are two subspecies accepted by the Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh (2003), subsp. amplexicaule found throughout the range and subsp. orientale Pacz. found only in Ukraine and southern Russia. This subspecies however, has been given only varietal rank by the Royal Botanic Garden Kew (2003), as var. orientale (Pacz.) J.Mennema. The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2003) also lists three other varieties, var. album Pickens, var. bornmuelleri J.Mennema and var. clandestinum Rchb. This clearly shows the high infraspecific variation observed in this species but uncertainty as to its division below the genus level.
DescriptionTop of page L. amplexicaule is a winter annual, spreading and branching at the base and grows 10-40 cm tall. At seedling emergence, hypocotyls are green but become purple with age. Cotyledons are round to oblong on hairy petioles. The base of the cotyledon blade is notched where it meets the petiole. Young leaves have petioles and are opposite, with soft hairs on the dark green upper surface and along the veins of the under surface. The upper leaf surface is prominently veined and crinkled. Leaf blades have 2-4 large rounded teeth on each side. Seedling stems are square, green to purple, with basally pointing hairs (Uva et al., 1997). Mature stems are square, green to purple, nearly hairless, prostrate or curved at the base, with an erect or ascending tip. Leaves (1.5-2 cm long) are palmately veined. Lower leaves are petiolated, rounded to heart-shaped, with rounded teeth. Upper leaves are sessile, deeply lobed, encircling the stem at the base. In the flowering portions, stem internodes are shorter and leaves can look whorled. The root system is shallow and fibrous. Stems root where the lower nodes contact the soil surface. Flowers are showy pink to purple and are produced mainly in early spring in the northern hemisphere, especially in April. The flowers are in the leaf axils of the sessile upper leaves, with 6-10 flowers in a whorl. Sepals are united into a tube with 5 teeth; petals are pink to purple, united into a 2-lipped tube, 1-1.5 cm long. Fruit (nutlets) are egg-shaped to oblong, 3-angled, brown with white spots, and 1-2 mm long. Four nutlets, each with 1 seed, are enclosed within the persistent sepals.
Plant TypeTop of page Annual
DistributionTop of page L. amplexicaule is very common throughout Europe (INRA, 2001). It can be found across most of North America, but is most common in eastern states and provinces, and along the West Coast (Uva et al., 1997; Cranston et al., 2002; USDA-NRCS, 2002).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Afghanistan||Present||Introduced||Holm et al. (1991)|
|-Anhui||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|-Fujian||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|-Gansu||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|-Guizhou||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|-Henan||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|-Hubei||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|-Hunan||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|-Jiangsu||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|-Qinghai||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|-Sichuan||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|-Tibet||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|-Xinjiang||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|-Yunnan||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|-Zhejiang||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2003)|
|Japan||Present||USDA-ARS (2003); CABI (Undated)|
|Nepal||Present||Introduced||Holm et al. (1991)|
|South Korea||Present||USDA-ARS (2003)|
|Turkey||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Turkmenistan||Present||Native||Missouri Botanical Garden (2003); USDA-ARS (2003)|
|Albania||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Austria||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Belarus||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003); USDA-ARS (2003)|
|Belgium||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Bulgaria||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Czechia||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Denmark||Present||Introduced||Invasive||INRA (2001); Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Estonia||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003); USDA-ARS (2003)|
|Finland||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|France||Present||Native||Invasive||INRA (2001); Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|-Corsica||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Germany||Present||Native||Invasive||INRA (2001); Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Greece||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|-Crete||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Hungary||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Iceland||Present||Introduced||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Ireland||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Italy||Present||Native||Invasive||INRA (2001); Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Latvia||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003); USDA-ARS (2003)|
|Lithuania||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003); USDA-ARS (2003)|
|Moldova||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Netherlands||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Norway||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Poland||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Portugal||Present||Native||Invasive||INRA (2001); Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|-Azores||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Romania||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Russia||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Central Russia||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|-Northern Russia||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|-Southern Russia||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|-Western Siberia||Present||Native||USDA-ARS (2003)|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Slovakia||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Spain||Present||Native||Invasive||INRA (2001); Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|-Balearic Islands||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Native||USDA-ARS (2003)|
|Sweden||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Switzerland||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Ukraine||Present||Native||Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|United Kingdom||Present||Native||Invasive||INRA (2001); Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)|
|Canada||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Alberta||Present||Introduced||Blackshaw et al. (2002)|
|-British Columbia||Present||Introduced||Cranston et al. (2002)|
|-Manitoba||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden (2003)|
|-Yukon||Present||Introduced||Bennett et al. (2010)|
|Mexico||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden (2003)|
|United States||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS (2002)|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS (2002)|
|-New Jersey||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS (2002)|
|-New Mexico||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2002)|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS (2002)|
|-North Carolina||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS (2002)|
|-North Dakota||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2002)|
|-Rhode Island||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS (2002)|
|-South Carolina||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS (2002)|
|-South Dakota||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2002)|
|-West Virginia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS (2002)|
|Australia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Holm et al. (1991)|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Bolivia||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden (2003)|
|Chile||Present||Introduced||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Colombia||Present||Introduced||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Ecuador||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden (2003)|
|Peru||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden (2003)|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page L. amplexicaule is native to Europe (INRA, 2001) but has spread around the world, especially during the 1800s.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page Due to the risks of both accidental and intentional introduction, further spread of L. amplexicaule is likely. As a result, this weed has been declared a noxious weed in parts of Canada (Anon., 1996).
HabitatTop of page L. amplexicaule thrives in autumn and early spring on cool, rich, fertile soils. In China, it is found commonly on roadsides, forest margins, marshes as well as a weed in agricultural fields (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Wetlands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page This weed is prevalent in winter cereal crops, other winter annual crops, orchards, gardens, landscapes, nurseries, waste areas, and turf; more commonly warm-season than cool-season turf (Uva et al., 1997).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage
Biology and EcologyTop of page Genetics
The base chromosome number for L. amplexicaule is 2n = 18 (x=9).
Physiology and Phenology
Although often classified as an annual plant, this species may overwinter as a seedling or as a seed and become a biennial. Seedlings emerge from moist, cool soil in autumn and early spring. Seedling emergence occurs when the temperature is 5-25°C, optimally 15-20°C, and is inhibited by dry, cool soils (Blackshaw et al., 2002). L. amplexicaule and other members of the Lamiaceae family have persistent square stems and fused, persistent sepals (in whorls at the nodes) that often retain seeds.
Reproduction is by seed. Self-pollinated flowers may produce seeds without opening (cleistogamy). Each plant can produce 200 or more seeds. This weed can also re-generate from pieces of stem when it is hoed or chopped. Floral biology and insect visitation was studied in detail by Orueta and Viejo (1999).
Climatic requirements include reasonable soil moisture. Although this weed thrives under moist conditions for much of the season, it can tolerate moderate summer droughts. It is found at altitudes from sea level to 4000 m in China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003).
The roots are host to a range of mycorrhizal associations (Feldman and Boyle, 1999). The seeds are frequently consumed by a variety of animals.
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-25|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||0||20|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||10||25|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||-12||10|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||0||4||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||500||2500||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page Summer
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- seasonally waterlogged
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Though rarely having a serious impact on the weed, the plant is a host to range of plant pests. Viruses that have been detected on L. amplexicaule include: Arabis mosaic virus, Artichoke Italian latent virus, Beet mild yellowing virus, Clover yellow vein virus, Potato virus Y, Strawberry latent ringspot virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus. The fungal pathogens Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum can also utilize L. amplexicaule as a host (Welty, 1977; Hollowell et al., 2003), and the plant is a host to several nematodes including Ditylenchus dipsaci (Weltzien and Weltzien, 1980), Heterodera glycines (Venkatesh et al., 2000) and Meloidogyne hapla (Ciancio et al., 1992).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)
L. amplexicaule is propagated and dispersed almost entirely by seeds. Dispersal over short distances (1-10 m) is generally by wind or animals. Dispersal over longer distances can occur with water, particularly floods (NASD, 2002).
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
Birds and other animals can consume and disseminate seeds.
In agricultural areas, both cultivation and harvesting machinery can carry seeds from field to field.
Crop seeds need to be cleaned well to ensure that this and other weed seeds are not planted with the crop.
L. amplexicaule may be grown in wildflower gardens, and seeds can be purchased for this use (e.g. Peninsula Flowers Garden, 2003).
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||seeds|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||seeds|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page L. amplexicaule can be very competitive with crop plants, particularly in winter cereal crops. Its economic impact in agricultural production is sufficient for various governments to declare this weed as a noxious pest (e.g. Anon., 1996). It has also been noted to have effects on livestock if consumed in quantity (Hutton, 1982).
Environmental ImpactTop of page L. amplexicaule competes with natural vegetation, particularly in turf grasses, pastures, landscapes, and gardens.
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page L. amplexicaule can compete strongly with other herbaceous vegetation, especially in turf grasses and landscapes. In those areas, it can replace the natural vegetation and threaten biodiversity.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Negatively impacts tourism
- Reduced amenity values
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Pest and disease transmission
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page Young leaves of L. amplexicaule can be eaten raw, added to salads or used as an herb seasoning, or cooked as leafy greens. It has been reported to be a mild stimulant.
Uses ListTop of page
- Host of pest
- Poisonous to mammals
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page L. purpureum is another similar winter annual that flowers in early spring, but this species has upper leaves and square stems that are conspicuously red. Also the leaves are more triangular and less deeply lobed than those of L. amplexicaule, and the flowers are generally a brighter purple. Another similar species is L. maculatum, a perennial ground-covering plant with white markings on its leaves and square stems. Veronica persica also looks similar when not in flower, but this species does not have square stems, making it easy to differentiate from members of the Lamiaceae.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Cultural Control
Intensive agriculture, especially spring and summer tillage that does not allow L. amplexicaule plants to mature will manage populations over time.
Although not practical in winter cereals, tillage/cultivation in summer row-crops is effective for control of L. amplexicaule seedlings. The same is true for hoeing in home gardens and similar areas that can be managed by hand.
Although L. amplexicaule is a host to a large number of crop pests, none is known to be specific to this weed or has been researched as a potential biological control agent.
Numerous herbicides are highly effective in controlling L. amplexicaule; however, selection of a herbicide that is selective to the crop in question must be done carefully.
In agronomic and horticultural crops, L. amplexicaule can be managed through a combination of cultural, mechanical and chemical measures.
ReferencesTop of page
Anon., 1996. Manitoba Regulation, Noxious Weeds Regulation - MR 38-5/96. http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/regs/pdf/n110-035.96.pdf.
Cranston R; Ralph D; Wikeem B, 2002. Field Guide to Noxious and Other Selected Weeds of British Columbia. Government of British Columbia. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/weedguid/weedguid.htm.
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/.
Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DC, 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida: Krieger.
Hutton JB, 1982. Henbit (Lamium amplexicaule) plant poisoning in sheep. Surveillance, New Zealand, 9(4):20.
INRA, 2001. Weed Science and Agronomy. HYPPA. Dijon, France: INRA. http://www.inra.fr/hyppa/hyppa-a/lamam_ah.htm.
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. VAScular Tropicos database. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html.
NASD, 2002. Weed management after a flood - strategies for this year and next. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension.
Orueta D; Viejo JL, 1999. Floral biology in the Lamiaceae family: diurnal nectar production, nectar standing-crop, and insect visits in Lamium amplexicaule Linnaeus (1753) and Salvia verbenaca Linnaeus (1753). Boleti^acute~n de la Real Sociedad Espan^tilde~ola de Historia Natural, Seccio^acute~n Biolo^acute~gica, 95(1/2):107-114; 39 ref.
Peninsula Flowers Nursery, 2003. British Columbia, Canada. http://bonsaibc.ca/PERENNIALS%20%20I%20-%20O.htm.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003. Flora Europaea, Database of European Plants (ESFEDS). Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2003. Electronic Plant Information Centre. Kew, Richmond, London, UK. http://epic.kew.org/index.htm.
USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov.
Uva RH; Neal JC; DiTomaso JM, 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Ithaca, USA: Cornell University Press.
Venkatesh R; Harrison SK; Riedel RM, 2000. Weed hosts of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in Ohio. Weed-Technology, 14(1):156-160.
Weed Science Society of America, 2003. International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. HRAC/ NAHRAC/ WSSA. http://www.weedscience.org/in.asp.
Weltzien M; Weltzien HC, 1980. Lamium amplexicaule L. as host plant of the stem nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci in Syria. FABIS Newsletter, ICARDA, Syria, No.2:50
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Cranston R, Ralph D, Wikeem B, 2002. Field Guide to Noxious and Other Selected Weeds of British Columbia., Government of British Columbia: Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/weedguid/weedguid.htm
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003. Flora of China Web., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DC, 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds., Malabar, Florida, Krieger.
INRA, 2001. Weed Science and Agronomy. HYPPA., Dijon, France: INRA. http://www.inra.fr/hyppa/hyppa-a/lamam_ah.htm
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. Vascular Tropicos database., St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003. Flora Europaea, Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)., Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html
USDA-ARS, 2003. Hedychium flavescens. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov
Distribution MapsTop of page
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