Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Lamium amplexicaule
(henbit deadnettle)

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Datasheet

Lamium amplexicaule (henbit deadnettle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lamium amplexicaule
  • Preferred Common Name
  • henbit deadnettle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • L. amplexicaule can be very competitive with crops and other plants, particularly winter cereals, turf grasses, and ornamental/landscaping species. It is important to restrict the spread of this weed due to its ability to out-compete such desirable v...

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Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Growth habit in small clumps.
TitleHabit
CaptionGrowth habit in small clumps.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Growth habit in small clumps.
HabitGrowth habit in small clumps.©Sheldon Navie
Growth habit showing leaves.
TitleHabit
CaptionGrowth habit showing leaves.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Growth habit showing leaves.
HabitGrowth habit showing leaves.©Sheldon Navie
Leaves and stem.
TitleLeaves and stem
CaptionLeaves and stem.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Leaves and stem.
Leaves and stemLeaves and stem.©Sheldon Navie
Leaves and stem (note square section) and remnant flowers at leaf axils.
TitleLeaves
CaptionLeaves and stem (note square section) and remnant flowers at leaf axils.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Leaves and stem (note square section) and remnant flowers at leaf axils.
LeavesLeaves and stem (note square section) and remnant flowers at leaf axils.©Sheldon Navie
Flowers showing typical labiate form.
TitleFlowers
CaptionFlowers showing typical labiate form.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Flowers showing typical labiate form.
FlowersFlowers showing typical labiate form.©Sheldon Navie

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lamium amplexicaule L.

Preferred Common Name

  • henbit deadnettle

Other Scientific Names

  • Galeobdolon amplexicaule (L.) Moench
  • Lamiopsis amplexicaulis (L.) Opiz
  • Lamium paczoskianum Vorosch.
  • Lamium rumelicum Velen.
  • Lamium stepposum Kossko
  • Pollichia amplexicaulis (L.) Willd.

International Common Names

  • English: henbit
  • Spanish: ortiga muerta de hojas abrazantes
  • French: lamier amplexicaule
  • Portuguese: chuchapitos; menta-selvagem

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Stengelumfassende Taubnessel
  • Italy: erba ruota; lamio rotondo
  • Japan: hotokenoza; sangaigusa
  • Netherlands: hoenderbeet
  • Spain: conejitos
  • Sweden: mjukplister
  • UK: henbit dead-nettle
  • USA: bee nettle; blind nettle; common dead nettle; dead nettle

EPPO code

  • LAMAM (Lamium amplexicaule)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page L. amplexicaule can be very competitive with crops and other plants, particularly winter cereals, turf grasses, and ornamental/landscaping species. It is important to restrict the spread of this weed due to its ability to out-compete such desirable vegetation. It is able to spread widely, and several states of the USA and provinces of Canada have categorized L. amplexicaule as an invasive alien weed (Anon., 1996; Cranston et al., 2002; USDA-NRCS, 2002).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Lamium
  •                                 Species: Lamium amplexicaule

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page L. amplexicaule is a winter annual, herbaceous, broadleaved weed and is a member of the Lamiaceae (or Labiatae) or mint family. There are two subspecies accepted by the Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh (2003), subsp. amplexicaule found throughout the range and subsp. orientale Pacz. found only in Ukraine and southern Russia. This subspecies however, has been given only varietal rank by the Royal Botanic Garden Kew (2003), as var. orientale (Pacz.) J.Mennema. The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2003) also lists three other varieties, var. album Pickens, var. bornmuelleri J.Mennema and var. clandestinum Rchb. This clearly shows the high infraspecific variation observed in this species but uncertainty as to its division below the genus level.

Description

Top of page L. amplexicaule is a winter annual, spreading and branching at the base and grows 10-40 cm tall. At seedling emergence, hypocotyls are green but become purple with age. Cotyledons are round to oblong on hairy petioles. The base of the cotyledon blade is notched where it meets the petiole. Young leaves have petioles and are opposite, with soft hairs on the dark green upper surface and along the veins of the under surface. The upper leaf surface is prominently veined and crinkled. Leaf blades have 2-4 large rounded teeth on each side. Seedling stems are square, green to purple, with basally pointing hairs (Uva et al., 1997). Mature stems are square, green to purple, nearly hairless, prostrate or curved at the base, with an erect or ascending tip. Leaves (1.5-2 cm long) are palmately veined. Lower leaves are petiolated, rounded to heart-shaped, with rounded teeth. Upper leaves are sessile, deeply lobed, encircling the stem at the base. In the flowering portions, stem internodes are shorter and leaves can look whorled. The root system is shallow and fibrous. Stems root where the lower nodes contact the soil surface. Flowers are showy pink to purple and are produced mainly in early spring in the northern hemisphere, especially in April. The flowers are in the leaf axils of the sessile upper leaves, with 6-10 flowers in a whorl. Sepals are united into a tube with 5 teeth; petals are pink to purple, united into a 2-lipped tube, 1-1.5 cm long. Fruit (nutlets) are egg-shaped to oblong, 3-angled, brown with white spots, and 1-2 mm long. Four nutlets, each with 1 seed, are enclosed within the persistent sepals.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Biennial
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

Top of page L. amplexicaule is very common throughout Europe (INRA, 2001). It can be found across most of North America, but is most common in eastern states and provinces, and along the West Coast (Uva et al., 1997; Cranston et al., 2002; USDA-NRCS, 2002).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1991
ArmeniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
AzerbaijanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
ChinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2003
-AnhuiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-GansuPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-HenanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-HubeiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-HunanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-QinghaiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-SichuanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-TibetPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-XinjiangPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2003
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
IndiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2003
IranPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
IraqPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
IsraelPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
JapanPresentAnon, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
KazakhstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Korea, Republic ofPresentUSDA-ARS, 2003
KyrgyzstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
LebanonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
NepalPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1991
PakistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
SyriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
TajikistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
TurkeyPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
TurkmenistanPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
UzbekistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2003
EgyptPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2003
LibyaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2003
MoroccoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
TunisiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentIntroducedBlackshaw et al., 2002
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Cranston et al., 2002
-ManitobaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
-Yukon TerritoryPresentIntroducedBennett et al., 2010
MexicoPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
USAPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-DelawarePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-IdahoPresentIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-IndianaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-IowaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-KansasPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-MainePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-MarylandPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-MichiganPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-MississippiPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-MissouriPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-MontanaPresentIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-NevadaPresentIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-New YorkPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-OhioPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-OregonPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-TennesseePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-TexasPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-UtahPresentIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-VermontPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002
-WyomingPresentIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2002

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
ChilePresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1991
ColombiaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1991
EcuadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
PeruPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
AustriaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
BelarusPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
BelgiumPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
BulgariaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
CyprusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Czech RepublicPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
DenmarkPresentIntroduced Invasive INRA, 2001; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
EstoniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
FinlandPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
FrancePresentNative Invasive INRA, 2001; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
-CorsicaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
GermanyPresentNative Invasive INRA, 2001; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
GreecePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
-CretePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
HungaryPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
IcelandPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
IrelandPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
ItalyPresentNative Invasive INRA, 2001; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
-SardiniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
-SicilyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
LatviaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
LithuaniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2003
MoldovaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
NetherlandsPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
NorwayPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
PolandPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
PortugalPresentNative Invasive INRA, 2001; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
-AzoresPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
-MadeiraPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
RomaniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
-Northern RussiaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
-Southern RussiaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
-Western SiberiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
SlovakiaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
SpainPresentNative Invasive INRA, 2001; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
-Balearic IslandsPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
SwedenPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
SwitzerlandPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
UKPresentNative Invasive INRA, 2001; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
UkrainePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1991
New ZealandPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1991

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page L. amplexicaule is native to Europe (INRA, 2001) but has spread around the world, especially during the 1800s.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Due to the risks of both accidental and intentional introduction, further spread of L. amplexicaule is likely. As a result, this weed has been declared a noxious weed in parts of Canada (Anon., 1996).

Habitat

Top of page L. amplexicaule thrives in autumn and early spring on cool, rich, fertile soils. In China, it is found commonly on roadsides, forest margins, marshes as well as a weed in agricultural fields (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page This weed is prevalent in winter cereal crops, other winter annual crops, orchards, gardens, landscapes, nurseries, waste areas, and turf; more commonly warm-season than cool-season turf (Uva et al., 1997).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeMain
Triticum spp.PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

The base chromosome number for L. amplexicaule is 2n = 18 (x=9).

Physiology and Phenology

Although often classified as an annual plant, this species may overwinter as a seedling or as a seed and become a biennial. Seedlings emerge from moist, cool soil in autumn and early spring. Seedling emergence occurs when the temperature is 5-25°C, optimally 15-20°C, and is inhibited by dry, cool soils (Blackshaw et al., 2002). L. amplexicaule and other members of the Lamiaceae family have persistent square stems and fused, persistent sepals (in whorls at the nodes) that often retain seeds.

Reproductive Biology

Reproduction is by seed. Self-pollinated flowers may produce seeds without opening (cleistogamy). Each plant can produce 200 or more seeds. This weed can also re-generate from pieces of stem when it is hoed or chopped. Floral biology and insect visitation was studied in detail by Orueta and Viejo (1999).

Environmental Requirements

Climatic requirements include reasonable soil moisture. Although this weed thrives under moist conditions for much of the season, it can tolerate moderate summer droughts. It is found at altitudes from sea level to 4000 m in China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003).

Associations

The roots are host to a range of mycorrhizal associations (Feldman and Boyle, 1999). The seeds are frequently consumed by a variety of animals.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
0 0 0 4000

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -25
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 0 20
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 10 25
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -12 10

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration04number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Though rarely having a serious impact on the weed, the plant is a host to range of plant pests. Viruses that have been detected on L. amplexicaule include: Arabis mosaic virus, Artichoke Italian latent virus, Beet mild yellowing virus, Clover yellow vein virus, Potato virus Y, Strawberry latent ringspot virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus. The fungal pathogens Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum can also utilize L. amplexicaule as a host (Welty, 1977; Hollowell et al., 2003), and the plant is a host to several nematodes including Ditylenchus dipsaci (Weltzien and Weltzien, 1980), Heterodera glycines (Venkatesh et al., 2000) and Meloidogyne hapla (Ciancio et al., 1992).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

L. amplexicaule is propagated and dispersed almost entirely by seeds. Dispersal over short distances (1-10 m) is generally by wind or animals. Dispersal over longer distances can occur with water, particularly floods (NASD, 2002).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Birds and other animals can consume and disseminate seeds.

Agricultural Practices

In agricultural areas, both cultivation and harvesting machinery can carry seeds from field to field.

Accidental Introduction

Crop seeds need to be cleaned well to ensure that this and other weed seeds are not planted with the crop.

Intentional Introduction

L. amplexicaule may be grown in wildflower gardens, and seeds can be purchased for this use (e.g. Peninsula Flowers Garden, 2003).

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailSold as wildflower Yes
Soil, sand and gravelRivers and floods Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx seeds
Fruits (inc. pods) seeds
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
Wood

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections Positive
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page L. amplexicaule can be very competitive with crop plants, particularly in winter cereal crops. Its economic impact in agricultural production is sufficient for various governments to declare this weed as a noxious pest (e.g. Anon., 1996). It has also been noted to have effects on livestock if consumed in quantity (Hutton, 1982).

Environmental Impact

Top of page L. amplexicaule competes with natural vegetation, particularly in turf grasses, pastures, landscapes, and gardens.

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page L. amplexicaule can compete strongly with other herbaceous vegetation, especially in turf grasses and landscapes. In those areas, it can replace the natural vegetation and threaten biodiversity.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page Young leaves of L. amplexicaule can be eaten raw, added to salads or used as an herb seasoning, or cooked as leafy greens. It has been reported to be a mild stimulant.

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Host of pest

Materials

  • Poisonous to mammals

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page L. purpureum is another similar winter annual that flowers in early spring, but this species has upper leaves and square stems that are conspicuously red. Also the leaves are more triangular and less deeply lobed than those of L. amplexicaule, and the flowers are generally a brighter purple. Another similar species is L. maculatum, a perennial ground-covering plant with white markings on its leaves and square stems. Veronica persica also looks similar when not in flower, but this species does not have square stems, making it easy to differentiate from members of the Lamiaceae.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Cultural Control

Intensive agriculture, especially spring and summer tillage that does not allow L. amplexicaule plants to mature will manage populations over time.

Mechanical Control

Although not practical in winter cereals, tillage/cultivation in summer row-crops is effective for control of L. amplexicaule seedlings. The same is true for hoeing in home gardens and similar areas that can be managed by hand.

Biological Control

Although L. amplexicaule is a host to a large number of crop pests, none is known to be specific to this weed or has been researched as a potential biological control agent.

Chemical Control

Numerous herbicides are highly effective in controlling L. amplexicaule; however, selection of a herbicide that is selective to the crop in question must be done carefully.

Integrated Control

In agronomic and horticultural crops, L. amplexicaule can be managed through a combination of cultural, mechanical and chemical measures.

References

Top of page

Anon., 1996. Manitoba Regulation, Noxious Weeds Regulation - MR 38-5/96. http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/regs/pdf/n110-035.96.pdf.

Bennett BA; Catling PM; Cody WJ; Argus G, 2010. New records of vascular plants in the Yukon Territory VIII. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 124(1):1-27. http://www.ofnc.ca/cfn/124-1/Bennett_etal.pdf

Blackshaw RE; Brandt RN; Entz T, 2002. Soil temperature and soil water effects on henbit emergence. Weed Science, 50(4):494-497; 22 ref.

Ciancio A; Giudice VL; Bonsignore R; Roccuzzo G, 1992. Root-knot nematodes attacking weeds in Southern Italy. Informatore Fitopatologico, 42(6):55-57

Cranston R; Ralph D; Wikeem B, 2002. Field Guide to Noxious and Other Selected Weeds of British Columbia. Government of British Columbia. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/weedguid/weedguid.htm.

Feldmann F; Boyle C, 1999. Weed-mediated stability of arbuscular mycorrhizal effectiveness in maize monocultures. Angewandte Botanik, 73(1/2):1-5; 27 ref.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/.

Hollowell JE; Shew BB; Cubeta MA; Wilcut JW, 2003. Weed species as hosts of Sclerotinia minor in peanut fields. Plant Disease, 87(2):197-199; 12 ref.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DC, 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida: Krieger.

Hutton JB, 1982. Henbit (Lamium amplexicaule) plant poisoning in sheep. Surveillance, New Zealand, 9(4):20.

INRA, 2001. Weed Science and Agronomy. HYPPA. Dijon, France: INRA. http://www.inra.fr/hyppa/hyppa-a/lamam_ah.htm.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. VAScular Tropicos database. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html.

NASD, 2002. Weed management after a flood - strategies for this year and next. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension.

Orueta D; Viejo JL, 1999. Floral biology in the Lamiaceae family: diurnal nectar production, nectar standing-crop, and insect visits in Lamium amplexicaule Linnaeus (1753) and Salvia verbenaca Linnaeus (1753). Boleti^acute~n de la Real Sociedad Espan^tilde~ola de Historia Natural, Seccio^acute~n Biolo^acute~gica, 95(1/2):107-114; 39 ref.

Peninsula Flowers Nursery, 2003. British Columbia, Canada. http://bonsaibc.ca/PERENNIALS%20%20I%20-%20O.htm.

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003. Flora Europaea, Database of European Plants (ESFEDS). Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html.

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2003. Electronic Plant Information Centre. Kew, Richmond, London, UK. http://epic.kew.org/index.htm.

USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Distribution Maps

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