Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Lamium amplexicaule
(henbit deadnettle)

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Datasheet

Lamium amplexicaule (henbit deadnettle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lamium amplexicaule
  • Preferred Common Name
  • henbit deadnettle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • L. amplexicaule can be very competitive with crops and other plants, particularly winter cereals, turf grasses, and ornamental/landscaping species. It is important to restrict the spread of this weed due to its ability to out-compete such desirable v...
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    Compendia
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    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lamium amplexicaule L.

Preferred Common Name

  • henbit deadnettle

Other Scientific Names

  • Galeobdolon amplexicaule (L.) Moench
  • Lamiopsis amplexicaulis (L.) Opiz
  • Lamium paczoskianum Vorosch.
  • Lamium rumelicum Velen.
  • Lamium stepposum Kossko
  • Pollichia amplexicaulis (L.) Willd.

International Common Names

  • English: henbit
  • Spanish: ortiga muerta de hojas abrazantes
  • French: lamier amplexicaule
  • Portuguese: chuchapitos; menta-selvagem

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Stengelumfassende Taubnessel
  • Italy: erba ruota; lamio rotondo
  • Japan: hotokenoza; sangaigusa
  • Netherlands: hoenderbeet
  • Spain: conejitos
  • Sweden: mjukplister
  • UK: henbit dead-nettle
  • USA: bee nettle; blind nettle; common dead nettle; dead nettle

EPPO code

  • LAMAM (Lamium amplexicaule)

Summary of Invasiveness

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L. amplexicaule can be very competitive with crops and other plants, particularly winter cereals, turf grasses, and ornamental/landscaping species. It is important to restrict the spread of this weed due to its ability to out-compete such desirable vegetation. It is able to spread widely, and several states of the USA and provinces of Canada have categorized L. amplexicaule as an invasive alien weed (Anon., 1996; Cranston et al., 2002; USDA-NRCS, 2002).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Lamium
  •                                 Species: Lamium amplexicaule

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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L. amplexicaule is a winter annual, herbaceous, broadleaved weed and is a member of the Lamiaceae (or Labiatae) or mint family. There are two subspecies accepted by the Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh (2003), subsp. amplexicaule found throughout the range and subsp. orientale Pacz. found only in Ukraine and southern Russia. This subspecies however, has been given only varietal rank by the Royal Botanic Garden Kew (2003), as var. orientale (Pacz.) J.Mennema. The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2003) also lists three other varieties, var. album Pickens, var. bornmuelleri J.Mennema and var. clandestinum Rchb. This clearly shows the high infraspecific variation observed in this species but uncertainty as to its division below the genus level.

Description

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L. amplexicaule is a winter annual, spreading and branching at the base and grows 10-40 cm tall. At seedling emergence, hypocotyls are green but become purple with age. Cotyledons are round to oblong on hairy petioles. The base of the cotyledon blade is notched where it meets the petiole. Young leaves have petioles and are opposite, with soft hairs on the dark green upper surface and along the veins of the under surface. The upper leaf surface is prominently veined and crinkled. Leaf blades have 2-4 large rounded teeth on each side. Seedling stems are square, green to purple, with basally pointing hairs (Uva et al., 1997). Mature stems are square, green to purple, nearly hairless, prostrate or curved at the base, with an erect or ascending tip. Leaves (1.5-2 cm long) are palmately veined. Lower leaves are petiolated, rounded to heart-shaped, with rounded teeth. Upper leaves are sessile, deeply lobed, encircling the stem at the base. In the flowering portions, stem internodes are shorter and leaves can look whorled. The root system is shallow and fibrous. Stems root where the lower nodes contact the soil surface. Flowers are showy pink to purple and are produced mainly in early spring in the northern hemisphere, especially in April. The flowers are in the leaf axils of the sessile upper leaves, with 6-10 flowers in a whorl. Sepals are united into a tube with 5 teeth; petals are pink to purple, united into a 2-lipped tube, 1-1.5 cm long. Fruit (nutlets) are egg-shaped to oblong, 3-angled, brown with white spots, and 1-2 mm long. Four nutlets, each with 1 seed, are enclosed within the persistent sepals.

Plant Type

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Annual
Biennial
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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L. amplexicaule is very common throughout Europe (INRA, 2001). It can be found across most of North America, but is most common in eastern states and provinces, and along the West Coast (Uva et al., 1997; Cranston et al., 2002; USDA-NRCS, 2002).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroduced
EgyptPresentIntroduced
LibyaPresentIntroduced
MoroccoPresentNative
TunisiaPresentNative

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroduced
ArmeniaPresentNative
AzerbaijanPresentNative
ChinaPresentIntroduced
-AnhuiPresentIntroduced
-FujianPresentIntroduced
-GansuPresentIntroduced
-GuizhouPresentIntroduced
-HenanPresentIntroduced
-HubeiPresentIntroduced
-HunanPresentIntroduced
-JiangsuPresentIntroduced
-QinghaiPresentIntroduced
-SichuanPresentIntroduced
-TibetPresentIntroduced
-XinjiangPresentIntroduced
-YunnanPresentIntroduced
-ZhejiangPresentIntroduced
GeorgiaPresentNative
IndiaPresentIntroduced
IranPresentNative
IraqPresentNative
IsraelPresentNative
JapanPresent
KazakhstanPresentNative
KyrgyzstanPresentNative
LebanonPresentNative
NepalPresentIntroduced
PakistanPresentNative
South KoreaPresent
SyriaPresentNative
TajikistanPresentNative
TurkeyPresentNative
TurkmenistanPresentNative
UzbekistanPresentNative

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative
AustriaPresentNative
BelarusPresentNative
BelgiumPresentNative
BulgariaPresentNative
CyprusPresentNative
CzechiaPresentNative
DenmarkPresentIntroducedInvasive
EstoniaPresentNative
FinlandPresentNative
FrancePresentNativeInvasive
-CorsicaPresentNative
GermanyPresentNativeInvasive
GreecePresentNative
-CretePresentNative
HungaryPresentNative
IcelandPresentIntroduced
IrelandPresentNative
ItalyPresentNativeInvasive
-SardiniaPresentNative
-SicilyPresentNative
LatviaPresentNative
LithuaniaPresentNative
MoldovaPresentNative
NetherlandsPresentNative
NorwayPresentNative
PolandPresentNative
PortugalPresentNativeInvasive
-AzoresPresentNative
-MadeiraPresentNative
RomaniaPresentNative
RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentNative
-Northern RussiaPresentNative
-Southern RussiaPresentNative
-Western SiberiaPresentNative
Serbia and MontenegroPresentNative
SlovakiaPresentNative
SpainPresentNativeInvasive
-Balearic IslandsPresentNative
-Canary IslandsPresentNative
SwedenPresentNative
SwitzerlandPresentNative
UkrainePresentNative
United KingdomPresentNativeInvasive

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentIntroduced
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-ManitobaPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresent
-YukonPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedInvasive
-DelawarePresentIntroducedInvasive
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced
-IdahoPresentIntroduced
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IndianaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IowaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KansasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedInvasive
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MainePresentIntroducedInvasive
-MarylandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MichiganPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MississippiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MissouriPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MontanaPresentIntroduced
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-NevadaPresentIntroduced
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedInvasive
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroducedInvasive
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OregonPresentIntroducedInvasive
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroducedInvasive
-TexasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-UtahPresentIntroduced
-VermontPresentIntroducedInvasive
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedInvasive
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WyomingPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroduced

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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L. amplexicaule is native to Europe (INRA, 2001) but has spread around the world, especially during the 1800s.

Risk of Introduction

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Due to the risks of both accidental and intentional introduction, further spread of L. amplexicaule is likely. As a result, this weed has been declared a noxious weed in parts of Canada (Anon., 1996).

Habitat

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L. amplexicaule thrives in autumn and early spring on cool, rich, fertile soils. In China, it is found commonly on roadsides, forest margins, marshes as well as a weed in agricultural fields (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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This weed is prevalent in winter cereal crops, other winter annual crops, orchards, gardens, landscapes, nurseries, waste areas, and turf; more commonly warm-season than cool-season turf (Uva et al., 1997).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeMain
Triticum spp.PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The base chromosome number for L. amplexicaule is 2n = 18 (x=9).

Physiology and Phenology

Although often classified as an annual plant, this species may overwinter as a seedling or as a seed and become a biennial. Seedlings emerge from moist, cool soil in autumn and early spring. Seedling emergence occurs when the temperature is 5-25°C, optimally 15-20°C, and is inhibited by dry, cool soils (Blackshaw et al., 2002). L. amplexicaule and other members of the Lamiaceae family have persistent square stems and fused, persistent sepals (in whorls at the nodes) that often retain seeds.

Reproductive Biology

Reproduction is by seed. Self-pollinated flowers may produce seeds without opening (cleistogamy). Each plant can produce 200 or more seeds. This weed can also re-generate from pieces of stem when it is hoed or chopped. Floral biology and insect visitation was studied in detail by Orueta and Viejo (1999).

Environmental Requirements

Climatic requirements include reasonable soil moisture. Although this weed thrives under moist conditions for much of the season, it can tolerate moderate summer droughts. It is found at altitudes from sea level to 4000 m in China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003).

Associations

The roots are host to a range of mycorrhizal associations (Feldman and Boyle, 1999). The seeds are frequently consumed by a variety of animals.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
0 0 0 4000

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -25
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 0 20
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 10 25
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -12 10

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration04number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Though rarely having a serious impact on the weed, the plant is a host to range of plant pests. Viruses that have been detected on L. amplexicaule include: Arabis mosaic virus, Artichoke Italian latent virus, Beet mild yellowing virus, Clover yellow vein virus, Potato virus Y, Strawberry latent ringspot virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus. The fungal pathogens Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum can also utilize L. amplexicaule as a host (Welty, 1977; Hollowell et al., 2003), and the plant is a host to several nematodes including Ditylenchus dipsaci (Weltzien and Weltzien, 1980), Heterodera glycines (Venkatesh et al., 2000) and Meloidogyne hapla (Ciancio et al., 1992).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

L. amplexicaule is propagated and dispersed almost entirely by seeds. Dispersal over short distances (1-10 m) is generally by wind or animals. Dispersal over longer distances can occur with water, particularly floods (NASD, 2002).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Birds and other animals can consume and disseminate seeds.

Agricultural Practices

In agricultural areas, both cultivation and harvesting machinery can carry seeds from field to field.

Accidental Introduction

Crop seeds need to be cleaned well to ensure that this and other weed seeds are not planted with the crop.

Intentional Introduction

L. amplexicaule may be grown in wildflower gardens, and seeds can be purchased for this use (e.g. Peninsula Flowers Garden, 2003).

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailSold as wildflower Yes
Soil, sand and gravelRivers and floods Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx weeds/seeds
Fruits (inc. pods) weeds/seeds
True seeds (inc. grain) weeds/seeds
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections Positive
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

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L. amplexicaule can be very competitive with crop plants, particularly in winter cereal crops. Its economic impact in agricultural production is sufficient for various governments to declare this weed as a noxious pest (e.g. Anon., 1996). It has also been noted to have effects on livestock if consumed in quantity (Hutton, 1982).

Environmental Impact

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L. amplexicaule competes with natural vegetation, particularly in turf grasses, pastures, landscapes, and gardens.

Impact: Biodiversity

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L. amplexicaule can compete strongly with other herbaceous vegetation, especially in turf grasses and landscapes. In those areas, it can replace the natural vegetation and threaten biodiversity.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Young leaves of L. amplexicaule can be eaten raw, added to salads or used as an herb seasoning, or cooked as leafy greens. It has been reported to be a mild stimulant.

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Host of pest

Materials

  • Poisonous to mammals

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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L. purpureum is another similar winter annual that flowers in early spring, but this species has upper leaves and square stems that are conspicuously red. Also the leaves are more triangular and less deeply lobed than those of L. amplexicaule, and the flowers are generally a brighter purple. Another similar species is L. maculatum, a perennial ground-covering plant with white markings on its leaves and square stems. Veronica persica also looks similar when not in flower, but this species does not have square stems, making it easy to differentiate from members of the Lamiaceae.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

Intensive agriculture, especially spring and summer tillage that does not allow L. amplexicaule plants to mature will manage populations over time.

Mechanical Control

Although not practical in winter cereals, tillage/cultivation in summer row-crops is effective for control of L. amplexicaule seedlings. The same is true for hoeing in home gardens and similar areas that can be managed by hand.

Biological Control

Although L. amplexicaule is a host to a large number of crop pests, none is known to be specific to this weed or has been researched as a potential biological control agent.

Chemical Control

Numerous herbicides are highly effective in controlling L. amplexicaule; however, selection of a herbicide that is selective to the crop in question must be done carefully.

Integrated Control

In agronomic and horticultural crops, L. amplexicaule can be managed through a combination of cultural, mechanical and chemical measures.

References

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Anon., 1996. Manitoba Regulation, Noxious Weeds Regulation - MR 38-5/96. http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/regs/pdf/n110-035.96.pdf.

Bennett BA; Catling PM; Cody WJ; Argus G, 2010. New records of vascular plants in the Yukon Territory VIII. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 124(1):1-27. http://www.ofnc.ca/cfn/124-1/Bennett_etal.pdf

Blackshaw RE; Brandt RN; Entz T, 2002. Soil temperature and soil water effects on henbit emergence. Weed Science, 50(4):494-497; 22 ref.

Ciancio A; Giudice VL; Bonsignore R; Roccuzzo G, 1992. Root-knot nematodes attacking weeds in Southern Italy. Informatore Fitopatologico, 42(6):55-57

Cranston R; Ralph D; Wikeem B, 2002. Field Guide to Noxious and Other Selected Weeds of British Columbia. Government of British Columbia. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/weedguid/weedguid.htm.

Feldmann F; Boyle C, 1999. Weed-mediated stability of arbuscular mycorrhizal effectiveness in maize monocultures. Angewandte Botanik, 73(1/2):1-5; 27 ref.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/.

Hollowell JE; Shew BB; Cubeta MA; Wilcut JW, 2003. Weed species as hosts of Sclerotinia minor in peanut fields. Plant Disease, 87(2):197-199; 12 ref.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DC, 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida: Krieger.

Hutton JB, 1982. Henbit (Lamium amplexicaule) plant poisoning in sheep. Surveillance, New Zealand, 9(4):20.

INRA, 2001. Weed Science and Agronomy. HYPPA. Dijon, France: INRA. http://www.inra.fr/hyppa/hyppa-a/lamam_ah.htm.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. VAScular Tropicos database. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html.

NASD, 2002. Weed management after a flood - strategies for this year and next. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension.

Orueta D; Viejo JL, 1999. Floral biology in the Lamiaceae family: diurnal nectar production, nectar standing-crop, and insect visits in Lamium amplexicaule Linnaeus (1753) and Salvia verbenaca Linnaeus (1753). Boleti^acute~n de la Real Sociedad Espan^tilde~ola de Historia Natural, Seccio^acute~n Biolo^acute~gica, 95(1/2):107-114; 39 ref.

Peninsula Flowers Nursery, 2003. British Columbia, Canada. http://bonsaibc.ca/PERENNIALS%20%20I%20-%20O.htm.

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003. Flora Europaea, Database of European Plants (ESFEDS). Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html.

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2003. Electronic Plant Information Centre. Kew, Richmond, London, UK. http://epic.kew.org/index.htm.

USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov.

Uva RH; Neal JC; DiTomaso JM, 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Ithaca, USA: Cornell University Press.

Venkatesh R; Harrison SK; Riedel RM, 2000. Weed hosts of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in Ohio. Weed-Technology, 14(1):156-160.

Weed Science Society of America, 2003. International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. HRAC/ NAHRAC/ WSSA. http://www.weedscience.org/in.asp.

Welty RE, 1977. Lamium amplexicaule (henbit): a new host for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Trifoliorum). Plant Disease Reporter, 61(6):508-510

Weltzien M; Weltzien HC, 1980. Lamium amplexicaule L. as host plant of the stem nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci in Syria. FABIS Newsletter, ICARDA, Syria, No.2:50

Distribution References

Bennett B A, Catling P M, Cody W J, Argus G, 2010. New records of vascular plants in the Yukon Territory VIII. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 124 (1), 1-27. http://www.ofnc.ca/cfn/124-1/Bennett_etal.pdf

Blackshaw R E, Brandt R N, Entz T, 2002. Soil temperature and soil water effects on henbit emergence. Weed Science. 50 (4), 494-497. DOI:10.1614/0043-1745(2002)050[0494:STASWE]2.0.CO;2

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chatzivassiliou E K, Boubourakas I, Drossos E, Eleftherohorinos I, Jenser G, Peters D, Katis N I, 2001. Weeds in greenhouses and tobacco fields are differentially infected by Tomato spotted wilt virus and infested by its vector species. Plant Disease. 85 (1), 40-46. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.1.40

Cranston R, Ralph D, Wikeem B, 2002. Field Guide to Noxious and Other Selected Weeds of British Columbia., Government of British Columbia: Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/weedguid/weedguid.htm

Esquivel J F, 2016. Nezara viridula (L.) in Central Texas: I. New host plant associations and reproductive status of adults encountered within. Southwestern Entomologist. 41 (4), 895-904. http://www.bioone.org/loi/swen

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003. Flora of China Web., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Groves R L, Walgenbach J F, Moyer J W, Kennedy G G, 2002. The role of weed hosts and tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca, in the epidemiology of tomato spotted wilt virus. Plant Disease. 86 (6), 573-582. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.6.573

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DC, 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds., Malabar, Florida, Krieger.

Hwang KiSeon, Eom MinYong, Park SuHyuk, Won OkJae, Lee InYong, Park KeeWoong, 2015. Occurrence and distribution of weed species on horticulture fields in Chungnam province of Korea. Journal of Ecology and Environment. 38 (3), 353-360. DOI:10.5141/ecoenv.2015.036

INRA, 2001. Weed Science and Agronomy. HYPPA., Dijon, France: INRA. http://www.inra.fr/hyppa/hyppa-a/lamam_ah.htm

Ma K C, Jo Y S, Kim B H, Lim D G, 2007. Seasonal occurrence and aspects of root-knot nematodes in major kiwifruit cultivation areas of Korea. Acta Horticulturae. 719-724. http://www.actahort.org

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. Vascular Tropicos database., St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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