Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Lagerstroemia speciosa
(Pride of India)

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Datasheet

Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lagerstroemia speciosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Pride of India
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • L. speciosa is a tree species widely commercial for ornamental purposes and as roadside trees. This species is very appreciated in the horticulture market for its large, showy, bright pink to lavender flowers (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleYoung tree
Caption
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Young tree©K.M. Siddiqui
TitleAvenue planting
Caption
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Avenue planting©K.M. Siddiqui
TitleFlowering branch
Caption
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Flowering branch©K.M. Siddiqui
TitleBranch with fruit capsules
Caption
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Branch with fruit capsules©K.M. Siddiqui
1. tree habit
2. leaf
3. inflorescence
4. fruit
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. tree habit 2. leaf 3. inflorescence 4. fruit
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. tree habit
2. leaf
3. inflorescence
4. fruit
Line artwork1. tree habit 2. leaf 3. inflorescence 4. fruitPROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.

Preferred Common Name

  • Pride of India

Other Scientific Names

  • Adambea glabra Lam.
  • Adambea hirsuta Lam.
  • Lagerstroemia flos-reginae Retz.
  • Lagerstroemia hirsuta (Lam.) Willd.
  • Lagerstroemia major Retz.
  • Lagerstroemia munchausia Willd.
  • Lagerstroemia plicifolia Stokes
  • Lagerstroemia reginae Roxb.
  • Munchausia speciosa L.
  • Murtughas hirsuta (Lam.) Kuntze

International Common Names

  • English: queen crape myrtle; queen of flowers; queen's crape-myrtle; queen's-flower; rose of India
  • Spanish: astromelia; embrujo de la India; orgullo de la India
  • French: lilas des Indes; stragornia blanc
  • Chinese: zi wei shu

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: jarul
  • Brazil: flor-da-rainha; resedá-flor-da-rainha; resedá-gigante
  • Cuba: astronomía; cupido; gastronomia; júpito
  • Dominican Republic: almira; armira
  • Haiti: atromelia stragornia
  • India: adamboe; ajhar; arjuna; ary; bondaro; challa; cholaventekku; hole dasal; hole matti; jarul; jarulo; kadali; mani maruthu; marathi-bendara; mota bondara; moto-bhandaro; nir maruthu; nirbendeka; nirventeak; patoli; patuli; pumaruthu; taman; varagogu
  • Indonesia: bungur; ketangi
  • Jamaica: crape myrtle; June rose
  • Lesser Antilles: crepe myrtle
  • Malaysia: bongor biru
  • Myanmar: gawkng-uchyamang; pyinma
  • Netherlands: koninginnebloem
  • Philippines: banaba
  • Puerto Rico: astromero
  • Thailand: chuang-muu; tabaek dam
  • United States Virgin Islands: Queen of shrubs

EPPO code

  • LAESP (Lagerstroemia speciosa)

Trade name

  • arjuna
  • pyinma

Summary of Invasiveness

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L. speciosa is a tree species widely commercial for ornamental purposes and as roadside trees. This species is very appreciated in the horticulture market for its large, showy, bright pink to lavender flowers (Gilman and Watson, 1993; Randall, 2012, USDA-ARS, 2017). It is often planted in gardens, yards and parks, around parking lots, and along highways (Gilman and Watson, 1993Orwa et al., 2009).  L. speciosa has escaped from cultivation and now it can be found naturalized in waste places, disturbed sites, open grasslands, and along roadsides in a great variety of climates (Orwa et al., 2009). It has a wide spreading crown and a dense root system with the potential to alter soil conditions and inhibit the establishment of native vegetation in the understory. Currently it is listed as invasive in Belize, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Balick et al., 2000; Chacón and Saborío, 2012; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Lythraceae
  •                             Genus: Lagerstroemia
  •                                 Species: Lagerstroemia speciosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Lythraceae includes 31 genera and approximately 620 species occurring worldwide (Graham et al., 2005; Stevens, 2012). Members of this family are easily recognized by a suite of characters such as: (1) opposite entire leaves, (2) a persistent, perigynous, campanulate to tubular floral tube with crinkled petals inserted at the rim, (3) two whorls of stamens inserted deep in the tube, and (4) a many-seeded capsular fruit (Graham et al., 2005). The four largest genera are Cuphea (250 species), Nesaea (80 species), Diplusodon (75 species), and Lagerstroemia (55 species) and account for three-quarters of all the species in this family (Graham et al., 2005; Graham and Cavalcanti, 2009). The name Lagerstroemia recognizes Magnus von Lagerstroem, a Swedish naturalist who provided specimens from the East for Linnaeus. The specific name speciosa is a Latin word for showy, referring to the flowers (Orwa et al., 2009).

Description

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L. speciosa is a shrub to large tree with multiple trunks or stems diverging from just above ground level, up to 40(45) m tall and 100(-150) cm in diameter. Leaves opposite, distichous, simple, entire, stipules minute or absent. Flowers in a large, axillary or terminal panicle, often showy, calyx funnel or bell shaped, 6(9) lobed, petals often 6, inserted near the mouth of the calyx tube, white to pink or purple, clawed, wrinkled, stamens many, in several rows, ovary superior, 3-6 locular with many ovules in each cell, style 1. Fruit a large woody capsule on the persistent calyx. Seed with an apical wing (Orwa et al., 2009).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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L. speciosa is native to temperate and tropical Asia including the Indian subcontinent, China, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). This species has been widely cultivated as ornamental and is now naturalized in tropical regions of Asia and Africa, Australia, Mexico, Central and South America, and the West Indies (Lorenzi et al., 2003; Broome et al., 2007; Davidse et al., 2009; Orwa et al., 2009; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentPlanted, Natural
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
ChinaPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017Origin uncertain: listed as both native and introduced
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentPlanted, Natural
-Andhra PradeshPresentPlanted, Natural
-Arunachal PradeshPresentPlanted, Natural
-AssamPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2017
-BiharPresentPlanted, Natural
-ChandigarhPresentPlanted, Natural
-DelhiPresentPlanted, Natural
-GujaratPresentPlanted, Natural
-HaryanaPresentPlanted, Natural
-Himachal PradeshPresentPlanted, Natural
-Indian PunjabPresentPlanted, Natural
-Jammu and KashmirPresentPlanted, Natural
-KarnatakaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2017
-KeralaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2017
-Madhya PradeshPresentPlanted, Natural
-MaharashtraPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2017
-ManipurPresentPlanted, Natural
-MeghalayaPresentPlanted, Natural
-MizoramPresentPlanted, Natural
-NagalandPresentPlanted, Natural
-OdishaPresentPlanted, Natural
-SikkimPresentPlanted, Natural
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2017
-TripuraPresentPlanted, Natural
-Uttar PradeshPresentPlanted, Natural
-West BengalPresentPlanted, Natural
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
-JavaPresentNativePROSEA, 2017
-SulawesiPresentNativePROSEA, 2017
-SumatraPresentNativePROSEA, 2017
JapanPresent Planted
LaosPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
PakistanPresentIntroducedFlora of Pakistan, 2017Cultivated, not common
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
SingaporePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
TaiwanPresent Planted
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017

Africa

GhanaPresentIntroducedAfrican Plants Database, 2017Cultivated
MalawiPresentIntroducedAfrican Plants Database, 2017Cultivated
NigeriaPresentIntroducedAfrican Plants Database, 2017Cultivated
TanzaniaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ZanzibarPresent Planted
UgandaPresent Planted
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedAfrican Plants Database, 2017Cultivated

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
USAPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGilman and Watson, 1993Ornamental tree
-CaliforniaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGilman and Watson, 1993Ornamental tree
-FloridaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGilman and Watson, 1993Ornamental tree
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedNational Tropical Botanical Garden, 2017Cultivated

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
BelizePresentIntroduced Invasive Balick et al., 2000
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Chacón and Saborío, 2012
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
PanamaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Sint EustatiusPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedLorenzi et al., 2003Cultivated
-Distrito FederalPresentIntroducedLorenzi et al., 2003Cultivated
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedLorenzi et al., 2003Cultivated
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedLorenzi et al., 2003Cultivated
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedLorenzi et al., 2003Cultivated
ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdárraga-Piedrahita et al., 2011Cultivated
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Cultivated and naturalized

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedAtlas of Living Australia, 2017Naturalized
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedAtlas of Living Australia, 2017Naturalized

History of Introduction and Spread

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L. speciosa has been widely introduced across tropical and subtropical regions of the world mostly to be used as an ornamental and shade tree (Orwa et al., 2009). In Hawaii, it was introduced in the early 1900s and the original tree that was planted still survives in the Foster Botanical Garden in Honolulu (National Tropical Botanical Garden, 2017). In the West Indies it was first collected in 1897 in Jamaica (US National Herbarium). In Puerto Rico and the Virgin islands it was introduced in 1925 (Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015).

Risk of Introduction

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The likelihood of further introduction of L. speciosa is very high. This species is one of the most common ornamental trees commercialized in the nursery and landscaping trade around the world. Additionally, seeds are adapted to wind dispersal (Gilman and Watson, 1993; Orwa et al., 2009). Thus, the likelihood to colonize new habitats remains high for this species. 

Habitat

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Within its native distribution range, L. speciosa grows in semi-evergreen and evergreen forest mostly along streams (India Biodiversity Portal, 2017). Outside its native range, it is commonly planted as a shade tree in gardens, yards, public parks, parking lots, and along highways (Gilman and Watson, 1993; Orwa et al., 2009). Once naturalized, this species can be found growing in grasslands, along rivers, disturbed or secondary forest, and forest edges in moist and dry habitats from near the sea level to middle elevations (Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2017).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number recorded for L. speciosa is 2n = 24 (Singhal and Gill, 1984). L. speciosa can hybridize with the species L. indica and at least 10 different cultivars have resulted from hybridization between these two species (Pounders et al., 2007).

Reproductive Biology

L. speciosa produces hermaphroditic flowers in large, axillary or terminal panicles. Maximum anthesis is in the early morning (Deepu Sivadas et al., 2015; Khanduri et al., 2015), and flowering can continue for 40-120 days (Deepu Sivadas et al., 2015). Flowers are visited and pollinated by insects (Orwa et al., 2009). In India, bee species in the genera Apis and Xylocopa are the main pollinators (Khanduri, 2014). In Brazil, the most common floral visitors are: Bombus morio, Bombus atratus, Apis mellifera, Centris tarsata, Centris flavifrons, Xylocopa frontalis, Xylocopa suspecta and Eulaema nigrita. A mixed breeding system, with selfing, outcrossing and apomixis, has been reported for this species (Vitali-Vega et al., 1999).

Physiology and Phenology

In the Philippines, L. speciosa flowers in April-June, in Java in July-October, and in Papua New Guinea in May-July, although flowers and fruits may be found throughout the years. In China, it has been recorded flowering from June to September and fruiting from September to November (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). In Brazil, it has been reported flowering from October to April (Vitali-Vega et al., 1999). In Central America, it flowers from March to June and fruits are produced from June to December (Davidse et al., 2009).

Longevity

L. speciosa is a perennial long-lived tree (USDA-NRCS, 2017). In Hawaii, a tree planted in the early 1900s still survives (National Tropical Botanical Garden, 2017).

Activity Patterns

In India, saplings flower when only a few years old (~2 year-old), but viable seed production begins at 15 years old (Orwa et al., 2009). Trials in Java show that 15-year-old trees can attain a mean annual increment of 0.9-1.1 cm in diameter and 0.7-0.9 m in height.

Environmental Requirements

L. speciosa grows in moist habitats with mean annual precipitation ranging from 1000 mm to 2400 mm and mean annual temperatures of around 25-28°C. In dry habitats it is often found growing along streams. Soils may vary from well drained to occasionally flooded, but not peat soil. This species is resistant to fire (Orwa et al., 2009).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 30 0 1500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -2
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 35
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 34 43
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 3 19

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration16number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall15004500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Erysiphe australiana Pathogen Seedlings not specific
Erysiphe lagerstroemia Pathogen Whole plant not specific
Popillia japonica Herbivore Whole plant not specific
Thanetophorus cucumeris Pathogen Whole plant not specific
Tinocallis kahawaluokalani Herbivore Whole plant to genus

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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L. speciosa spreads mostly by seeds. However, in cultivation, propagation by cuttings and by division of root suckers is possible (Gilman and Watson, 1993).

Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

L. speciosa seeds are dispersed by wind (Orwa et al., 2009). According to Deepu Sivadas et al. (2015), while total seed output per tree following open pollination is around 175,000, regeneration potential is very low.

Intentional Introduction

L. speciosa is an aesthetically attractive tree and has been widely introduced to be used as an ornamental and shade tree (PROTA, 2017).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeCultivated as ornamental and roadside tree Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Garden waste disposalSeeds in dumped garden waste Yes Gilman and Watson, 1993
Habitat restoration and improvement Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Hedges and windbreaksPlanted for boundaries and as a support for rattan Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Nursery tradeCommercialized as an ornamental tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Ornamental purposesCommercialized as an ornamental tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds in dumped garden waste Yes Gilman and Watson, 1993
MailSeeds sold online Yes Yes Floridata, 2017
WindSeeds are wind-dispersed Yes Orwa et al., 2009

Environmental Impact

Top of page

L. speciosa is a tree species widely commercial as ornamental that has become naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Orwa et al., 2009; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). This species has a wide spreading crown and a dense and widespread root system with the potential to alter soil conditions and inhibit the establishment of native vegetation in the understory. Currently it is listed as invasive in Belize, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Balick et al., 2000; Chacón and Saborío, 2012; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Hybridization
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

L. speciosa is grown commercially as an ornamental and shade tree due to its showy flowers and wide spreading crown (Orwa et al., 2009). Pruned branches of this plant can be composted and used as fertilizer (Sannigrahi, 2009). The tree produces a reddish-brown wood regarded as similar to teak in characteristics, and is used in medium-heavy construction and for tools and handicrafts.

Social Benefit

In India, L. speciosa is consider a “holy tree” and it is said that Buddha attained enlightenment while meditating beneath a Lagerstroemia tree. It is also used in traditional medicine. A decoction of the bark is used against diarrhoea and abdominal pains. A leaf poultice is used to relief malarial fever. A preparation from dried leaves, known as “banaba” is widely used across Asia to treat diabetes and urinary problems (Orwa et al., 2009; Tavares et al., 2011).

Environmental Services

In Asia, L. speciosa is planted for erosion control and as a support for rattan. In Java it has been used in reforestation of degraded hills (Orwa et al., 2009).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Invertebrate food for silkworms

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Land reclamation

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Essential oils
  • Gum/resin
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Seed trade

Wood Products

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Containers

  • Boxes
  • Cases
  • Cooperage
  • Crates
  • Tanks

Roundwood

  • Pit props
  • Transmission poles

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Bridges
  • Engineering structures
  • Flooring
  • For light construction
  • Shingles
  • Wall panelling

Wood wool

Wood-based materials

  • Composite boards
  • Wood cement

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Matches
  • Toys
  • Turnery

Prevention and Control

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There is no information available for the control or management of L. speciosa.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

African Plants Database, 2017. Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. Online resources. http://bie.ala.org.au/species/http://id.biodiversity.org.au/node/apni/2914649

Ahmed AA, Puzari NN, 1991. Initial growth and survival of different forest tree species in Assam. Indian Forester, 117(7):549-552; 1 ref.

Atlas of Living Australia, 2017. Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. Online resources. http://bie.ala.org.au/species/http://id.biodiversity.org.au/node/apni/2914649

Balick MJ, Nee MH, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden, 85:1–246

Baruah KK, Saikia BN, Gohain AK, Das PC, Buragohain SC, Kalita C, 1994. Studies on chemical composition and palatability of ajar seeds on goats. Indian Veterinary Journal, 71(6):605-606; 3 ref.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Champion HG, Seth SK, Khattak GM, 1965. Forest Types of Pakistan. Peshawar, Pakistan: Pakistan Forest Institute.

Davidse GM, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang F, 2009. Cucurbitaceae a Polemoniaceae. 4(1): i–xvi, 1–855. In: Davidse GM, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang F, Eds. Flora Mesoamericana. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis

Davis TA, Ghosh T, Rajan BKC, Gupta R, Jain SK, Kataki SK, 1977. Trees of economic value. Indian Farming, 26(11):90-101.

Deepu Sivadas, Pandurangan, A. G., Padmesh, P., 2015. Reproductive phenology of Lagerstroemia speciosa (Lythraceae) in Southern Western Ghats, India., 5(1), 128-133. http://www.ijpaes.com/admin/php/uploads/762_pdf.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2017. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Tropicos website. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Floridata, 2017. Floridata plant database. Tallahassee, Florida, USA: Floridata, http://www.floridata.com/

Fonseca, N. R., Guimarães, L. M. S., Pires, R. P., Alfenas, A. C., 2016. Erysiphe australiana: the cause of powdery mildew on Lagerstroemia speciosa in Brazil., 46(4), 366-368. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0329 doi: 10.1111/efp.12284

Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana).. Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55584 pp..

Garcia LL, Fojas FR, Castro IR, Venzon EL, Sison FM, Capal TV, 1987. Pharmaceutico-chemical and pharmacological studies on a crude drug from Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. Philippine Journal of Science, 116(4):361-375; 1 fig.; 16 ref.

Gilman EF, Watson DG, 1993. Lagerstroemia speciosa - Queens Crapemyrtle Report ENH-502. Gainesville, FL: Environmental Horticulture, UF/IFAS Extension

Graham SA, Cavalcanti TB, 2009. Neotropical Lythraceae. In: Milliken W, Klitgård B, Baracat A, (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. http://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/neotropikey/families/Lythraceae.htm

Graham, S. A., Hall, J., Sytsma, K., Shi SuHua, 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of the Lythraceae based on four gene regions and morphology., 166(6), 995-1017. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/IJPS/journal/ doi: 10.1086/432631

Hocking D, Islam K, 1995. Trees in Bangladesh paddy fields. 2. Survival of trees planted in crop fields. Agroforestry Systems, 31(1):39-57; 21 ref.

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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28/04/17 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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