Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Lagerstroemia indica
(Indian crape myrtle)

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Datasheet

Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lagerstroemia indica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian crape myrtle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • L. indica is a widely commercialised ornamental shrub or small tree that has become naturalized and invasive in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); ornamental tree showing habit. Green Cay Wetlands, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionLagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); ornamental tree showing habit. Green Cay Wetlands, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); ornamental tree showing habit. Green Cay Wetlands, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
HabitLagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); ornamental tree showing habit. Green Cay Wetlands, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); young tree trunk. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
TitleYoung tree trunk
CaptionLagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); young tree trunk. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); young tree trunk. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
Young tree trunkLagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); young tree trunk. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); mature tree, showing habit. Tifton, Georgia, USA.
TitleMature tree
CaptionLagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); mature tree, showing habit. Tifton, Georgia, USA.
Copyright©Joseph LaForest/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); mature tree, showing habit. Tifton, Georgia, USA.
Mature treeLagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); mature tree, showing habit. Tifton, Georgia, USA.©Joseph LaForest/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); flowers and foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionLagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); flowers and foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); flowers and foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
Flowers and foliageLagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); flowers and foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
TitleFlowers
CaptionLagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
FlowersLagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); close-up of a flower. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
TitleClose-up of a flower
CaptionLagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); close-up of a flower. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); close-up of a flower. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
Close-up of a flowerLagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); close-up of a flower. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lagerstroemia indica L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian crape myrtle

Other Scientific Names

  • Lagerstroemia chinensis Lam.
  • Lagerstroemia elegans Wall.ex Paxton
  • Lagerstroemia indica fo. latifolia Koehne
  • Lagerstroemia indica var. alba Ram. Goyena
  • Lagerstroemia minor Retz.
  • Lagerstroemia pulchra Salisb.
  • Murtughas indica (L.) Kuntze
  • Velega globosa Gaertn.

International Common Names

  • English: crape myrtle; crepeflower; Pride of India; Queen crape myrtle; Queen of flowers; Queen of shrubs; Queen's flower
  • Spanish: árbol de Júpiter; crespón; crespon rosado; espumillas; Júpiter; lila de les Indias; lila del sur
  • French: lilas d'été
  • Chinese: zi wei
  • Portuguese: escumilha

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: astronomía; cupido; gastronomia; gastronomia y júpiter; Júpito
  • Dominican Republic: almira; armira; astromelia; astromeria
  • Germany: Indische; Lagerströmie
  • Haiti: astromelia stragornia; stragornia; stragornia blanc
  • India: ajhar; arjuna; bondaro; challa; chinagoranta; dhayti; jarul; motobhandaru; pavalakkurinji; varagogu
  • Indonesia: bungur; ketangi
  • Italy: lagerstremia
  • Jamaica: June rose
  • Lesser Antilles: crepe myrtle
  • Malaysia: bongor biru
  • Philippines: banaba
  • Portugal: escumilha
  • Puerto Rico: astromelia; astromero
  • Thailand: chuangmuu; tabaek dam

EPPO code

  • LAEIN (Lagerstroemia indica)

Summary of Invasiveness

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L. indica is a widely commercialised ornamental shrub or small tree that has become naturalized and invasive in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Randall, 2012, USDA-ARS, 2014). L. indica is often used for buffer strips around parking lots, for median strip plantings along highways, and also planted near decks, patios, as shade trees in small parking lots, and around homes (Moore and Walker, 2014). It has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in waste ground, disturbed sites, open grasslands, and along roadsides in a great variety of climates (Orwa et al., 2009). L. indica has a very aggressive and dense root system and is listed as invasive in South Africa, Belize, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Balick et al., 2000; Foxcroft et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).  

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Lythraceae
  •                             Genus: Lagerstroemia
  •                                 Species: Lagerstroemia indica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Lythraceae is a moderate-sized family that includes 31 genera and approximately 600 species occurring worldwide (Graham et al., 2005; Stevens, 2012). Members of this family are easily recognized by a suite of characters such as: (1) opposite entire leaves, (2) a persistent, perigynous, campanulate to tubular floral tube with crinkled petals inserted at the rim, (3) two whorls of stamens inserted deep in the tube, and (4) a many-seeded capsular fruit (Graham et al., 2005). The four largest genera are Cuphea (250 species), Nesaea (80 species), Diplusodon (75 species), and Lagerstroemia (55 species) and account for three-quarters of all the species in this family (Graham et al., 2005; Graham and Cavalcanti, 2009). The species L. indica is frequently used as an ornamental and consequently many cultivars have been developed by private individuals, nurseries, and public institutions (Orwa et al., 2009; Moore and Walker, 2014).

Description

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Shrubs or small trees, to 7 m tall. Branchlets slender, 4-angled or subulate, puberulous, glabrescent. Leaves sessile or with petiole to approximately 2 mm; leaf blade elliptic, oblong, obovate, or suborbicular, typically at least some suborbicular to obovate and mucronate, 2.5 – 7 × 1.5 – 4 cm, papery to slightly leathery, glabrous or with slight indumentum on veins abaxially, lateral veins 3-7 pairs, base broadly cuneate to rounded, apex acute, obtuse with small mucro, or retuse. Panicles sub-pyramidal, 7 – 20 cm, puberulous, densely flowered. Floral tube 6-merous, 7–11 mm, smooth walled or obscurely to decidedly 6-ribbed, glabrous; sepals 3.5 – 5.5 mm, adaxially glabrous; annulus present; epicalyx absent. Petals purple, fuchsia, pink, or white, orbicular, 1.2-2 cm including claw 6-9 mm. Stamens 36 – 42, dimorphic. Ovary glabrous. Capsules ellipsoidal, 1–1.3 × 0.7–1.2 cm, 4–6 valved. Seeds including wing approximately 8 mm (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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L. indica is native to temperate and tropical Asia (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). It has been widely cultivated as an ornamental and has become naturalized in Europe, America, and the Caribbean.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
BhutanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuizhouPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HenanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HunanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-JiangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-JilinPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ShandongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ShanxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-SichuanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
IndiaPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
-Himachal PradeshPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
-KarnatakaPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
-KeralaPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
-ManipurPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
IndonesiaPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
JapanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
LaosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
MalaysiaPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
MyanmarPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
NepalPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
PakistanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
PhilippinesPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
SingaporePresentOrwa et al., 2009
Sri LankaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
TaiwanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroducedPauwels, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedPauwels, 2005
RwandaPresentIntroducedPauwels, 2005
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Foxcroft et al., 2007

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-IndianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-OhioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-TennesseePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
ArubaPresentIntroducedUrban, 1920
BahamasPresentIntroducedUrban, 1920
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
BelizePresentIntroduced Invasive Balick, 2000
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo et al., 2012
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedUrban, 1920
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedBerendsohn et al., 2009
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAdams, 1972
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
PanamaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012

South America

ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdárraga-Piedrahita et al., 2011
EcuadorPresentIntroducedJørgensen and León-Yànez, 1999
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008

Europe

PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Naturalized
SpainPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

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L. indica started to be used in landscaping and gardening in Europe and America in 1759 (Sanchez, 2003). In the USA, the National Arboretum in Washington D.C. began a breeding project with L. indica in 1962. Major advances occurred when L. subcostata and L. fauriei were introduced into the breeding program in 1966. The resulting hybrids were highly ornamental and resistant to powdery mildew. At the present, the U.S. National Arboretum has released over 24 cultivars selected for cold hardiness, for resistance to powdery mildew, and for varying heights, habits, flower colours, autumn foliage colours, and bark characteristics (Moore and Walker, 2014).

In the Caribbean, L. indica was first reported in 1881 for the island of Puerto Rico (Bello Espinosa, 1881). By 1920, L. indica was listed for the Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Virgin Islands, St Kitts, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Bonaire, Curacao, and Aruba (Urban, 1920).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of L. indica is very high. This species is one of the most common ornamentals commercialized in the nursery and landscaping trade around the world. Many cultivars resistant to drought, freezing conditions, and pests have been developed by private individuals, nurseries, and public institutions (Orwa et al., 2009; Moore and Walker, 2014). Thus, the likelihood of colonizing new habitats remains high.

Habitat

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L. indica is commonly planted in gardens, yards, public parks, buffer strips around parking lots, and along highways (Moore and Walker, 2014). Once naturalized, it can be found growing in waste places, grasslands, on cliffs, along rivers, in disturbed or secondary forest, and along forest edges in wet and dry habitats from low to medium altitudes (Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number recorded for L. indica varies from 2n = 48 to 2n = 50 (Chen et al., 2003). L. indica can hybridize with L. speciosa and at least 10 different cultivars have resulted from hybridization between these two species (Pounders et al., 2007). 

Reproductive Biology

L. indica produces hermaphroditic flowers in large, axillary or terminal panicles. Flowers are pollinated mainly by large bees (Orwa et al., 2009). 

Physiology and Phenology

L. indica is a deciduous species which sheds leaves in the dry season. Flowering is frequent from June to September, although within its native distribution range flowers and fruits may be found throughout the year (Orwa et al., 2009; Moore and Walker, 2014). 

Environmental Requirements

L. indica is adapted to a wide variety of climatic and soil conditions. It grows best at low to medium elevations in areas with warm temperatures (mean = 25-30°C). Once established, plants are extremely drought tolerant and have low fertility requirements, although they respond to fertilizer and water with lush growth. L. indica has low salt tolerance and is also partially resistant to fire (Orwa et al., 2009; Moore and Walker, 2014).

 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 5 28

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall12002400mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Erysiphe australiana Pathogen All Stages not specific N
Popillia japonica Herbivore All Stages not specific N
Sarucallis kahawaluokalani Herbivore All Stages to genus N

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A wide variety of pests and diseases have been recorded in L. indica when grown as an ornamental. These include: 

  • Adoretus versutus (rose beetle)
  • Anoplophora chinensis (black and white citrus longhorn)
  • Armillaria tabescens (armillaria root rot)
  • Ceroplastes ceriferus (Indian wax scale)
  • Ceroplastes floridensis (soft scale)
  • Chaetocnema basalis
  • Chaetocnema indica
  • Cryphonectria cubensis (Eucalyptus canker)
  • Dialeurodes citri (citrus whitefly)
  • Erysiphe australiana
  • Fomitiporia mediterranea (esca disease)
  • Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)
  • Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips)
  • Homalodisca vitripennis (glassy winged sharpshooter)
  • Monellia caryella (hickory, aphid, little)
  • Paratrichodorus porosus
  • Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug)
  • Phyllophaga (white grubs)
  • Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle)
  • Pteroma plagiophleps
  • Retithrips syriacus (black vine thrips)
  • Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform nematode)
  • Sarucallis kahawaluokalani
  • Selenaspidus articulatus (West Indian red scale)

 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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L. indica spreads by seeds and cuttings. Cuttings easily produce roots. Seeds are winged and thus wind-dispersed (Orwa et al., 2009; Moore and Walker, 2014).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeWidely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Garden waste disposalWidely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Habitat restoration and improvementDense and widespread root system Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Hedges and windbreaksPlanted for boundary and barrier support Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Landscape improvementWidely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Nursery tradeWidely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesWidely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
MailSeedlings and seeds sold online (http://www.floridata.com) Yes Yes
WindSeeds are wind-dispersed Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

L. indica is a deciduous species widely commercial as an ornamental that has become naturalized and invasive in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Randall, 2012, USDA-ARS, 2014). It has a very aggressive and dense root system with the potential to outcompete native species for water and nutrients. Many cultivars resistant to drought, fire, and cold conditions have been created, increasing the potential of this species to colonize new habitats, displacing and smothering native vegetation (Balick et al., 2000; Foxcroft et al., 2007; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).  

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

L. indica is widely commercialized as an ornamental shrub or tree. In the USA, it is one of the most common plants in gardens, yards, public parks, buffer strips around parking lots, and along highways (Moore and Walker, 2014). Due to its dense and wide spreading root system, L. indica is also used in erosion control. It is often planted as a boundary or barrier support plant in gardens and cultivated areas (Orwa et al., 2009).

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Land reclamation

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies.

Balick MJ, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize, with common names and uses. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Berendsohn WG; Gruber AK; Monterrosa JA, 2009. [English title not available]. (Nova Silva Cuscatlanica. Árboles nativos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae. Familias A a L.) Englera, 29(1):1-438.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chen R; Song W; Li Xl; Li M; Liang Gl; Chen C, 2003. Chromosome Atlas of Major Economic Plants Genome in China, Vol. 3. Chromosome Atlas of Garden Flowering Plants in China. Beijing, China: Science Press.

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Davidse G; Sousa MS; Knapp S; Chiang FC, 2009. Cucurbitaceae a Polemoniaceae. Flora Mesoamericana, 4(1):1-855.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Foxcroft LC; Richardson DM; Wilson JRU, 2007. Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management, 41(1):32-51.

Graham SA; Cavalcanti TB, 2009. Neotropical Lythraceae. Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics [ed. by Milliken, W. \Klitgard, B. \Baracat, A.]. http://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/neotropikey/families/Lythraceae.htm

Graham SA; Hall J; Sytsma K; Shi SuHua, 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of the Lythraceae based on four gene regions and morphology. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 166(6):995-1017. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/IJPS/journal/

Hokche O; Berry PE; Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Kew Neotropikey: Lythraceaehttp://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/neotropikey/families/Lythraceae.htm
World Agroforestry Centrehttp://www.worldagroforestry.org

Contributors

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12/03/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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