Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Holotrichia serrata
(white grub)

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Datasheet

Holotrichia serrata (white grub)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Holotrichia serrata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white grub
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleAdult chafer beetles (L. serrata)
Caption
CopyrightICRISAT
Adult chafer beetles (L. serrata)ICRISAT

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Holotrichia serrata (Fabricius)

Preferred Common Name

  • white grub

Other Scientific Names

  • Lachnosterna serrata (Fabricius)
  • Melolontha serrata Fabricius
  • Phyllophaga serrata (Fabricius)

International Common Names

  • English: chafer beetle; cock chafer; leaf chafer; May or June beetle

Local Common Names

  • India: Gona (Kanad); Humani (Marathi); Safed lat (Hindi)

EPPO code

  • LACHSE (Holotrichia serrata)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scarabaeidae
  •                             Genus: Holotrichia
  •                                 Species: Holotrichia serrata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshPresentHusain et al. (1987)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresent, LocalizedNativeAnonymous (1985)
-BiharPresentAli and Chaturvedi (1996)
-DelhiPresent, Few occurrencesVasu (1970)
-GujaratPresentKapadia et al. (2006)
-HaryanaPresentRohilla et al. (1981)
-KarnatakaPresentShrilakshmi and Patil (2016); Veeresh (1977)Belagavi district
-KeralaPresentAbraham and Rajendran (1978)
-Madhya PradeshPresentMeshram et al. (1990)
-MaharashtraPresent, WidespreadPatil and Hasbe (1981)
-OdishaPresentAnonymous (1985)
-RajasthanPresent, Few occurrencesSrivastava and Mathur (1979)
-Tamil NaduPresent, WidespreadSrivastava and Mathur (1979)
-Uttar PradeshPresent, Few occurrencesGupta (1973)
-West BengalPresentChatterjee and Ghosh (1995)
Sri LankaPresentVivekanandan (1975); Bandara (1990)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding
Roots / external feeding
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus popilliae holotrichiae Pathogen
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Larvae
Beauveria brongniartii Pathogen Larvae
Paenibacillus popilliae Pathogen Adults/Larvae

References

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Abraham VA; Rajendran TP, 1978. White grub infestation in Kerala. White Grubs Newsletter, 2(i):3-5.

Ali MS; Chaturvedi OP; Nair KSS; Sharma JK; Verma RV, 1996. Major insect pests of forest trees in north Bihar. In: IUFRO, eds. Impact of diseases and insect pests in tropical forest, Proceedings of Symposium, Peechi, India, 23-26 November 1993: IUFRO, 464-467.

Anonymous, 1975. Report of the ICAR, Committee to investigate the causes for the spread of white grub menace, submitted to the ICAR, New Delhi in 1975.

Anonymous, 1985. White grubs and their control. New Delhi, India: ICAR Publication.

Arrow GJ, 1948. Further notes on the beetle genus Lachnosterna (Coleoptra; Melolonthinae) with description of three new genera. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society, London, (B)17:49-54.

Avasthy PN, 1967. Sugarcane pests in India and their control. PANS, 13:111-117.

Bandara GD, 1990. Chemical control of cockchafer grub (Holotrichia serrata) in teak nurseries. Sri Lanka Forester, 19(3/4):47-50

Beeson CFC, 1941. The Ecology and Control of Forest Insects of India and the adjacent Countries. 1961 Reprint, Government of India.

Bhatnagar et al., 1975. Effectiveness of various pesticides against white grub (H. serrata F) of groundnut. Pesticides, 9(10):22-24.

Bindra OS; Singh J, 1971. Biological observations on the white-grub, Lachnosterna (Holotrichia) consanguinea Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae) and the relative efficacy of different insecticides against the adults. Indian Journal of Entomology, 33(2):225-227

Chatterjee ML; Ghosh SN, 1995. New pest of cashew in West Bengal. Cashew, 9(4):25.

Dalla Torre RA, 1912. Coleopterorum catalogus. Vol. 20, Part 45, 47, 49, 50 Berlin, Germany: W. Junk.

David M; Kalra AN, 1966. Observation on Holotrichia (Lachnosterna) serrata F. - a beetle pest of sugarcane in Hospet area of Mysore State. Indian Sugar, 16:195-198.

Fletcher TB, 1921. Addition and corrections to the list of Indian crop pests. Rept. Proc. Fourth Ent. mg. Pusa, P-401.

Frey G, 1971. Bestimmungstablie der Indischen ceylonesischen Arten der Gattung, Holotrichia Hope (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae). Ent. Arh. Mus Gorg Frey, 22:220-225.

Gahukar RT; Jotwani MG, 1980. Present status of field pests of sorghum and millets in India. Tropical Pest Management, 26(2):138-151

Glasgow RD, 1916. Phyllophaga, Harris (Lachnosterna, Hope). A revision of the synonymy and one new name. Bull. Ill. St. Lab. Nat. Hist, 11:365-379.

Gupta BD; Avasthy PN, 1957. First record of the white grub, Lachnosterna consanguinea Bl. in India, Curr. Sci. 26:114-115.

Gupta KM, 1973. Neem leaves attract white grub beetles. Indian Journal of Entomology, 35(3):276

Hasbe BM; Patil BR; Ajri DS, 1984. Effect of insecticides and interculturing on the infestation of white grub in sorghum. J. Maharashtra Agric. Univ., 9(2):216.

Hawley Ira M, 1969. Milky disease of beetles. The year book of Agriculture, 1952, 394 pp.

Hays WP, 1929. Morphology, taxonomy and biology of larval Scarabaeoidae. Biol. Monograph, 12(2):1-119.

Hope FW, 1837. The Coleopterist's Manual, containing the lamellicorn insects of Linneus and Fabricius. London, UK: Bohn.

Husain M; Nargis A; Noor P, 1987. Studies on the insect pest of mango (Mangifera indica L.) of Rajshahi. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 22(1-4):191-194

Jayaramaiah K; Veeresh GK, 1983. Studies on the symptoms of infection caused by the new silkworm white muscardine fungus Beauveria brongniartii (Sacc.) Petch to different stages of white grub, H. serrata F. J. Soil Biology and Ecology, 3(1):7-12.

Kapadia MN; Butani PG; Beria NN, 2006. White grub species attacking groundnut in the Saurashtra Region in Gujarat, India. International Arachis Newsletter, No.26:28-29.

Kaunsale PP; Deshpande SV; Puri SN, 1978. Chemical control of white grub, Holotrichia serrata Fabr. beetles. Indian Journal of Entomology, 40(2):134-135

Labana KS, 1987. It is time to control the white grub. Indian Farming, 37(4):31

Lacordaire NT, 1856. Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. III. Genera des ColéoptFres, Paris, France: Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret.

Lefroy HM, 1900. Life history of Indian insects, (Coleoptera-1 A. varians). Ent. Memoirs, 11:143-146.

Lefroy JM, 1909. Indian Insect Life. Calcutta, India: Thacker Sprink.

Majumdar N; Teotia TPS, 1965. Biology of Holotrichia serrata F. a serious pest of Palas (Butea monosperma). Indian J. Ent., 27(2):153-159.

Meshram PB; Pathak SC; Jamaluddin, 1990. Population dynamics and seasonal abundance of some forest insect pests (nursery stage) through light trap. Indian Forester, 116(6):494-503

Mohalkar PR; Randive SJ; Wani AG, 1974. White grub (H. serrata F.) a pest of sugarcane in Maharashtra State. D.S.T.A. 26th Convention:53-59.

Nehru CR; Jayarathanam K; Karnavar GK, 1991. Application of entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria brongniartii for management of chafer beetles of the white grub, H. serrata F. infesting rubber seedlings. Indian J. of Natural Rubber Research, 4(2):123-425.

Nehru CR; Jayarathnam, 1988. Control of white grub (Holotrichia serrata F.) attacking rubber at the nursery stage in India. Indian Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 1(1):38-41

Patil BR; Hasabe BM; Ajri DS, 1981. Chemical control of white grub, Holotrichia serrata Fabr. infesting groundnut, paddy and sorghum. Indian Journal of Entomology, 43(2):232-236

Patil BR; Hasbe BM, 1981. Studies on the bionomics of white grub, H. serrata F. Progress on white grub Research in India (Ed. Veeresh GK) U.A.S. Hebbal, 115-120 pp.

Patil SM; Adsule VM; Khaire VM, 1991. Efficacy of some insecticides against the white grub infesting chillies. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 16(2):276-277

Ranganathaiah KG; Veeresh GK; Govindu HC, 1973. A new entomogenous fungus on the root grub Holotricha serrata F. from Mysore. Current Science, 42(12):432-433

Rao AS; Veeresh GK, 1988. Influence of substrates on the infectivity of milky disease to Holotrichia serrata F. Entomon, 13(3-4):303-305; 3 ref.

Raodeo AK; Deshpande SV; Deshpande AD; Puri SN; Bilapate GG, 1976. A large scale campaign for the control of white grubs (Holotrichia serrata F.) in Maharashtra State. PANS, 22(2):223-228

Raodev AK; Deshpande SV, 1987. White grub and their management. Res. Bull. Vol. 11. Marathwada Agric. Univ. Parbhani, Special Information Bulletin No. 3, 11-72 pp.

Ritcher OP, 1961. Descriptions of some North Indian scarabaeid larvae (Coleoptera). Indian J. Ent. 23:13-19.

Rohilla HR; Singh HV; Yadava TP, 1981. White grubs - increasing menace in Haryana. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 11(2):256-258

Saylor LW, 1942. Notes on beetles related to Phyllophaga Harris with descriptions of new genera and sub genera. Proceedings of the US National Museum, 92(3145):157-167.

Shrilakshmi RG; Patil RR, 2016. Studies on species composition and host range of different scarabaeid adults under rainfed situations of Belagavi district. Journal of Experimental Zoology, India, 19(1):523-526. http://www.connectjournals.com/jez

Srivastava AS; Mathur YK, 1979. Recent advances in bionomics and control of white grub, Dept. of Ent. C. S. Azad Univ. of Agril. Tech. Kanpur. A guide for the control of white grub . 2-3 pp.

Stebbing EP, 1899. Injurious insects of India forest, Govt. of India Press, Calcutta. 152 pp.

Vasu HD, 1970. Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash as a new host record for the white grub, Holotrichia serrata F. (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae). Indian Journal of Entomology, 32(3):272-273

Veeresh GK, 1973. Preliminary evaluation of insecticides for the control of the root grub, H. serrata F. Pesticides, Vol. VII, No. 3, page 27.

Veeresh GK, 1973a. Studies on the Melolonthid beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of Mysore State with special reference to the Biology and Control of H. serrata F., Ph.D. Thesis submitted to the U.A.S. Hebbal, Bangalore.

Veeresh GK, 1974. Root grub control, campaign in Karnataka. White Grubs Newsletter, 1:17-18.

Veeresh GK, 1977. Bionomics and control of white grubs in India. Sugar News, 9:44-56.

Veeresh GK, 1977a. Studies on the root grubs of Karnataka with special reference to bionomics and control of H. serrata F. (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae). U.A.S. Monographs Series No. 2:87.

Veeresh GK, 1978. Report of the experimental trials submitted to Univ. Agric. Sciences Bangalore.

Veeresh GK, 1981. Progress on white grubs research in India. Proc. of ICAR Ad. hoc. projects on white grub. (Editor G.K. Veeresh, Dept. of Ent. U.A.S. Hebbal, Banglore).

Veeresh GK; Veerarajan PV; Gubbaiah, Reddy N. Vijaymohan, 1976. Efficacy of certain soil insecticides against root grubs, (H. serrata F.) under irrigated and unirrigated conditions in tropical soils. Proceedings All India Symposium on Soil Biology and Ecology.

Vivekanandan K, 1975. Control of cockchafer grub in Teak nursery. Sri Lanka Forester, 12(1):40-43.

Vyas RV; Yadav DN; Patel RJ, 1990. Studies on the efficacy of Beauveria brongniartii against white grub. Annals of Biology (Ludhiana), 6(2):123-128

Yadava CPS, 1995. Indian white grub and their management. Tech. Bull. 2 4 pp. ICAR Publ.

Yadava CPS; Pandey SN; Bhardwaj SC; Yadava SRS, 1973. Predation of white grubs (Holotrichia spp.) by birds. Indian Journal of Entomology, 35(2):169

Distribution References

Abraham VA, Rajendran TP, 1978. White grub infestation in Kerala. In: White Grubs Newsletter, 2 (i) 3-5.

Ali M S, Chaturvedi O P, 1996. Major insect pests of forest trees in north Bihar. In: Impact of diseases and insect pests in tropical forests. Proceedings of the IUFRO Symposium, Peechi, India, 23-26 November 1993. [Impact of diseases and insect pests in tropical forests. Proceedings of the IUFRO Symposium, Peechi, India, 23-26 November 1993.], [ed. by Nair K S S: Sharma J K, Varma R V]. Peechi, India: Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI). 464-467.

Anonymous, 1985. White grubs and their control., New Delhi, India: ICAR Publication.

Bandara G D, 1990. Chemical control of cockchafer grub (Holotrichia serrata) in teak nurseries. Sri Lanka Forester. 19 (3/4), 47-50.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chatterjee M L, Ghosh S N, 1995. New pest of cashew in West Bengal. Cashew. 9 (4), 25.

Gupta K M, 1973. Neem leaves attract white grub beetles. Indian Journal of Entomology. 35 (3), 276.

Husain M, Nargis A, Noor P, 1987. Studies on the insect pest of mango (Mangifera indica L.) of Rajshahi. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 22 (1-4), 191-194.

Kapadia M N, Butani P G, Beria N N, 2006. White grub species attacking groundnut in the Saurashtra Region in Gujarat, India. International Arachis Newsletter. 28-29.

Meshram P B, Pathak S C, Jamaluddin, 1990. Population dynamics and seasonal abundance of some forest insect pests (nursery stage) through light trap. Indian Forester. 116 (6), 494-503.

Patil BR, Hasbe BM, 1981. Studies on the bionomics of white grub, H. serrata F. Progress on white grub Research in India., [ed. by Veeresh GK]. Hebbal, U.A.S. 115-120.

Rohilla H R, Singh H V, Yadava T P, 1981. White grubs - increasing menace in Haryana. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research. 11 (2), 256-258.

Shrilakshmi R G, Patil R R, 2016. Studies on species composition and host range of different scarabaeid adults under rainfed situations of Belagavi district. Journal of Experimental Zoology, India. 19 (1), 523-526. http://www.connectjournals.com/jez

Srivastava AS, Mathur YK, 1979. Recent advances in bionomics and control of white grub. In: A guide for the control of white grub, Kanpur, Dept. of Ent. C. S. Azad Univ. of Agril. Tech. 2-3 pp.

Vasu H D, 1970. Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash as a new host record for the white grub, Holotrichia serrata F. (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae). Indian Journal of Entomology. 32 (3), 272-273.

Veeresh GK, 1977. Bionomics and control of white grubs in India. In: Sugar News, 9 44-56.

Vivekanandan K, 1975. Control of cockchafer grub in Teak nursery. Sri Lanka Forester. 12 (1), 40-43.

Distribution Maps

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