Kuehneola uredinis (Cane and leaf rust)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Impact: Economic
- Impact: Environmental
- Impact: Social
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Principal Source
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Kuehneola uredinis (Link) Arthur, 1906
Preferred Common Name
- Cane and leaf rust
Other Scientific Names
- Chrysomyxa albida J.G Kühn, 1883
- Kuehneola albida (J.G.Kühn) Magnus, 1898
- Uredo uredinis Link, 1824
International Common Names
- English: blackberry rust; blackberry stem rust; leaf rust of blackberry; pale bramble rust; yellow rust of blackberry
- Spanish: roya palida de la zarza
- French: rouille pâle des ronces
- Portuguese: ferrugem dos ramos e folhas
- KUEHUR (Kuehneola uredinis)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Kuehneola uredinis is a fungal pathogen that causes cane and leaf rust only in Rubus cultivars, or wild and ornamental blackberry species. It can be highly destructive, especially on susceptible blackberry and Rubus hybrid cultivars, but rarely occurs on red and black raspberry (Ellis et al., 1991). Although the disease is not systemic, severe infection can cause premature defoliation and a decrease in cane vigour, making plants more susceptible to winter conditions and resulting in economic loss (Converse, 1966). Dispersal of the pathogen occurs on blackberry and hybrid Rubus cultivars, and wild blackberries in production areas worldwide. The fungus overwinters either as aecial urediniospores or mycelium in the canes and wet conditions favour disease dispersal (Laundon and Rainbow, 1969). K. uredinis is not included in quarantine lists (USDA, 2017; EPPO, 2019). There is interest in K. uredinis as a biocontrol agent due to its destructive effect on some invasive wild blackberry species, e.g., Rubus penetrans (Gardner and Hodges, 1983).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Fungi
- Phylum: Basidiomycota
- Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
- Class: Pucciniomycetes
- Order: Pucciniales
- Family: Phragmidiaceae
- Genus: Kuehneola
- Species: Kuehneola uredinis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
In the early 1800s, Kuehneola species were classified in the genus Oidium and genus Torula. Later, they were included in the genus Phragmidium, before transfer to the genus Chrysomyxa due to similarity in terms of general appearance of urediniospores, characteristics of both urediniospores and teliospores, and the absence of paraphyses around the uredinial sorus (Arthur, 1917). Magnus described the genus Kuehneola in 1898. Kuehneola albida (Kühn) was the first species identified by Magnus in 1898, and was later described as Kuehneola uredinis (Link) Arthur by Arthur in 1906. K. uredinis is the causal agent of cane and leaf rust in Rubus species (Arthur, 1917).
DescriptionTop of page
K. uredinis, casual agent of cane and leaf rust, has an autoecious and brachycyclic disease cycle. Its spermagonia are epiphyllous on reddish spots, large (150-200 µm), prominent and pustular. The spermagonia are surrounded by orange-yellow aecia, often in confluent rings. Aeciospores are globoid or obovoid, 18-19 µm x 19-23 µm, the walls colourless, closely verrucose, 2 to 2.5 µm thick, with obscure pores. Its uredinia are hypophyllous, without paraphyses, scattered, powdery, lemon-yellow coloured when fresh. Old parasitized uredinia may be white. Urediniospores are obovoid, 16-19 µm x 21-27 µm, the walls nearly colourless, finely and closely verrucose-echinulate (0.8 warts/µm²), 1.5-2 µm thick, with 3 to 4 indistinct equatorial pores. Its telia are hypophyllous, scattered among uredinia on old leaves, pale buff. Teliospores are cylindrical, 18-24 µm x 85-110 µm, 5- to 13-celled, irregularly flattened or coronate above, narrow below, each cell extending into a pore-bearing tip next to the cell above; walls colourless, 1.5-2 µm thick on the sides, thicker above, smooth or slightly roughened at the apex. Pedicels are colourless and very short to apparently lacking (Ellis et al., 1991; Helfer, 2005).
DistributionTop of page
K. uredinis has been reported from South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, many European countries, the east of Canada, USA, and Argentina (Laundon and Rainbow, 1969). There is no information about the origin of the fungus, which is found in Rubus production areas throughout the world.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 25 Jun 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|South Africa||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the country in 1950|
|Afghanistan||Present||Native||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the country in 1966|
|Iran||Present||Abbasi (2019)||First recorded in the country in 1958|
|Japan||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the country in 1950|
|South Korea||Present||Cheon et al. (2013)|
|Turkey||Present||Native||Karslı and Tezcan (2019); Erkan (2001); Hüseyın (2004)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Present||Helfer (2005)|
|Bulgaria||Present||Petrova and Denchev (2004)||First recorded in country in 1912|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present||Bošković (1986)|
|Germany||Present||Helfer (2005); Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|North Macedonia||Present||Helfer (2005)|
|Norway||Present||Helfer (2005); Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|Poland||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|Romania||Present||Helfer (2005); Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|United Kingdom||Present||Helfer (2005)|
|Canada||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018); CABI Data Mining (Undated)|
|-British Columbia||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|-New Brunswick||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|-Nova Scotia||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|-Ontario||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|-Quebec||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|Guatemala||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the country in 1960|
|United States||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018); CABI (Undated)|
|-Arkansas||Present||Sanders and Kirkpatrick (2020)|
|-California||Present||Shands et al. (2018); Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|-Connecticut||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1926|
|-Georgia||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1966|
|-Hawaii||Present||CABI Data Mining (Undated); Gardner and Hodges (1983); Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|-Illinois||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1960|
|-Indiana||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1960|
|-Iowa||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1924|
|-Maine||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1926|
|-Maryland||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 2010|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1926|
|-Michigan||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1960|
|-Minnesota||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1986|
|-Mississippi||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1959|
|-Missouri||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1937|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1926|
|-North Carolina||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1938|
|-Oregon||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1938|
|-Pennsylvania||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1929|
|-Rhode Island||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1926|
|-South Carolina||Present||Blake et al. (2008)|
|-Vermont||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1926|
|-Washington||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1951|
|-Wisconsin||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)||First recorded in the state in 1960|
|Australia||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|-Queensland||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|-South Australia||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|-Tasmania||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|-Western Australia||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018)|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||McKenzie (1998)||First recorded in the country in 1931|
|Argentina||Present||Farr and Rossman (2018); Laundon and Rainbow (1969)|
|Brazil||Present||Hennen et al. (2005)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
K. uredinis is found naturally on wild and ornamental species of Rubus as well as in Rubus cultivars (Bruzzese, 1980). It is thought to overwinter on canes as uredinial mycelium or as latent uredinia, and by this means it can infect new fruiting canes in the following year (Converse, 1966). The pathogen can be transported with vegetative plant material to new regions when susceptible Rubus cultivars are grown in new production areas. It is also possible that the spores could be transmitted to disease-free areas by wind. K. uredinis is not included in quarantine lists (USDA, 2017; EPPO, 2019).
HabitatTop of page
Cane and leaf rust is fairly widespread on canes and leaves of blackberries, loganberries, dewberries, ornamental and wild Rubus species in nearly all geographical areas including Africa (South Africa), Australasia (Australia, New Zealand), Europe (widespread), North America (eastern Canada, eastern USA) and South America (Argentina, Brazil) (Laundon and Rainbow, 1969). It rarely affects red and black raspberries during wet spring conditions (Ellis et al., 1991). The habitat of K. uredinis is Rubus production areas with cultivated and wild species of Rubus. K. uredinis, has often been reported from Rubus cultivars production areas, forests and pastures where wild varieties are found. There are no variations reported between the countries where the cane and leaf rust is observed. Wet spring conditions favour cane and leaf disease development in Rubus species.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details|
|Natural grasslands||Present, no further details|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details|
|Wetlands||Present, no further details|
|Scrub / shrublands||Present, no further details|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Cane and leaf rust can cause severe damage on some susceptible blackberry and hybrid Rubus species, but little or no infection on resistant species (Gardner and Hodges, 1983). K. uredinis predominantly affects American blackberry cultivars, blackberry-raspberry hybrid species, dewberry (a blackberry-like cultivar), Rubus fruticosus (European blackberry) and wild blackberry species. There are unverified reports of damage on European dewberry (Rubus caesius) and European raspberry (Rubus idaeus).
Kuehneola uredinis is an autoecious fungus, which causes cane and leaf rust only on Rubus species in the Rosaceae. Some Rubus species reported as hosts of K. uredinis are: Rubus allegheniensis, R. apetalus, R. argutus, R. betulifolius [R. argutus], R. bifrons, R. caesius, R. candicans, R. canescens, R. constrictus, R. cuneifolius, R. flagellaris, R. frondosus, R. fruticosus, R. glandicaulis, R. glandulosus, R. gracilis, R. hawaiensis, R. hirtus, R. hispidus, R. hybrid, R. idaeus, R. inermis, R. laciniatus, R. lindebergii, R. loganobaccus, R. macraei, R. macropetalus, R. macrophyllus, R. nemorosus, R. palmatus, R. penetrans [R. argutus], R. plicatus, R. procumbens [R. flagellaris], R. pubescens [R. chloocladus], R. rigidus, R. schleicheri, R. schmidelioides, R. selmeri [R. nemoralis], R. transvaliensis, R. trivialis [R. flagellaris], R. ulmifolius, R. ursinus, R. ursinus var. loganobaccus [R. loganobaccus], R. villicaulis, R. villosus, R. vitifolius (Farr and Rossman, 2018). R. affinis [R. vigorosus], R. amoenus, R. arduennensis, R. chloocladus, R. vestii [R. constrictus], R. divaricatus, R. fuscoater, R. fuscus, R. gratus, R. gremlii, R. hypomalacus, R. lejeunei, R. lentiginosus [R adspersus], R. menkei, R. mucronulatus, R. pyramidalis, R. radula, R. rhombifolius, R. rudis, R. scaber, R. serpens [R. ignoratus], R. silvaticus, R. sprengelii, R. vestitus and R. vulgaris (Helfer, 2005).
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest
SymptomsTop of page
Cane and leaf rust occurs on susceptible blackberry cultivars, wild blackberries, and some hybrid Rubus species. Symptoms of the disease are first seen in late spring on infected floricanes. Lemon-yellow pustules (uredinia) produced by the fungus split the bark of fruiting canes. During early summer, urediniospores from these pustules infect the leaves of the floricanes and form lemon-yellow rust on the undersides of the leaves. Uredinia are rarely seen on the fruit. The fungus does not infect the primocanes in spring and summer. If infection is severe, premature defoliation can occur on floricanes and cane vigour is reduced making the plants more susceptible to winter conditions. Buff-coloured telia develop among the uredinia on leaves in early autumn. Spermagonia and aecia also form on the lower leaves of primocanes in October and November and thus the fungus spores are transferred to next season’s fruiting canes (primocanes) (Ellis et al., 1991).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / abnormal leaf fall|
|Leaves / fungal growth|
|Stems / discoloration|
|Stems / mould growth on lesion|
|Stems / necrosis|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
While K. uredinis causes cane and leaf rust in Rubus species (autoecious), it has not been reported in any other plant species. Among Rubus species, some blackberry cultivars, ornamental and wild blackberry species and hybrid Rubus species are particularly susceptible to K. uredinis (Arthur, 1917; Converse, 1966; Gardner and Hodges, 1983; Ellis et al., 1991). Although it is rarely reported in black or red raspberry species, it can be said that these species are resistant. The same kind of blackberries differ in terms of sensitivity in Washington and Maryland, USA. It seems likely that the differences reported in susceptibility in the same varieties may be accounted for by physiologic specialization in K. uredinis (Converse, 1966). Rubus varieties can be protected and maintained plant species in agricultural production areas, as well as wild species in forests and pastures which are seen as invasive and undesirable plants. Therefore, this autoecious pathogen, K. uredinis, has often been reported from Rubus cultivar production areas, forests and pastures where wild varieties are found.
K. uredinis has an autoecious and brachycyclic life-cycle (Helfer, 2005) and overwinters either as aecial urediniospores or mycelium in the canes. In milder climates, the true urediniospores overwinter and the other stages of the life-cycle are omitted (Laundon and Rainbow, 1969). Urediniospores from lesions on the floricanes infect leaves on the same or other adjacent floricanes during the growing season and infection is increased by wet conditions in late spring and summer. Telia develop on the underside of leaves on floricanes in the autumn, and basidiospores from germinating teliospores infect adjacent leaves of primocanes where spermagonia and aecia are formed (Ellis et al., 1991).
ClimateTop of page
|Af - Tropical rainforest climate||Preferred||> 60mm precipitation per month|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Preferred||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Urediniospores of K. uredinis can disperse over long distances by wind and infect susceptible Rubus spp. (Shands et al., 2018) in other production areas. Local spread occurs during summer from leaf to leaf and leaf to cane by means of spore production in the uredinia. Accidental and intentional introduction may be a way of transferring infected plant material to another region or country. There is no report of vector transmission of the disease.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Impact: EconomicTop of page
Cane and leaf rust is not generally seen as a destructive disease in susceptible blackberry and other Rubus spp. production. Especially in dry seasons, cane and leaf rust does not cause economic loss in Rubus production (McWhorter, 1950). However, the effect of cane and leaf rust on plant and yield varies according to the type of blackberry fruit in wet seasons (Gardner and Hodges,1983). If severe infection occurs, this can lead to premature defoliation, which reduces plant vigour, and makes plants more susceptible to winter injury. The infection of fruit can also occur, though rarely (Ellis et al., 1991). Even if cane and leaf rust disease, caused by K. uredinis, does not cause plants to die by severe infection, it can cause significant yield loss on susceptible Rubus species, which are mostly blackberry and hybrid Rubus species (Karslı and Tezcan, 2019). Cane and leaf rust can be controlled by a number of fungicides, but if proper management procedures are not applied at the appropriate time, this can lead to severe defoliation and potentially impact the following year’s yield (Koike et al., 2009). Although there are no studies on the rate of yield loss caused by the disease, especially in rainy seasons, significant economic losses can occur, especially in susceptible blackberry species in the following seasons, if the disease is not sufficiently managed.
Impact: EnvironmentalTop of page
K. uredinis is an autoecious fungus and causes cane and leaf rust only on some Rubus species, including blackberry and hybrid Rubus cultivars, ornamental and wild blackberries (Ellis et al., 1991; Helfer, 2005). The existence of K. uredinis has no negative impact on other living species in the environment. However, several studies have been conducted to determine whether K. uredinis can be used as a biocontrol agent on wild and invasive blackberry species, by taking advantage of its effect on sensitive Rubus species (Gardner and Hodges, 1983; Johnston, 1990; Julien et al., 2012). Although the results were unsatisfactory, it was concluded that K. uredinis could be considered as one of the alternative methods of managing some invasive blackberry species such as Rubus penetrans. However, the pathogen has not yet been registered as herbicide in any country for biocontrol of invasive wild blackberries. The necessity of using different fungicides for the control of K. uredinis in production areas of blackberry and hybrid Rubus varieties in various countries can be seen as an important issue causing environmental and water pollution in the long term.
Impact: SocialTop of page
Cane and leaf rust can decrease the income of farmers, as yield loss is observed in the production of susceptible blackberry and hybrid Rubus species when the disease is severe. In addition, the use of fungicides to control the disease may increase production costs for farmers.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Has a broad native range
- Long lived
- Fast growing
- Reproduces asexually
- Host damage
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts livelihoods
DiagnosisTop of page
In terms of morphology, K. uredinis resembles Phragmidium species which cause rust diseases on Rubus species. However, the uredinia are readily distinguished from those of Phragmidium species by not possessing the distinctive paraphyses (Converse, 1966). In addition, K. uredinis can be distinguished easily from other fungi causing rust diseases on Rubus species by molecular techniques. The DNA sequences of K. uredinis are defined by using PCR techniques (Cheon et al., 2013; Shands et al., 2018).
Detection and InspectionTop of page
The first symptom of cane and leaf rust occurs on floricanes (not on primocanes) in late spring with lemon-yellow pustules (uredinia) splitting the bark of fruiting canes. During early summer, urediniospores from these pustules infect the leaves of the floricanes and form lemon-yellow rust on the undersides of the leaves. When infection is severe, premature defoliation and decreasing vigour can be seen on floricanes. K. uredinis spores are commonly confused with systemic orange rust which is mostly seen on the lower leaves of primocanes. However, K. uredinis only affects floricanes, both from canes and leaves (Ellis et al., 1991). In other words, if there are lemon-yellow pustules on both canes (floricanes) and leaves, the disease is defined as cane and leaf rust.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Although K. uredinis is not a systemic rust, its spores are commonly confused with systemic orange rust, another fungal disease that affects Rubus species. Two organisms cause orange rust on Rubus spp., Arthuriomyces peckianus (the long-cycled form) and Gymnoconia nitens (the short-cycled form). The most distinctive feature to distinguish K. uredinis from these orange rust pathogens is that while G. nitens has pustules of reddish orange, waxy aeciospores and A. peckianus has pustules of golden orange aeciospores only on the surfaces of lower leaves, K. uredinis has lemon-yellow pustules of powdery urediospores on floricanes well as on the surface of the leaves (Ellis et al., 1991).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Fungal diseases are an important problem in Rubus species production. In terms of organic farming, measures such as selection of resistant species, use of disease-free seedlings, selection of suitable planting lands, removal of diseased plants from orchards, and removal of wild blackberry species around orchards should be taken. In addition, Bordeaux mix, lime sulfur and copper mixtures, which are allowed in organic production, can be used to prevent fungal diseases (Kaiser and Ernst, 2010). Some prevention and control measures can be applied for cane and leaf rust in Rubus species production. For prevention of disease, removal of fruited canes after harvest and sprays of lime sulfur or some fixed coppers are acceptable management tools in an organically certified crop. A recommended spray control programme is a winter application of lime sulfur, followed by application at the green tip stage and then a treatment at bloom.
Various studies have been undertaken by researchers and agricultural institutions for control of cane and leaf rust. Smith and Miller-Butler (2015) reported that fungicides with the active ingredients azoxystrobin, cyprodinil + fludioxonil and boscalid + pyraclostrobin could prevent cane and leaf rust disease on blackberry species in Mississippi, USA.
According to Ellis et al. (1991), infected old canes must be removed from the garden immediately after the fruit harvest in order to reduce the inoculum of cane and leaf rust. A three-stage spraying programme is applied in Oregon, USA, for the control of the rust, with lime sulfur applied in winter, and two fixed copper sprays applied at the green tip stage and again just before blooming.
In a study by Bošković (1986) in former Yugoslavia, the effectiveness of different fungicides against cane and leaf rust was evaluated on blackberry cv. Thornless. Of 12 fungicides tested, bitertanol was found to be the most effective.
Fischer and Johnson (1950) developed a system of chemical and cultural control to prevent cane and leaf rust disease in Rubus species, which involved alternating pyraclostrobin active fungicides, copper fungicides, myclobutanyl active fungicides and propiconazole + Lambda-cyhalothrin active fungicides in the dormant period in winter.
In California, USA, Koike et al. (2009) proposed a combination of both organic and chemical spraying to control cane and leaf rust disease, emphasizing that cultural methods and classical disinfection methods should be applied together in order to control the disease. The use of a protective fungicide before the appearance of symptoms was recommended for species that show high sensitivity to K. uredinis. For organic production, diseased canes should be removed from the garden after harvest and sprayed with lime sulfur or copper mixtures. For conventional spraying lime sulfur is used in the dormant period in winter, copper mixtures and lime sulfur in the delayed dormant period, and copper mixtures fungicides with actives substances myclobutanyl, pyraclostrobin + boscalid and pyraclostrobin during the first bloom period. For further examples of management programmes, see: Oliver (2019); Bost (2020) and Boyd et al. (2020).
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
Kuehneola uredinis causes cane and leaf rust especially in susceptible blackberry and Rubus species when appropriate conditions occur. The disease can cause significant yield losses when it is severe. However, the disease is less important in many countries as it is less destructive compared to other Rubus diseases and can be controlled to some extent with various fungicides. For this reason, when the literature is examined, it is seen that there is limited study on controlling the disease. In addition, the use of excessive chemical fungicides in the process of protecting Rubus species, which are very sensitive fruit species, is dangerous for human health and environmental pollution. For this reason, studies to develop biocontrol methods are needed for the control of cane and leaf rust disease in Rubus species.
ReferencesTop of page
Abbasi M, 2019. Additions to the rust mycobiota of Iran. Rostaniha, 20(1), 70-75.
Blake JH, Williamson M, 2008. Index of Plant Diseases in South Carolina. South Carolina, USA: Clemson Cooperative Extension.122 pp.
Bošković, I., 1986. Contribution to the possibility of protecting blackberries from the causal agent of yellow rust (Kuehneola uredinis Link-Arthur). (Prilog proučavanju mogućnosti zaštite kupine od prouzrokovača žute rde (Kuehneola uredinis Link Arthur)). Jugoslovensko Voćarstvo, 20(77/78 (3/4)), 95-97.
Bošković, I., 1986. Contribution to the possibility of protecting blackberries from the causal agent of yellow rust (Kuehneola uredinis Link-Arthur). (Prilog proučavanju mogućnosti zaštite kupine od prouzrokovača žute rde (Kuehneola uredinis Link Arthur)). Jugoslovensko Voćarstvo, 20(77/78 (3/4)), 95-97.
Bost S, 2020. Diseases of small fruits. Tennessee, USA: The University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture.https://ag.tennessee.edu/EPP/Redbook/Small%20fruit%20diseases.pdf
Boyd, J, Johnson, D, Lee, J, Sanders, S, Smith, S, 2020. Arkansas Small Fruit Management Schedule 2020. University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture, Research and Extension.https://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/MP467.pdf
Ellis, M. A., Converse, R. H., Williams, R. N., Williamson, B., 1991. Compendium of raspberry and blackberry diseases and insects, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society.vi + 100pp.
Erkan M, 2001. New records fungi isolated from raspberry and blackberry plants from Bursa Province in Turkey. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 30(1), 35-38.
Farr, DF, Rossman, AY, 2018. Fungal Databases, US National Fungus Collections, ARS, USDA. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.https://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases
Hennen, J. F., Figueiredo, M. B., Carvalho, A. A., Jr., Hennen, P. G., 2005. Catalogue of the species of plant rust fungi (Uredinales) of Brazil. In: Catalogue of the species of plant rust fungi (Uredinales) of Brazil . 490 pp. http://www.jbrj.gov.br/publica/uredinales/Brazil_Catalogue1drevisado.pdf
Kaiser C, Ernst M, 2010. Organic blackberries & raspberries. In: Agrıculture, Food And Environment Center for Crop Diversification Crop Profile . Kentucky, USA: University of Kentucky.https://www.uky.edu/ccd/sites/www.uky.edu.ccd/files/organicbrambles.pdf
Karslı A, Tezcan H, 2019. The studies on effectiveness of conventional and organic spraying programs against blackberry cane and leaf rust caused by Kuehneola Uredinis (link) Arthur. Blacksea Journal of Agriculture, 2(4), 212-217.
Koike, S. T., Bolda, M. P., Perry, E. J., Gubler, W. D., Bettiga, L. J., 2009. External factsheets, (3437) . Davis, USA: University of California.unpaginated. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r71100311.html
McWhorter FP, 1950. Small Fruit Diseases in Western Washington. Plant Disease Reporter, 34(5), 146 pp.
Mycobank, 2020. Mycobank fungal database. Utrecht, Netherlands: Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute.http://www.mycobank.org/name/Kuehneola%20uredinis&Lang=Eng
Oliver J, 2019. Southeast Regional Caneberries Integrated Management Guide. Georgia, USA: University of Georgia.https://smallfruits.org/files/2019/06/Caneberry-Spray-Guide.pdf
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Principal SourceTop of page
Draft datasheet under review
ContributorsTop of page
03/06/20 Original text by:
Ayşegül Karsli, Bursa Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, Turkey
Himmet Tezcan, Bursa Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, Turkey
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