Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Kalanchoe pinnata
(cathedral bells)

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Datasheet

Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); seedlings amongst litter layer.
TitleSeedlings
CaptionKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); seedlings amongst litter layer.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); seedlings amongst litter layer.
SeedlingsKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); seedlings amongst litter layer.©Sheldon Navie
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); young plant.
TitleYoung plant
CaptionKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); young plant.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); young plant.
Young plantKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); young plant.©Sheldon Navie
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); leaves.
TitleLeaves
CaptionKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); leaves.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); leaves.
LeavesKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); leaves.©Sheldon Navie
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); close-up showing the pinnate structure of the upper leaves.
TitleLeaves
CaptionKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); close-up showing the pinnate structure of the upper leaves.
Copyright©Arne Witt
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); close-up showing the pinnate structure of the upper leaves.
LeavesKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); close-up showing the pinnate structure of the upper leaves.©Arne Witt
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); upper leaves, note reddish tinge.
TitleLeaves
CaptionKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); upper leaves, note reddish tinge.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); upper leaves, note reddish tinge.
LeavesKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); upper leaves, note reddish tinge.©Sheldon Navie
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); open flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); open flowers.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); open flowers.
FlowersKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); open flowers.©Sheldon Navie
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); growth habit, showing a dense stand.
TitleHabit
CaptionKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); growth habit, showing a dense stand.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); growth habit, showing a dense stand.
HabitKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); growth habit, showing a dense stand.©Sheldon Navie
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); potted specimen, showing the cylindrical stem and crenate leaves.
TitleHabit
CaptionKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); potted specimen, showing the cylindrical stem and crenate leaves.
Copyright©Arne Witt
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); potted specimen, showing the cylindrical stem and crenate leaves.
HabitKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); potted specimen, showing the cylindrical stem and crenate leaves.©Arne Witt
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); habit. Guanica Dry forest, Puerto Rico. May; 2011
TitleHabit
CaptionKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); habit. Guanica Dry forest, Puerto Rico. May; 2011
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Julissa Rojas-Sandoval
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); habit. Guanica Dry forest, Puerto Rico. May; 2011
HabitKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); habit. Guanica Dry forest, Puerto Rico. May; 2011©Smithsonian Institution/Julissa Rojas-Sandoval
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); habit. Guanica Dry forest, Puerto Rico. May; 2011
TitleHabit
CaptionKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); habit. Guanica Dry forest, Puerto Rico. May; 2011
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Julissa Rojas-Sandoval
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); habit. Guanica Dry forest, Puerto Rico. May; 2011
HabitKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells); habit. Guanica Dry forest, Puerto Rico. May; 2011©Smithsonian Institution/Julissa Rojas-Sandoval

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. 1805

Preferred Common Name

  • cathedral bells

Other Scientific Names

  • Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. 1805
  • Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken 1841
  • Bryophyllum pinnatum var. calcicolum H. Perrier
  • Calanchoe pinnata Pers.
  • Cotyledon calyculata Solander
  • Cotyledon pinnata Lam.
  • Crassuvia floripenula Comm.
  • Kalanchoe brevicalyx (Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier) Boiteau
  • Kalanchoe calcicola (H. Perrier) Boiteau
  • Kalanchoe calycinum Salisb.
  • Kalanchoe pinnata var. brevicalyx Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier
  • Kalanchoe pinnata var. calcicola H. Perrier
  • Kalanchoe pinnata var. floripendula Pers.
  • Kalanchoe pinnata var. genuina Raym.-Hamet
  • Sedum madagascariense Clus.
  • Verea pinnata (Lam.) Spreng. 1825

International Common Names

  • English: air plant; airplant; floppers; lifeplant
  • Spanish: hoja del aire; hoja santa
  • French: bryophylle

Local Common Names

  • Australia: green mother of millions; leaf of life; live leaf plant; miracle leaf; resurrection plant; sprouting leaf
  • Bahamas: life plant
  • Brazil: coirama; folha da fortuna; saiao
  • China: lao di sheng gen
  • Colombia: colombiano
  • Cook Islands: nganga'ere toka
  • Cuba: belladona; bruja; flor de aire; hoja de aire; prodigiosa; siempreviva; vibora; yerba coronel
  • Dominica: herbe mal tete
  • Dominican Republic: bruja; hegüey; higüey; oken; topetope; yerba bruja
  • Fiji: bulatawamudu
  • Germany: Brutblatt
  • Haiti: fébrivier; feuilles loup-garou; feuilles socier; feuilles sorcier; l’âne blanc; loup garou; sanglou; tope; tope-tope; z’herbe mal tête
  • India: panphooti; rankalli
  • Jamaica: leaf-of-life
  • Kiribati: teang
  • Lesser Antilles: baby bush; colic bush; fey chofi; gewitout; kalabana; kawakte lezom; lamowi; love bush; lucky bush; malotet; plok; salt fish; sweetheart bush; temetic; travel life; wonder-of-the-world
  • Madagascar: sodifafana; soutou-fafan; tsilafafa
  • Marshall Islands: kibilia
  • Myanmar: ywet-kya-pin-pauk
  • Netherlands: wonderblad
  • Niue: tupu he lau; tupu noa
  • Puerto Rico: yerba bruja
  • Samoa: pagi
  • South Africa: chandelier plant; finger plant
  • Taiwan: luo di sheng ken
  • Tonga: pipi vao
  • Trinidad and Tobago: never dead; parvu; wonder-of-the-world
  • USA: Canterbury bells; Mexican love plant; mother of thousands
  • USA/Hawaii: 'oliwa ku kahakai

EPPO code

  • KANPI (Kalanchoe pinnata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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In Queensland, Australia, K. pinnata was ranked 47 of 200 invasive naturalized plants (Batianoff and Butler, 2002). In New South Wales, Australia, it is a declared noxious weed under that state's Noxious Weed Act (1993) in the shire of Maclean. The species is listed as W2 requiring that the weed must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed by land managers. K. pinnata is described as a moderate invader of the Pacific islands of Hawaii, French Polynesia and Palau (Meyer, 2000). In the Galapagos Islands, K. pinnata invades disturbed sites and native vegetation (Soria et al., 2002). K. pinnata is recognized as a threat to island ecosystems by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER, 2004). It continues to be made available as a garden ornamental in many countries and is therefore likely to spread further.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rosales
  •                         Family: Crassulaceae
  •                             Genus: Kalanchoe
  •                                 Species: Kalanchoe pinnata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Crassulaceae includes about 34 genera and 1400 species distributed mostly in arid and dry regions in Mexico, Africa (Cape region), South America and Australia (Stevens, 2012). Plants within this family can be recognized by their succulent herbaceous or soft-stemmed habit, and by their flowers, which have the same number of sepals, petals and carpels (Stevens, 2012). Recent studies circumscribe the family Crassulaceae into three sub-families: Crassuloideae, Kalanchoideae and Sempervivoideae (Ham and 't Hart, 1998; Mort et al., 2001; Stevens, 2012).

The sub-family Kalanchoideae includes the genera Adromischus, Bryophyllum, Kalanchoe and Tylecodon (Mort et al., 2001; Stevens, 2012). Classification within this family is difficult, mainly because many of the species hybridize in both the wild and in cultivation. Some authors consider all Bryophyllum and Kitchingia species within a broadly circumscribed Kalanchoe (Boiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995; Rauh, 1995) while others consider all three as distinct genera when considering a larger set of morphological characters and evidence of polyphyly within Kalanchoe sensu lato (Lauzac-Marchal, 1974; Toelken, 1985; Wickens, 1987; Forster, 1997; Staples et al., 2002). Genetic studies (Gehrig et al., 1997, 2001) and examination of the relative extent of utilization of CAM (Kluge et al., 1991; Kluge et al., 1993) support the differentiation of Bryophyllum and Kalanchoe. The Plant List (2010) has Bryophyllum pinnatum as the preferred name, while USDA-ARS (2013) uses K. pinnata, and only lists Bryophyllum as a non-preferred name for all species.

The genus Kalanchoe includes about 145 species native to the Old World, especially southern Africa, Arabia and South East Asia. Some species of Kalanchoe are characterized by the capability to produce plantlets in notches at the margin of the leaf blade. Two varieties of K. pinnata are recognized in a revision of the Kalanchoe of Madagascar (Boiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995), namely K. pinnata var. pinnata and var. genuina.

While many botanists have adopted the APG III system of classification for the orders and families of flowering plants which places the Crassulaceae family in the order Saxifragales, the CAB Thesaurus continues to use the Cronquist system which places it under Rosales.

Description

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K. pinnata is a succulent glabrous glaucous perennial shrub 0.3-2 m high, with cylindrical erect, little-branched stems suckering at the base. The leaves are opposite and decussate and, in adult plants, are only present on the upper parts. The upper leaves are often 3- or 5-foliate while the lower leaves are simple. The leaf-blade is elliptic, 5-25 cm long and 2-7 cm wide with the apex obtuse to truncate, sometimes obscurely so. The leaf edge is crenate and young plants are often produced in the marginal notches especially after leaf detachment. The leaves of the inflorescence are similar to the foliage leaves but smaller, lower, 3- to 5-foliate, simple above and on the ultimate branch. The inflorescence is paniculate and the pedicels are slender (1-2.5 cm long) with young plants being produced at the points of insertion of the floral pedicel. The flowers are pendulous; calyx papery and much inflated, 25-40 mm long. The corolla is up to 7 cm long, yellowish-green tinged with pink or reddish, to twice as long as the calyx. Fruits have four slender papery tubes enclosed in the base of the corolla tube and the seeds are ellipsoid-oblong approximately 0.5 mm long, obscurely longitudinally striate and brown (Stanley and Ross, 1986; Wickens, 1987; Evett and Norris, 1990; Wagner et al., 1999).

 

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Succulent
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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According to Boiteau and Allorge-Boiteau (1995), the native range of K. pinnata is in the northern half of Madagascar. However, it has also been found on the eastern seaboard, in the south, just north of Fort Dauphin (ABR Witt, ARC-PPRI, South Africa, personal communication, 2004). It has naturalized widely in the tropics where it has become invasive in many countries. Interestingly, K. pinnata has not become invasive in South Africa although it is sometimes found near habitation in large numbers (Toelken, 1985).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentIntroducedDobremez et al., 2002
ChinaPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995; Kunjun and Gilbert, 2001
-FujianPresentIntroducedKunjun and Gilbert, 2001
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedKunjun and Gilbert, 2001
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedKunjun and Gilbert, 2001
-YunnanPresentIntroducedKunjun and Gilbert, 2001
IndiaPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995
-JavaPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995
-MoluccasPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995
JapanPresentIntroducedEnomoto, 2001
MyanmarPresentIntroducedKress et al., 2003
NepalPresentIntroducedDobremez et al., 2002
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995
TaiwanPresentIntroducedLi et al., 1977; Kunjun and Gilbert, 2001

Africa

Cape VerdePresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995
ComorosPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995
KenyaPresentNativeWickens, 1987; Witt and Luke, 2017Naturalized
MadagascarRestricted distributionNativeBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995
MalawiPresentIntroducedFernandes, 1983; Witt and Luke, 2017Naturalized
MauritiusPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995
MozambiquePresentIntroducedFernandes, 1983
RéunionPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Toelken, 1985
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedAcebes et al., 2001; USDA-ARS, 2004
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedWickens, 1987; Witt and Luke, 2017Naturalized
UgandaPresentIntroducedWickens, 1987; Witt and Luke, 2017Naturalized
ZambiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Wickens, 1987; Witt and Luke, 2017
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced Not invasive Fernandes, 1983

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995
MexicoPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Antigua and BarbudaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
BahamasPresentIntroducedCorrell and Correll, 1982; Boiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995
BarbadosWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
BelizePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003; New York Botanical Garden, 2003
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Anegada, Guana, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedProctor, 1984
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acuna, 1974; González-Torres et al., 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
DominicaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1991; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GrenadaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
GuadeloupeWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAdams, 1972; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003
MartiniqueWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
MontserratWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Netherlands AntillesWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Martin
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
PanamaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedNew York Botanical Garden, 2003; USDA-NRCS, 2004; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedTing, 1989; USDA-NRCS, 2004; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
BrazilPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedNew York Botanical Garden, 2003
-ParanaPresentIntroducedNew York Botanical Garden, 2003
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedNew York Botanical Garden, 2003
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedNew York Botanical Garden, 2003
ColombiaPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003
EcuadorPresentIntroduced Invasive Soria et al., 2002; New York Botanical Garden, 2003
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2004
French GuianaPresentIntroducedBoggan et al., 1997; BDG Program, 2003
GuyanaPresentIntroducedBoggan et al., 1997; BDG Program, 2003; New York Botanical Garden, 2003
ParaguayPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003
PeruPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995; New York Botanical Garden, 2003
SurinamePresentIntroducedBoggan et al., 1997; BDG Program, 2003
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995; BDG Program, 2003

Europe

PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2004; DAISIE, 2013
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedSilva Vieria RMda, 2002
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn, 2002a
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Evett and Norris, 1990
-QueenslandRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Stanley and Ross, 1986
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn, 2002b
FijiPresentIntroduced
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedAllan Herbarium, 2000; Meyer, 2000
GuamPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979
KiribatiPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979; Orton Williams, 1980
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979
NauruPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995; Swarbrick, 1997
New ZealandPresentIntroducedAllan Herbarium, 2000
PalauPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979; Space et al., 2003
TongaPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn, 2001
TuvaluPresentIntroducedSwarbrick, 1997

History of Introduction and Spread

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The extensive distribution of K. pinnata throughout the tropics relative to related species is speculated to be due, in part, to its medicinal usage by early navigators (Boiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995). These include the Malayo-Polynesian speaking navigators from the Indo-Malay archipelago who visited and colonized Madagascar some time after the first century AD. It is possible that the introduction of K. pinnata to other islands and the lands adjoining the Indian Ocean occurred some time after this. Movement of K. pinnata to the Caribbean and South America may have occurred after the arrival of early European traders in the Indian Ocean or possibly during the slave trade from West Africa. Movement of K. pinnata into Oceania may have occurred with the Polynesian navigators or much later during European colonial times and to the present day. Bailey (1885) mentions it in his census of the Brisbane Botanic Garden and Bowen Park (the garden of the Queensland Acclimatisation Society), Australia, which is an indication that it was utilized more than 100 years ago as a garden ornamental in Australia.

Risk of Introduction

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Further spread is probable because of the popularity of K. pinnata as a garden ornamental and medicinal plant. Seeds are available from commercial nurseries via mail-order catalogues and web-sites.

Habitat

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K. pinnata is native to Madagascar where it is fairly abundant along the coast growing in sandy soils and along granite outcrops. It is also found in the temperate humid and subhumid climates of the central highlands of Madagascar, with annual rainfall between 1000 and 2000 mm (Paulian, 1984).

In Hawaii, USA, it has naturalized and is sometimes very abundant at low elevations, in dry to mesic, disturbed areas (Wagner et al., 1999). On Guam it is often found naturalized near beaches (Stone, 1970). In Fiji it often forms dense stands, occurring from near sea level to an elevation of 550 m as a weed of waste places, cultivated fields and roadsides, naturalized on rocky coasts and slopes and sometimes in dry forest (Smith, 1985). In French Polynesia, K. pinnata occurs on the mesic uplands of the island of Rurutu (Meyer, 2000) and, on the US Virgin Island of St John, it is becoming a serious weedy pest in the dry scrub (Ting, 1989). In tropical East Africa, K. pinnata is found in riverine areas, amongst rocks and also in the shade of trees in areas ranging in altitude from 10 to 1600 m (Wickens, 1987). In Queensland, Australia, K. pinnata occurs along sandy and rocky shores and estuaries, densities increasing from the coast to inland areas (Batianoff and Franks, 1997).

 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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K. pinnata is not normally known as a weed of crops, although it has been reported to displace crops in the Galapagos Islands (Soria et al., 2002).

 

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Kalanchoe species in their Madagascan native range have shown a haploid chromosome number of n=17 except for K. pinnata which has 2n=40 (Taylor, 1926; Baldwin, 1938; Uhl, 1948; Friedmann, 1971). A few of the chromosomes are markedly smaller than the rest so the haploid number could be interpreted as n=17+3 or n=18+2. K. pinnata can be considered as an aneuploid with 6 (or 4) supplementary chromosomes and may be a recent derivation from an ancestor with n=17 or n=18 (Uhl, 1948).

Physiology and Phenology

All Kalanchoe species utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). This is an ecophysiological adaptation to arid or other water-stressed environments. CAM was first described from K. pinnata (for a review, see Kluge and Ting, 1978).

Many Kalanchoe species show a high phenotypic variability in CAM expression with water relations, light intensity, photoperiod and the diel temperature regime being major modulating factors (Kluge and Brulfert, 1996). Carbon isotope ratios of the biomass of a plant are a convenient method for obtaining information about the frequency and variability of photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathways (Kluge et al., 1993). The range in ratio values for K. pinnata indicates acquisition of external carbon by both the PEP and C<(sub)>3 pathways when external conditions such as light and water are altered. Winter and Holtum (2002) showed that decreasing night temperature also decreased night fixation of carbon dioxide. This occurs both in the laboratory and field situations (Luettge et al., 1991) and is likely to facilitate the occupation of ecological niches where such changes frequently occur (Kluge et al., 1993).

Reproductive Biology

K. pinnata reproduces both sexually and vegetatively. In vegetative reproduction, suckers are produced from the base of the plant and daughter plantlets are formed along the edges of detached leaves (epiphyllous buds). These plantlets can also be formed on the inflorescences.

The epiphyllous buds differentiate by producing two roots from the lower side, followed by a shoot from the upper side from which the first pair of leaves emerges. Root and shoot initiation occurs 9 and 12 days after leaf detachment, respectively (Sawhney et al., 1994).

Batygina et al. (1996) found that epiphyllous bud development in K. pinnata proceeds via embryoidogenesis (i.e. somatic embryos). Vegetative propagule organs arise from dormant meristem derivatives. Their development proceeds through globular, heart-shaped and torpedo-shaped stages. Comparative morphological and embryological analysis of vegetative propagules and sexual embryos revealed a strong similarity in their developmental patterns. According to Naylor (1932), the primordia for the epiphyllous buds already exist in the leaf notches. These remain dormant until conditions are favourable for plantlet formation (Yarbrough, 1932). An increased cytokinin/auxin ratio appears to be responsible for bringing about the effect. This is supported by studies on endogenous levels of these hormones (Henson and Wareing, 1977), as well as cytokinin promotion and auxin inhibition of budding when applied exogenously to K. pinnata (Mohan Ram, 1963; Houck and Rieseberg, 1983).

In southeast Queensland, Australia, K. pinnata flowers from June to September (Forster, 1985). After flowering, K. pinnata can produce vegetative buds on the inflorescences at the points of insertion of the floral pedicel (Friedmann, 1975).

Environmental Requirements

In Madagascar, K. pinnata is found in temperate and subhumid climates which receive between 1000 and 2000 mm of rain per annum (Paulian, 1984). It is relatively drought intolerant and may become almost totally defoliated during periods of extended drought (Forster, 1985). It is fairly abundant along the coast, growing in sandy soils and along granite outcrops.

In its introduced range it often occurs in similar habitats along sandy and rocky shores and estuaries (Batianoff and Franks, 1997). In Queensland, Australia, it is most commonly associated with loamy sand, alluvial soils, clay loams and skeletal soils (Queensland Herbarium database, Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Australia, 1999) and where soil moisture persists with surface organic matter.

K. pinnata cannot withstand trampling by animals and therefore only tends to thrive on rock piles and along fence lines in pastures.

Associations

A typical association for K. pinnata is at Nundah Creek near Brisbane, Australia, in a coastal heath verging on mangrove swamps. Dominant native species include Eucalyptus tereticornis, E. racemosa and Casuarina equistifolia, with Melaleuca quinquenervia and M. nodosa. Other invasive plants such as Schinus terebinthifolia, Asparagus spp., Lantana camara and Passiflora sp. also occur in this area (Sparkes et al., 2002).

Allelopathic chemicals released from roots and fallen leaves may facilitate displacement of native flora. Leaf extracts of K. pinnata inhibited the root length of Vigna radiata cuttings by 38%; inhibited the rooting rate, root number and root length of pea cuttings by 14%, 23% and 27%, respectively; and inhibited the germination rates of Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea var. caulorapa seeds by 42% and 54%, respectively (Huang et al., 1997). The allelochemicals have been identified as p-hydroxybenzoic-, protocatechuic-, gallic-, p-coumaric and coffeic acid (Bär et al., 1997).

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
1000 2000

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alcidodes sedi Herbivore Stems
Aphthona Herbivore Leaves
Leptomyrina phidias Herbivore Leaves

Notes on Natural Enemies

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K. pinnata was observed with a stem blight disease in Pune, India, caused by two fungi Colletotrichum dematium and Glomerella cingulata. The disease symptoms were visible over the entire stem as irregular, discoloured areas that later exhibited growth of punctate or slightly elongated, dark, acervular fruit bodies (Rao et al., 1989).

Kalanchoe isometric virus (KIV) was identified in crude sap of K. pinnata plants showing a mild mosaic on the leaves (Izaguirre-Mayoral et al., 1990). The virus could be transmitted mechanically to several test plants but not to healthy Bryophyllum. Ultrastructural studies of infected leaves indicated that KIV caused an increase in chloroplast volume, distortion of the grana and reduced the number of thylakoids per granum. KIV infection also impaired the diurnal pattern of CAM synthesis and hydrolysis of starch. Young Kalanchoe plantlets acquire KIV through their physical connections with infected mature leaves.

Athelia rolfsii, a leaf rot, has been isolated from leaves of K. pinnata from Calicut, India. Leaves of infected plants exhibited slightly sunken, large circular patches with abundant sclerotia during periods of heavy rainfall and high humidity (Leelavathy, 1973).

In Kiribati, K. pinnata is a recorded host of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne sp. and the dagger nematode Xiphinema brevicolle (Orton Williams, 1980).

Three insect species, Spilosoma lutescens, Leptomyrina phidias (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and an unknown Aphthona sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were collected on K. pinnata in Madagascar. Aphthona sp. is a leaf feeder and particularly damaging to plants in the field. It was not collected on other Kalanchoe species surveyed in the field and is considered a potential biological control agent.

Other species collected on K. pinnata in its introduced range in South Africa include Aphis sedi (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Alcidodes sedi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Scirtothrips aurantii (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and an unidentified weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Conoderinae). In host range trials, Alcidodes sedi could complete its development on a number of Bryophyllum and Kalanchoe species but failed to develop on other related species in the Crassulaceae (ABR Witt, ARC-PPRI, South Africa, unpublished data, 2004).

 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Propagation is either by seeds, suckers from the base of the plant or by the formation of daughter plantlets along the edges of detached leaves (epiphyllous buds) and inflorescences. As plantlets fall to the ground, they rapidly colonize the surrounding area.

Accidental Introduction

This species has appeared along the sand dunes of Peregian Beach, Sunshine Coast, southeast Queensland, Australia, as a consequence of dumping of garden trash into bush adjoining the beach. K. pinnata was not present in transects at this site in 1982 but was present in 1997 (Batianoff and Franks, 1998). This corresponds to a period of rapid urban development in this holiday/tourist area. Plants also invade bushland from abandoned homesteads.

Intentional Introduction

Deliberate introductions of this plant are quite likely because it is such a popular garden ornamental and has medicinal properties.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes
Mail Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx seeds
Fruits (inc. pods) seeds
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Economic Impact

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Four species of Kalanchoe, including K. pinnata were responsible for 41 recorded poisoning incidents affecting 379 cattle in Queensland, Australia, between 1960 and 1984 (McKenzie and Armstrong, 1986). In New South Wales, Australia, two cattle reportedly died from ingestion of K. pinnata (Reppas, 1995).

In the Galapagos Islands, K. pinnata has been reported to displace crops (Soria et al., 2002). It has also been reported as a host for crop pests, including Scirtothrips aurantiiAthelia rolfsii and Xiphinema brevicolle (see Notes on Natural Enemies for more details). Other economic impacts are associated with the costs of control.

Environmental Impact

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The major impact of K. pinnata is the formation of thick stands that displace existing vegetation, reducing local biodiversity. On the island of St John, US Virgin Islands, K. pinnata forms dense stands crowding out native herbaceous vegetation (Ting, 1989), and in the Galapagos Islands, K. pinnata not only replaces the herb layer with a monospecific stand, but forms a dense carpet that inhibits the regeneration of the shrub and tree layers (Tye, 2001). Allelopathic chemicals released from roots and fallen leaves may facilitate this invasion and displacement of native flora.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Phyllostegia knudsenii (Waimea phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a
Cyanea recta (Kealia cyanea)National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995
Cyrtandra limahuliensis (Limahuli cyrtandra)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995
Isodendrion longifolium (longleaf isodendrion)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011b
Lobelia monostachya (Waianae Range lobelia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998
Myrsine linearifolia (narrowleaf colicwood)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003
Nototrichium humile (kaala rockwort)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008b
Peucedanum sandwicense (makou)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011a
Phyllostegia mollis (Waianae Range phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009d
Phyllostegia renovans (red-leaf phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010i
Pittosporum napaulenseNo DetailsHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010i
Platydesma rostrataCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010i
Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b
Pritchardia napaliensisCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010c
Psychotria grandiflora (large-flowered balsamo)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010i
Psychotria hobdyi (Hobdy's wild-coffee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010i
Pteralyxia kauaiensis (Kauai pteralyxia)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010d
Remya kauaiensis (Kauai remya)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010e
Remya montgomeryi (Kalalau Valley remya)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a
Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010k
Schiedea apokremnos (Kauai schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010l
Schiedea hookeri (sprawling schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011c
Schiedea kauaiensis (Kauai schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008a
Schiedea membranaceaCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010f
Schiedea spergulina var. leiopodaNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010m
Schiedea stellarioidesCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010g
Solanum sandwicenseNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009e
Spermolepis hawaiiensis (Hawaii scaleseed)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010n
Stenogyne campanulata (Kalalau Valley stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009b
Stenogyne kanehoana (Oahu stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998
Tetramolopium filiforme (ridgetop tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011a
Urera kaalaeCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Pest and disease transmissionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011d
Wilkesia hobdyi (dwarf iliau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010h
Xylosma crenataCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009c

Social Impact

Top of page The plant has no direct impact on health or social activities although dense infestations can interfere with access to amenity areas and cause a reduction in biodiversity, which affects activities such as bird watching.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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Morton (1990) has reviewed the medicinal uses of K. pinnata. In Africa, India and South America it is used for the treatment of insect bites, wounds, ulcers, abscesses and burns, inflammations, swellings and discolorations (Safford, 1905; Kirtikar and Basu, 1935; Dalziel, 1937; Dastur, 1951; Chopra et al., 1956; Boakye-Yiadom, 1977); rheumatic afflictions, erysipelas and boils (Quisumbing, 1951); smallpox, diarrhoea, dysentery, lithiasis and phthisis (Nadkarni, 1954); whitlow (Gaind and Gupta, 1971) and cholera (Siddiqui et al., 1989); mange, and as a cold remedy, especially for small children (Raponda-Walker and Sillans, 1961); bronchitis (Quisumbing, 1951); as a diuretic (Oliver-Bayer, 1986); conjunctivitis, earache and sore throats (Oliver-Bayer, 1986); and in the induction of labour and the removal of ovarian cysts (Onwuliri and Anekwe, 1992). The Caiçaras Indians of Brazil use K. pinnata for the treatment of general aches, cough, bronchitis, influenza, pneumonia and dermatitis (Begossi et al., 2002). The juice of the fresh leaves is used very effectively for the treatment of jaundice in folk medicines of Bundelkhand region of India. In west tropical Africa, the leaf juice is fed into a newborn infant's mouth, while an infusion is drunk by the child and the mother (Dalziel, 1937). In Singapore, the juice is given as a febrifuge (Burkill, 1935). Apart from making concoctions, decoctions and infusions of plant parts, some leaves are regularly eaten in soups as a tonic for the stomach and kidneys.

The many ethnobotanical uses of K. pinnata have led to investigations of its chemical composition and properties. The aqueous extract of K. pinnata yielded bryophyllin B, with activity against the in vitro growth of tissue culture cells (Yamagishi et al., 1989). The methanolic extract of K. pinnata has shown potent cytotoxicity in vitro against tumour cell cultures (Yamagishi et al., 1988), significant anti-ulcer activity in nine experimental animal models (Pal and Chaudhuri, 1991), and potent central nervous system depressant action (Pal et al., 1999). The methanolic extract of K. pinnata leaves showed significant anti-inflammatory activity on different experimental models (Pal and Chaudhuri, 1990, 1992). The juice from the leaves of K. pinnata exhibited histamine-blocking activity (Nassis et al., 1992). A methanolic extract of K. pinnata leaves has been studied for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animal models. The extract produced a significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw oedema, a significant reduction in cotton pellet granuloma in rats, an inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing in mice, and a significant dose-dependent reduction of yeast-induced pyrexia (Olajide et al., 1998).

The juice of leaves of K. pinnata has antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Boakye-Yiadom, 1977). The juice was also bactericidal to Streptococcus pyrogenes, Streptococcus faecalis, Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. and Serratia marcescens, including the clinical isolates of these organisms possessing multiple antibiotic resistances (Obaseiki-Ebor, 1985).

The methanolic extract of leaves had activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae and Proteus vulgaris, but not against Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Klebsiella pneumoniae (Akinpelu, 2000). Ethanolic extract had activity against seven bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, S. paratyphi,S. typhi, E. coli, Shigella dysenteriae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two filamentous fungi (Alternaria alternata and Rhizoctonia bataticola [Macrophomina phaseolina]), and a yeast Candida albicans. The ethyl acetate extract also showed appreciable antimutagenic activity (Obaseiki-Ebor et al., 1993).

It has been shown that oral K. pinnata leaf extract is strongly effective against murine leishmaniasis, a tropical protozoal disease (Torres-Santos et al., 2003).

K. pinnata has shown insecticidal properties related to a bufadienolide constituent (Supratman et al., 2000).

Onwuliri and Anekwe (1992) found that K. pinnata is a rich source of some elements that are important in the maintenance of human health. This, plus the physiological activities mentioned above, may explain the traditional medicinal roles attributed to the plant.

Uses List

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General

  • Ornamental

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Boiteau and Allorge-Boiteau (1995) place K. pinnata in Group IX Proliferae with eight other closely related species, two of which have pinnate leaves and may be confused with K. pinnata. These species are Bryophyllum rubellum and B. proliferum.

Prevention and Control

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Mechanical Control

K. pinnata can be controlled manually provided that the whole plant, especially the leaves and roots, are removed completely (Soria et al., 2002). A hand weeding exercise to remove K. pinnata was costed at Au$2095/ha (Sparkes et al., 2002). It was noted that the difficulty in removing plants with their root systems intact and the avoidance of leaf fall made this method less effective and more expensive than treatment with 2,4-D (approximately Aus$160/ha).

Chemical Control

In efficacy tests (Sparkes et al., 2002), 2,4-D and fluroxypyr gave best control of K. pinnata with >90% kill rates. Metsulfuron and triclopyr/picloram did not give good control. Sparkes et al. (2002) conjectured that these poor results may have been due to insufficient wetting agent and poor penetration of these herbicides through the plant's waxy cuticle. Sparkes et al. (2002) recommended 2,4-D for K. pinnata control because this has the lowest cost, non-target damage and environmental impact of the herbicides trialled.

Foliar application of glyphosate is used for the control of K. pinnata in the Galapagos Islands (Soria et al., 2002).

 

References

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Gehrig H, Gaussmann O, Marx H, Schwarzott D, Kluge M, 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) inferred from nucleotide sequences of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions. Plant Science, 160:827-835

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Izaguirre-Mayoral ML, Carballo O, Gil F, 1990. Purification and partial characterization of isometric virus-like particles in Kalanchoe species. Journal of Phytopathology, 130(4):303-311

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Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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22/05/13 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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