Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Jacaranda mimosifolia
(jacaranda)

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Datasheet

Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Jacaranda mimosifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • jacaranda
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • J. mimosifolia is a striking ornamental tree characteristic of many cities in tropical and sub-tropical countries, well-known for its clusters of striking bell-shaped, blue-violet flowers. Native to South Ameri...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); large roadside tree, showing flowering habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); large roadside tree, showing flowering habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2010.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); large roadside tree, showing flowering habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2010.
HabitJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); large roadside tree, showing flowering habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2010.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); trunks and canopy. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
TitleTrunks and canopy
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); trunks and canopy. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); trunks and canopy. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
Trunks and canopyJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); trunks and canopy. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); trunks, showing bark. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
TitleTrunks
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); trunks, showing bark. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); trunks, showing bark. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
TrunksJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); trunks, showing bark. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); habit. East Usambaras,Tanzania. January 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); habit. East Usambaras,Tanzania. January 2014.
Copyright©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); habit. East Usambaras,Tanzania. January 2014.
HabitJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); habit. East Usambaras,Tanzania. January 2014.©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); flowers. Laikipia, Kenya. April 2015.
TitleFlowers
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); flowers. Laikipia, Kenya. April 2015.
Copyright©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); flowers. Laikipia, Kenya. April 2015.
FlowersJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); flowers. Laikipia, Kenya. April 2015.©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); flowers. Laikipia, Kenya. April 2015.
TitleFlowers
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); flowers. Laikipia, Kenya. April 2015.
Copyright©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); flowers. Laikipia, Kenya. April 2015.
FlowersJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); flowers. Laikipia, Kenya. April 2015. ©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); unripe seed pods. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.
TitleSeed pods
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); unripe seed pods. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.
Copyright©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); unripe seed pods. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.
Seed podsJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); unripe seed pods. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); ripe seed pods. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.
TitleSeed pods
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); ripe seed pods. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.
Copyright©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); ripe seed pods. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.
Seed podsJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); ripe seed pods. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); ripe seed pods. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.
TitleSeed pods
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); ripe seed pods. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.
Copyright©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); ripe seed pods. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.
Seed podsJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); ripe seed pods. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); ripe, fallen, seed pod. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.
TitleSeed pod
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); ripe, fallen, seed pod. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.
Copyright©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); ripe, fallen, seed pod. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.
Seed podJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); ripe, fallen, seed pod. Arusha, Tanzania. January 2014.©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); split seedpod, showing a single seed. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
TitleSeedpod
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); split seedpod, showing a single seed. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); split seedpod, showing a single seed. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
SeedpodJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); split seedpod, showing a single seed. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); seedling in concrete crevice. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2006.
TitleSeedling
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); seedling in concrete crevice. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2006.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); seedling in concrete crevice. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2006.
SeedlingJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); seedling in concrete crevice. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2006.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); seedling foliage. Arusha, Tanzania. October 2012.
TitleFoliage
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); seedling foliage. Arusha, Tanzania. October 2012.
Copyright©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); seedling foliage. Arusha, Tanzania. October 2012.
FoliageJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); seedling foliage. Arusha, Tanzania. October 2012.©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); close-up of seedling foliage. Arusha, Tanzania. October 2012.
TitleFoliage
CaptionJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); close-up of seedling foliage. Arusha, Tanzania. October 2012.
Copyright©CABI/Arne Witt
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); close-up of seedling foliage. Arusha, Tanzania. October 2012.
FoliageJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda); close-up of seedling foliage. Arusha, Tanzania. October 2012.©CABI/Arne Witt

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don

Preferred Common Name

  • jacaranda

Other Scientific Names

  • Jacaranda chelonia Griseb.
  • Jacaranda ovalifolia R. Br.

International Common Names

  • English: black poui; Brazilian rose wood; green ebony; jacaranda; mimosa-leaved jacaranda; mimosa-leaved jacaranda
  • Spanish: Acacia celester; flamboyán azul; gualanolay; tarco
  • French: flambouyant bleu

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: carobaguaçu; caroba-guassú; jacarandá; jacarandá-caroba; jacarandá-mimoso; palissandra
  • Eritrea: palasandro
  • Ethiopia: yetebmenja
  • French Guiana: flabwayan ble
  • Germany: Mimosenblättrige
  • Kenya: mucakaranda; omosaria

EPPO code

  • IACMI (Jacaranda mimosifolia)

Summary of Invasiveness

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J. mimosifolia is a striking ornamental tree characteristic of many cities in tropical and sub-tropical countries, well-known for its clusters of striking bell-shaped, blue-violet flowers. Native to South America, like many ornamental trees, it was very widely introduced over the centuries. This species has naturalized in a number of countries and has been reported as invasive in a number of locations; Queensland, Australia, Hawaii, Chile’s Juan Fernandez Islands and in Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa and Zambia. J. mimosifolia is a fast growing tree that re-sprouts easily if damaged. It is deep-rooted and competitive and few plants or crops can grow beneath it once it has established. It can form thickets of seedlings beneath planted trees from which the species may expand and exclude other vegetation thereby decreasing biodiversity in an area. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Scrophulariales
  •                         Family: Bignoniaceae
  •                             Genus: Jacaranda
  •                                 Species: Jacaranda mimosifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Jacaranda is a large genus, with 50 species included in the Plant List (2013) but only nine species are mentioned in USDA-ARS (2014). J. mimosifolia belongs to the Bignoniaceae family, which contains other genera containing some well-known species including Bignonia, Catalpa, Marrkamia, Spathodea, Tabebuia and Tecoma.

J. filicifolia D. Don is included as a synonym in some of the literature, but The Plant List (2013) accepts it as a synonym of J. obtusifolia Bonpl., which is followed in this datasheet.

Although known by several vernacular names, jacaranda is commonly used. However, in the timber trade, the name 'jacaranda' is not associated with J. mimosifolia, but with Dalbergia nigra instead. Furthermore, other vernacular names include Brazilian rose wood and green ebony, that both add to possible confusion with other species. In French and Spanish, a common vernacular name used is flambouyant bleu or flamboyán azul, respectively – ‘blue flamboyant’, not to be confused with the true ‘flamboyant’ (in French), another common ornamental tree with red/yellow flowers, Delonix regia.

Description

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J. mimosifolia is a medium to large tree 5-15 m tall, up to 20-25 m on favourable sites, deciduous and with an attractive spreading crown. Bark is thin and grey-brown. Twigs are slender, somewhat zig-zag and light reddish-brown in colour. Leaves are bipinnately compound and 15-30(-40) cm long, with 13-31 pinnae, each with 10-41 sessile leaflets, (3-)5-10(-12) mm long and (1-)2-3.5(-4) mm wide, oblong, glabrous or slightly puberulent along the midrib and margins. Flowers are described variously to be blue-violet, lilac, lavender-blue or mauve in colour. They occur in open, terminal panicles, the branches puberulent, calyx reduced, broadly campanulate, 5-toothed, the teeth around 1 mm long; corolla purplish blue, the tube white within, 2.4-5.2 cm long, 0.7-1.2 cm wide at the mouth, pubescent externally and within at the level of the stamens. Capsules drying reddish brown, compressed-orbicular, 3.2-5.8 cm long, apex often shallowly emarginate, base truncate to subcordate. Seeds 0.9-1.2 cm long, each surrounded by a thin membrane acting as a wing, more or less surrounding the seed body (PIER, 2014).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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J. mimosifolia is considered to be native to a well-defined area in central and eastern South America, including Uruguay, parts of Argentina (Entre Rios, Jujuy, Salta, Tucuman), Paraguay (Alto Paraguay, Cordillera) and as far as Bolivia (USDA-ARS, 2014). According to the IUCN (2016) and their red list of threatened species, J. mimosifolia is recorded as vulnerable in its native range. It is threatened here as the forests in which it typically occurs are being converted for agriculture (IUCN, 2016).

J. mimosifolia has however been very widely introduced pantropically as an ornamental for its showy blue-violet flowers and is likely to be present in most tropical regions, i.e. many more countries than those indicated in the Distribution table. It has become naturalized in a number of countries, including elsewhere in South America, but is reported as invasive only in South Africa, Australia, Hawaii and Chile’s Juan Fernandez islands.

In Australia, J. mimosifolia is widespread in south-eastern Queensland, with isolated occurrences in most other states (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2014) though it is not yet a serious problem. J. mimosifolia has proved to be a significant and successful invader in northern and eastern South Africa and a current estimate is that is has “invaded about 1.8 million ha, but mainly at very low densities" (David Le Maitre, CSIR, South Africa, personal communication, 2014). It is present throughout east Africa (Dharani, 2005) and is naturalized there in parts, e.g. in Ngorongoro, Tanzania (Henderson, 2002).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
BotswanaPresentIntroducedWyk et al. (2011)
Cabo VerdePresentPlantedDiniz (1996)
CameroonPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
EgyptPresentIntroducedPlantedGBIF (2014)
EritreaPresentIntroducedPlantedGBIF (2014)
EswatiniPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedPlantedGBIF (2014)
GabonPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
GhanaPresentIntroducedPlantedGBIF (2014)
GuineaPresentIntroducedPlantedGBIF (2014)
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017); GBIF (2014)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedPlantedGBIF (2014)
MalawiPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
MayottePresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
MoroccoPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
MozambiquePresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
RéunionPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
RwandaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedWitt and Luke (2017)Naturalized
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMissouri Botanical Garden (2014); PIER (2014)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017); GBIF (2014)
UgandaPresentIntroducedPlantedDharani (2005)
ZambiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017); Orwa et al. (2009)
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedPlantedGBIF (2014)

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
Hong KongPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
IndiaPresentIntroducedPlantedGBIF (2014)
IsraelPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
LebanonPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
NepalPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
PakistanPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)

Europe

CyprusPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
ItalyPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-SicilyPresentNativeCABI and EPPO (2010)
PortugalPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
BahamasPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
BarbadosPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedPlantedMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
CubaPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
DominicaPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedPlantedMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
GrenadaPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedPlantedMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
HaitiPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
HondurasPresentIntroducedPlantedMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
MexicoPresentIntroducedPlantedMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
MontserratPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedPlantedGBIF (2014)
PanamaPresentIntroducedPlantedGBIF (2014)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedPlantedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedPlantedKairo et al. (2003)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedPlantedOrwa et al. (2009)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedPlantedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedCABI and EPPO (2010)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014); USDA-NRCS (2014)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2014); PIER (2014)
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2014)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2014)
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2014)
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2014)
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
FijiPresentIntroducedPlantedPIER (2014)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
NauruPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
NiuePresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
BoliviaPresentNativeCABI (Undated a)
BrazilPresentNativeOrwa et al. (2009)
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)Invasive in Juan Fernandez Island
ColombiaPresentIntroducedPlantedMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
French GuianaPresentIntroducedPlantedOrwa et al. (2009)
GuyanaPresentIntroducedPlantedOrwa et al. (2009)
ParaguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
PeruPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
SurinamePresentIntroducedPlantedOrwa et al. (2009)
UruguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedPlantedCABI (Undated a)

History of Introduction and Spread

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There is little information on the introduction of J. mimosifolia. Several unconfirmed reports suggest that J. mimosifolia was first introduced to South Africa in the 1880s. Kasrils (2001), states that “jacaranda first struck root in South African soil in 1888 when two trees were planted at a school in Arcadia. The first seed was imported by James Clarke and from the first batch of seedlings, trees were planted in Koch Street, now known as Bosman Street, Pretoria.”

Risk of Introduction

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The majority of records of J. mimosifolia being introduced into a new area come as the plant is intentionally introduced for its ornamental purposes. As such a risk assessment in the Pacific scored J. mimosifolia 1, indicating that it posed only a very low risk of future invasion (PIER, 2014). Nevertheless J. mimosifolia has been listed as a Category 3 invader in South Africa (Henderson, 2001), meaning that no further planting or trade in propagative material is allowed, except with special permission and existing plants must be prevented from spreading.

Habitat

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J. mimosifolia has been observed as becoming naturalized mainly in drier or mesic areas (PIER, 2014), in savanna and other grasslands, riparian woodland and other riverside habitats, also in forests and in sheltered situations such as in wooded ravines.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Arid regions Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number of J. mimosifolia is recorded as 2n=36 by Piazzano (1998).

Reproductive Biology

J. mimosifolia is self-incompatible and depends on a range of insects for pollination, including bees of medium or large size (Alves et al., 2010). The pattern of anthesis and stigma receptivity of J. mimosifolia was reported in India (Battacharjee and Sareen, 1991). Pods dry on the tree and split after about a year, releasing the seeds. Fresh seed has a germination capacity of 50-92% and generally no seed pre-treatment is required. The optimum temperature for germination is 25°C and there is a slightly higher rate of germination in light than in dark (Socolowski andTakaki, 2004). Seeds remain viable for at least 12 months in dry storage (Useful Tropical plants, 2016). It is also possible for J. mimosifolia to become established from cuttings.

Physiology and Phenology

For intentional planting, seedlings need considerable care during the first two years, requiring weeding, regular watering and staking until well established. They can be fast growing on good sites achieving 3 m per year during the first two years and 1 m per year in subsequent years. Established trees respond well to light coppicing. If used as an ornamental, an open environment or large spacing is required for this light-demanding species with its wide canopy. Trees flower from September to November in South Africa.

Environmental Requirements

J. mimosifolia is native to areas having a temperate mesothermal climate with a marked dry season. In tropical regions it grows best in highland areas up to 2400 m with an annual rainfall of 900-1300 mm, but will also tolerate rainfall up to 2000 mm. It does not tolerate frost. This species grows well on well-drained sandy loam soils, although it will survive on poorer shallow soils. The species does not tolerate waterlogged or clay soils. 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
25 -40 500 2400

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 16 24
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 24 34
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 10 20

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration26number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall6002000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Armillaria heimii Pathogen
Cuscuta cassytoides Parasite
Erianthemum schelei Parasite
Insignorthezia insignis Herbivore
Mundulla yellows Pathogen
Nipaecoccus viridis Herbivore
Phytoliriomyza jacarandae Herbivore
Planococcus kenyae Herbivore

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A number of diseases have been reported on J. mimosifolia, including the honey fungus Armillaria heimii (Paterson and Mwangi, 1996) and Mundulla yellows (Mundulla Yellows dieback).

Pests of J. mimosifolia include Planococcus kenyae (coffee mealybug), Nipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug) and Orthezia insignis [Insignorthezia insignis] (greenhouse orthezia) the latter reported to have killed a quarter of all J. mimosifolia seedlings in a nursery in India (Siddappaji et al., 1986). Additionally, Cuscuta cassytoides caused high mortality in a nursery in Tanzania (Hocking, 1966) and the Jacaranda leaf-miner, Phytoliriomyza jacarandae, was reported as a recent arrival in South Africa in 1997 (Neser, 1997). The African mistletoe Erianthemum ulugurense [Erianthemum schelei] has also been reported on J. mimosifolia in Kenya (Omunyin and Wabule, 1996).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Dehiscent pods and light seeds each with its own feathery, circular wing, appears to make the seeds best suited for wind dispersal. However, it is likely that seeds, individually or still encased in whole pods, can also be transported by water.

Intentional Introduction

J. mimosifolia has been widely introduced intentionally as an ornamental species into many countries for its showy blue-violet flowers.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
Landscape improvement Yes Yes
Nursery trade Yes Yes
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Water Yes Yes
Wind Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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Economic Impact

J. mimosifolia has some value through its use as a fuel plant and a source of wood for fences, tools and carvings. The economic value of this is unknown.

Environmental Impact

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Environmental Impact

The spreading growth habit of J. mimosifolia and the dense foliage it produces tends to shade out native plants and prevent their regeneration (PIER, 2014). J. mimosifolia is a deep-rooted competitive tree and very few plants or crops can grow beneath it. It can form thickets of seedlings beneath planted trees from which the species may expand and exclude other vegetation. It can form especially dense thickets along watercourse. This decreases biodiversity in an area and can alter ecosystems.

Social Impact

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As an ornamental species, introduced because of its showy flowers, J. mimosifolia has a very positive social impact.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

The timber of J. mimosifolia is yellowish-white, hard, moderately heavy and easy to work. It is used for interior carpentry and poles and to make small items such as tool handles and carvings. It is also used for fuel (Dharani, 2005). The economic value of this is unknown.

Social Benefit

J. mimosifolia provides pleasant open shade and is an effective windbreak, but is most widely planted as an ornamental. The bark and roots of this species are used to treat syphilis (Useful Tropical Plants, 2016) and infusions of the flowers are used to treat amoebic dysentery in Guatemala and Mexico (Magnez et al., 1996). Bark extracts are also used to suppress the hatching of larval soil nematodes.

Environmental Services

J. mimosifolia is used as bee forage and is an excellent source of nectar for African honey bees in Ethiopia (Thakur, 2006). 

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Invertebrate food

Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Landscape improvement
  • Ornamental
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Pesticide
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • For light construction

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles
  • Wood carvings

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Based on foliage, young plants of J. mimosifolia could be confused with a variety of other species. However, the characteristic flowers mean that mature trees cannot be mistaken and even after flowering, the round, flat pods make the tree stand out. The similarity of foliage and form and use as a common ornamental street tree means that J. mimosifolia and Delonix regia can sometimes be confused when there are no flowers or fruit. However, both are highly distinct, with mauve-blue-violet flows and round pods in J. mimosifolia compared to red-yellow flowers are long pods (often 50 cm or more) in D. regia.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Mechanical Control

It is possible for young seedlings of J. mimosifolia and small plants to be hand pulled (PIER, 2014).

Chemical Control

For larger J. mimosifolia trees, they should be cut and herbicide should be applied to the stumps (PIER, 2014). Henderson (2001) reports that J. mimosifolia is very difficult to control once it is established and that large tree must be ring-barked or cut down below ground level and any regrowth treated with herbicide. Effective herbicides include imazapyr or glyphosate.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Little is known about the ecology of J. mimosifolia, especially regarding its reproduction and seed dispersal and more work is required to assess the impacts of invasion and means for effective control of the species.

References

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Alves GR, Peruchi A, Agostini K, 2010. Pollination in urban area: the Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don (Bignoniaceae) case study. (Polinização em área urbana: o estudo de caso de Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don (Bignoniaceae).) Bioikos, 24(1):31-41

Battacharjee S, Sareen TS, 1991. Breeding systems of Millettia ovalifolia Kurz. (Leguminosae) and Jacranda mimosifolia D. Don. (Bignoniaceae). Indian Forester, 117(1):70-71

Battacharjee S, Sareen TS, 1991. Breeding systems of Millettia ovalifolia Kurz. (Leguminosae) and Jacranda mimosifolia D. Don. (Bignoniaceae). Indian Forester, 117(1):70-71

Bekele-Tesemma A, Birnie A, Tengnas B, 1993. Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia. Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU), Ethiopia: Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA)

CABI/EPPO, 2010. Phytoliriomyza jacarandae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.December. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 743

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2014. Australia's virtual herbarium, Australia. http://avh.ala.org.au

Dharani N, 2005. Field guide to common trees and shrubs of East Africa., South Africa: Struik Nature, 384 pp

Diniz MA, 1996. Cape Verde flora. Vascular plants. 85. Bignoniaceae. (Flora de Cabo Verde. Plantas Vasculares. 85. Bignoniaceae.) Flora de Cabo Verde, No. 85. Lisboa, Portugal: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, 14 pp

GBIF, 2014. GBIF data portal. Copenhagen, Denmark: Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org

Henderson L, 2001. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12

Henderson L, 2002. Problem plants in Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Final Report to the NCAA. Pretoria, South Africa: Agricultural Research Council - Plant Protection Research Institute

Hocking D, 1966. Cuscuta parasitic on hardwood seedlings. Misc. Rep. Inst., Africa Trop. Pestic. Res. Inst., Arusha, 559:4 pp

Hong TD, Linington S, Ellis RH, 1996. Seed storage behaviour: a compendium. Handbooks for Genebanks No. 4. Rome, Italy: IPGRI

IUCN, 2016. The IUCN (the International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/

Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Kasrils R, 2001. Jacaranda - Xenophobia in the name of Environment Management?: Green & Gold. http://www.coolforest.org.za/pretoria%20fights%20for%20jacarandas.htm

Luna RK, 1996. Plantation trees. Delhi, India: International Book Distributors

Magnez I, Duriez T, Delelis-Dusollier A, Nicolas JP, 1996. Attempt at demonstrating the anti-amoebic activity of Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don. Bulletin de la Société FranÇaise de Parasitologie, 14(1):89-93; 8 ref

Maruyama E, Ishii K, Saito A, Ohba K, 1993. Micropropagation of jacaranda (Jacaranda mimosaefolia D. Don) by shoot-tip culture. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society, 75(4):346-349; 8 ref

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Neser S, 1997. Jacaranda leafminer: another recent arrival in South Africa. Plant Protection News, No. 47:8-9

Omunyin ME, Wabule MN, 1996. Occurrence of African mistletoe Erianthemum ulugurense on Toona ciliata and other trees in Kenya. Plant Disease, 80(7):823; 1 ref

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/

Paterson RT, Mwangi LM, 1996. Honey fungus in agroforestry. Agroforestry Today, 8(1):19-20

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Rafiq M, Jabri A, Khan TA, Husain SI, 1991. Effect of bark extracts of some angiosperms on the larval hatching of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949. Current Nematology, 2(2):175-176; 1 ref

Siddappaji C, Sreenivasa KN, Puttaraju TB, Rajagopal BK, 1986. Orthezia insignis (lantana bug) and Saissetia coffeae (Hemiptera: Coccidae) new pests of Jacaranda mimosaefolia.. Current Research, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, 15(3/4):29-30

Socolowski F, Takaki M, 2004. Germination of Jacaranda mimosifolia (D. Don - Bignoniaceae) seeds: effects of light, temperature and water stress. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 47(5):785-792

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press

Thakur SS, 2006. Jacaranda - an excellent source of nectar for African honey bees in Ethiopia. Insect Environment, 12(2):75-77

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Useful Tropical Plants, 2016. Useful tropical plants database. http://tropical.theferns.info/

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Wyk B van, Wyk P van, Wyk P-E van, 2011. Photo Guide to Trees of Southern Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Briza Publications, 360 pp

Distribution References

CABI, EPPO, 2010. Phytoliriomyza jacarandae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 743.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2014. Australia's virtual herbarium., Australia: http://avh.ala.org.au

Dharani N, 2005. Field guide to common trees and shrubs of East Africa., South Africa: Struik Nature. 384 pp.

Diniz M A, 1996. Cape Verde flora. Vascular plants. 85. Bignoniaceae. (Flora de Cabo Verde. Plantas Vasculares. 85. Bignoniaceae.). In: Flora de Cabo Verde, Lisboa, Portugal: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical. 14 pp.

GBIF, 2014. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International. 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. In: World Agroforestry Centre, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Wyk B van, Wyk P van, Wyk PE van, 2011. Photo Guide to Trees of Southern Africa., Pretoria, South Africa: Briza Publications. 360 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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09/06/2014 Original text by:

Nick Pasiecznik, Agroforestry Enterprises, France

Distribution Maps

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