Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Senna hirsuta
(hairy senna)

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Datasheet

Senna hirsuta (hairy senna)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Senna hirsuta
  • Preferred Common Name
  • hairy senna
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. hirsuta is an herbaceous plant native to the Americas. It has been introduced into several countries in Asia, Africa and Oceania where it has naturalized. S. hirsuta typically colonises areas of dis...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna); flowering habit. nr. Koothuparamba, Kerala, south India. November 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionSenna hirsuta (hairy senna); flowering habit. nr. Koothuparamba, Kerala, south India. November 2012.
Copyright©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna); flowering habit. nr. Koothuparamba, Kerala, south India. November 2012.
HabitSenna hirsuta (hairy senna); flowering habit. nr. Koothuparamba, Kerala, south India. November 2012.©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna); flowers. nr. Virajpet, Karnataka, India. October 2013.
TitleFlowers
CaptionSenna hirsuta (hairy senna); flowers. nr. Virajpet, Karnataka, India. October 2013.
Copyright©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna); flowers. nr. Virajpet, Karnataka, India. October 2013.
FlowersSenna hirsuta (hairy senna); flowers. nr. Virajpet, Karnataka, India. October 2013.©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Senna hirsuta (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby

Preferred Common Name

  • hairy senna

Other Scientific Names

  • Cassia caracasana Jacq.
  • Cassia hirsuta L.
  • Cassia leptocarpa Benth.
  • Cassia tomentosa Arn.
  • Cassia venenifera G.Mey.
  • Ditremexa hirsuta (L.) Britton & Wilson

International Common Names

  • English: shower tree senna; slimpod glaberrima senna; stinking cassia; woolly senna; woolly wild sensitive plant

Local Common Names

  • Indonesia: kasingsat ; kasingsat bulu
  • Malaysia: kacang kayu; kacang kayu; sinteng
  • Philippines: balbala tufigan; katanda; tighiman
  • Thailand: dapplit; phong pheng

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. hirsuta is an herbaceous plant native to the Americas. It has been introduced into several countries in Asia, Africa and Oceania where it has naturalized. S. hirsuta typically colonises areas of disturbed land such as roadsides, waste land and riparian areas. Very little information is available with regards to the environmental impacts of this species, although it is listed as invasive in Queensland (Australia), South Africa and Eastern Africa. The closely related species S. obtusifolia and S. tora are both serious weeds worldwide. and S. hirsuta possesses similar attributes to those which make these species invasive.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
  •                                 Genus: Senna
  •                                     Species: Senna hirsuta

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Until the beginning of the 1980s the Cassia genus was considered to be a very large genus of over 500 species. Bentham (1871) wrote that three groups within the Cassia genus were so distinct from one another that any species can always be unequivocally allocated to one of them; some main distinctions included fruit structure, stamen structure and arrangement, and nodulation (Lock, 1988). However it was not until 1982 that Irwin and Barneby formally separated Cassia into three genera: Cassia L. emend. Gaertner, Senna Miller, and Chamaecrista Moench. Cassia now has only about 30 species, whereas Senna and Chamaecrista comprise about equal numbers of species, about 260 and 270 respectively (Irwin and Barneby, 1982).

These three genera are now largely accepted and together make up the subtribe Cassinae. Cassia and Senna differ principally in stamen organization, and in arid areas of Australia, taxonomic distinctions between and within the three genera are blurred by polyploidy, hybridization and apoximis (Lewis et al., 2005). In 1988, Lock presented new names and combinations for the Cassinae species in Africa, noting that “if Cassia were to continue to be used in its broad sense in Africa, there would be several species which would be consistently given different names in different continents” (Lock, 1988). Approximately 80% of the Senna genus’ 260 or so species occur in New World tropical and subtropical areas, extending into warm temperate and rarely into cool temperate areas of both hemispheres with species in Africa, Madagascar, Australia, and a few in southeastern Asia and Pacific islands (Irwin and Barneby, 1982; Lock, 1988; Wagner et al., 2014).

S. hirsuta comprises a complex of seven varieties (Queensland Government, 2016). The species epithet and common name of hairy senna both stem from the long pale hairs covering the stems, leaves and pods of the plant.

Description

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The following description is taken from The Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017).

Herbs or shrubs, 0.6-2.5 m tall. Young branches, petioles, and rachises of leaves densely yellowish brown villous. Leaves 10-20 cm; petiole 3-6 cm, with a sessile, blackish brown, ovoid-oblong gland near insertion; rachis 7-10 cm, without glands; leaflets 3-7 pairs, ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 3-9 x 1.5-3.5 cm, papery, both surfaces villous, base subrounded, apex acuminate. Racemes axillary or several in axils of apical leaves forming a leafy panicle; peduncles and pedicels villous; bracts early caducous, subulate, hairy. Sepals 5, unequal in size, densely villous, 2 outer small, ovate to obovate, ca. 5 mm, 3 inner puberulent, similar but larger, 7-8 mm. Petals yellow, obovate, 1.4-1.8 cm, glabrous. Stamens 10, 6 or 7 of them fertile, unequal in length, anthers opening by apical pores, staminodes 3 or 4. Ovary hirsute, subsessile; style short, glabrous; stigma small. Legume long, slender, flat, 10-20 x ca. 0.5 cm, densely hirsute on surfaces of valves. Seeds numerous, flat, obovoid, 3-4 mm.

Depending on the variety of S. hirsuta, it may be erect or diffuse or simple or multi-stemmed (Csurhes, 2016).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub

Distribution

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S. hirsuta is native to the southern USA, Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean and tropical and subtropical South America (ILDIS, 2005).

Locations within which S.hirsuta has naturalized include north-eastern Australia and several Pacific islands (the Galapagos Islands, Fiji and New Caledonia) (ILDIS, 2005). It is also distributed throughout Malaysia, Indo-china, India, Thailand and most other countries in the Asian and Africa tropics. In Java, where is has long been known and has naturalized, it is more common in West Java than towards the east (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2016). S. hirsuta has been reported as invasive in parts of Uganda and naturalized in Tanzania (A.B.R. Witt personal observation, 2016) and in Kenya (ISSG, 2017). In South Africa it is a problem in Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal (Invasive Species South Africa, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

CambodiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2005
Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2005
ChinaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2005
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017Cultivated
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedPIER, 2017
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017Cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-AssamPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-BiharPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-DelhiPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-GoaPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-GujaratPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-HaryanaPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-Indian PunjabPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-KarnatakaPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-KeralaPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-ManipurPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-MeghalayaPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-MizoramPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-NagalandPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-OdishaPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-RajasthanPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-SikkimPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-TripuraPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-West BengalPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-JavaPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005West
LaosPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
SingaporePresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005; PIER, 2017
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005
ThailandPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005; PIER, 2017
VietnamPresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2005; PIER, 2017

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2005; Witt and Luke, 2017
CameroonPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2005
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2005
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2005
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Witt and Luke, 2017
GabonPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2005
GhanaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2005
GuineaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2005
KenyaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2017; Witt and Luke, 2017
LiberiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2005
MalawiPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2005; Witt and Luke, 2017
MaliPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2005
NigeriaPresentIntroducedEssiett and Bassey, 2013
RwandaPresentIntroduced Invasive Witt and Luke, 2017
SeychellesPresentIntroducedPIER, 2017
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Invasive Species South Africa, 2018
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2017; Witt and Luke, 2017
UgandaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2017; Witt and Luke, 2017
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2005

North America

MexicoWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
USAPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018Southern states
-ArizonaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018Southern
-CaliforniaPresentNativeCsurhes, 2016
-New MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
CubaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
DominicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
GuadeloupePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
MartiniquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
Puerto RicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
Saint LuciaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018St Thomas

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeILDIS, 2005
BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz, Tarija
BrazilPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-AcrePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-BahiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-CearaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-Distrito FederalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-GoiasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-MaranhaoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-ParaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-ParanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-RoraimaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-Sao PauloPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
EcuadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedQueensland Government, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2018Naturalized
French GuianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
GuyanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
ParaguayPresentNativeILDIS, 2005
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018Amazonas, Cuzco, Junin, Loreto, Puno, San Martin
SurinamePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Government, 2016Northeastern
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced1959 Invasive Queensland Government, 2016
FijiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2017Ovalau, Tavenuni and Viti Levu Islands
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2017New Caledonia Islands, Île Grande Terre
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2017Bismarck Archipelago, eastern New Guinea Island

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. hirsuta was first reported in Queensland, Australia in 1959 where it is likely to have been intentionally introduced as an ornamental (Queensland Government, 2016). It is now a restricted invasive plant here, listed under the Biosecurity Act 2014 (Queensland Government, 2016).

Risk of Introduction

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S. hirsuta is easily introduced into different habitat unintentionally through flood waters and soil movements and intentionally as an ornamental and medicinal plant (ILDIS, 2005, Essiett and Bassey, 2013).

Habitat

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S. hirsuta typically colonises disturbed areas such as waste land, roadsides, fence lines and riparian zones. It  may also be found in plantation crops, forest margins, open woodlands, pastures, grasslands and coastal environs in tropical and subtropical regions ((BioNet-EAFRINET, 2017).

Generally, the complex of varieties means that S. hirsuta is tolerant of a wide range of climates in the tropical and subtropical regions (Queensland Government, 2016). In southeast Asia, S. hirsuta is found in plains and hilly areas up to about 700 m altitude, mainly in waste locations and in secondary forest (PROSEA, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome count for S. hirsuta has been reported as 2n = 14, 28 (Flora of China Editoral Committee, 2017), and as 2n= 28, 56 (PROSEA, 2016). PROSEA also states that 2n= 16 + 1B is reported from Nigeria.

Reproductive Biology

S. hirsuta reproduces by seed only (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2017).

Physiology and Phenology

S. hirsuta is a perennial plant that flowers from September to December and fruits from November to January (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2017). Germination of seeds requires temperatures above 24ºC  and moisture (Queensland Government, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A virus causing mosaics and leaf malformation was been reported from S. hirsuta in Nigeria (Owolabi and Proll, 2001). The plant is very susceptible to Erythricium salmonicolor (formerly Corticium salmonicolor), and is also affected by Athelia rolfsii and a root disease (Rosellina sp.) (PROSEA, 2016).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Seeds of S. hirsuta are dispersed by water, and by animals which eat the pods and translocate the seeds to a new location (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2017). Seeds of S. hirsuta are also readily spread accidentally as a contaminant of mud on footwear, machinery and vehicles (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2017).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionGreen manure and shade trees in coffee plantations Yes
DisturbanceHumans and animals Yes
Flooding and other natural disastersDry pods and seeds dispersed Yes
FoodYoung pods in salads, beverage in Laos Yes Yes
Medicinal use Yes Yes
People sharing resources Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Machinery and equipmentSeeds moved by agricultural tools Yes
Land vehiclesOn tyres Yes
WaterCarried in floods Yes

Environmental Impact

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In Kenya, S. hirsuta is regarded as a weed of degraded land and roadsides that threatens the habitats of indigenous species. In Queensland, Australia this species is an environmental weed. S. hirsuta has been listed as a noxious weed in South Africa (Csurhes, 2016; BioNet-EAFRINET, 2017).  

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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S. hirsuta has been proposed as a green manure and forage plant, but research has so far not confirmed its potential (PROSEA, 2016). It has been planted in certain parts of Africa as a shade plant in young coffee plantations (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2017). Leaves and young pods are also eaten usually steamed or cooked in vegetable dishes or in salads. In Java the leaves are used medicinally for treating herpes. A decoction of the leaves is used against irritation of the skin in Thailand. In Laos the seeds are used as a substitute for coffee (Csurhes, 2016).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Pulse

Materials

  • Green manure

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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S. hirsuta is very similar in appearance to S. occidentalis (sicklepod). However, seed pods of S. hirsuta are flattened and narrow and curve downwards slightly and are densely covered in white hairs (pubescent). Pods of S. occidentalis are rounded or flattened and thick and are straight or slightly curved upwards and are glabrous (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2017).

S. hirsuta may also be mistaken for S. obtusifolia, S. septemtrionalis, S. planitiicola, S. tora, S. pendula var. glabrata and Senna barclayana. Descriptions of these species can be found at BioNet-EAFRINET (2017). A key distinguishing eight species of Cassia/Senna in West Africa, one of them S. hirsuta, is provided by Figuiere et al. (1998).

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

SPS Measures

Listed as a noxious weed in South Africa and a restricted invasive plant under the Biosecurity Act 2014 in Queensland, Australia (Queensland Government, 2016; BioNet-EAFRINET, 2017).

Control

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures  

When small, S. hirsuta is easily controlled by hand or hoe and by cultivation (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2017). Seedlings and small plants can be hand pulled when the soil is wet (Queensland Government, 2016).

Chemical Control

Pre-emergence application of prometryne, naptalam and foliar treatment using 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T have proven effective for controlling S. hirsuta (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2017). The stumps of cut plants should be treated with a suitable herbicide to prevent the shrub from resprouting (Queensland Government, 2016).

References

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Bentham, G., 1871. Revision of the genus Cassia. Transactions of the Linnaean Society, London, 27, 503-591.

BioNET-EAFRINET, 2017. Invasive plants key and fact sheets. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/index.htm

Csurhes S, 2016. Invasive plant risk assessment - Hairy sicklepod Senna hirsuta, Biosecurity Queensland, Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland, Australia. https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/59001/IPA-Henna-Hirsuta-Risk-Assessment.pdf

Essiett, U. A., Bassey, I. E., 2013. Comparative phytochemical screening and nutritional potentials of the flowers (petals) of Senna alata (L) Roxb, Senna hirsuta (L.) Irwin and Barneby, and Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin and Barneby (Fabaceae). Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 3(8), 97-101. http://www.japsonline.com/admin/php/uploads/1004_pdf.pdf

Figuiere, F., Marnotte, P., Bourgeois, T. le, Carrara, A., 1998. A key to determining eight species of the Cassia L. (Caesalpiniaceae) genus, West African weeds. (Clé de détermination de huit espèces du genre Cassia L. (Caesalpiniaceae), adventices d'Afrique de l'Ouest). Agriculture et Développement, (No. 19), 28-36.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

ILDIS, 2005. International Legume Database and Information Service. University of Southampton, UK. http://www.ildis.org/LegumeWeb?sciname=Senna+hirsuta

Invasive Species South Africa, 2018. Invasive Species South Africa. http://www.invasives.org.za/

Irwin, H. S., Barneby, R. C., 1982. The American Cassiinae: a synoptical revision of Leguminosae tribe Cassieae subtribe Cassiinae in the New World, Bronx, New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden.v + 918 pp.

ISSG, 2017. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Krishna Kumar, 1997. Cassia hirsuta Linn. and Muntingia calabura Linn. - record of two non-autochthonous angiosperms for Andaman Islands. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 21(3), 705-707.

Lewis GP, Schrire B, Mackinder B, Lock M, 2005. Legumes of the world, Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.577 pp.

Lock, J. M., 1988. Cassia sens. lat. (Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae) in Africa. Kew Bulletin, 43(2), 333-342. doi: 10.2307/4113742

Owolabi, A. T., Proll, E., 2001. A mosaic disease of Senna hirsuta induced by a potyvirus in Nigeria. Acta Virologica, 45(2), 73-79.

PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROSEA, 2016. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. http://proseanet.org/prosea/eprosea.php

Queensland Government, 2016. Restricted invasive plant – hairy senna, Senna hirsuta. The State of Queensland, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland, Australia. 2 pp. https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/60027/IPA-Hairy-Senna-PP112.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution,. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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05/01/2015 Original text by:

Dr Esther Arengo, National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Uganda

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