Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tomicus minor
(lesser pine shoot beetle)

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Datasheet

Tomicus minor (lesser pine shoot beetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tomicus minor
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lesser pine shoot beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The potential for invasiveness of T. minor is not known, but is probably lower than that of T. piniperda.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Early gallery system with egg niches but no larvae.
TitleEarly gallery system
CaptionEarly gallery system with egg niches but no larvae.
Copyright©Bo Långström
Early gallery system with egg niches but no larvae.
Early gallery systemEarly gallery system with egg niches but no larvae.©Bo Långström
Late gallery system with larval tunnels and exit holes of emerged adults.
TitleLate gallery system
CaptionLate gallery system with larval tunnels and exit holes of emerged adults.
Copyright©Bo Långström
Late gallery system with larval tunnels and exit holes of emerged adults.
Late gallery systemLate gallery system with larval tunnels and exit holes of emerged adults. ©Bo Långström
Blue-stained sapwood of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris.
TitleBlue-stained sapwood
CaptionBlue-stained sapwood of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris.
Copyright©Bo Långström
Blue-stained sapwood of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris.
Blue-stained sapwoodBlue-stained sapwood of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris.©Bo Långström

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tomicus minor (Hartig, 1834)

Preferred Common Name

  • lesser pine shoot beetle

Other Scientific Names

  • Blastophagus corsicus (Eggers)
  • Blastophagus minor (Hartig, 1834)
  • Dendroctonus minor Hartig 1834
  • Hylastes minor (Hartig, 1834)
  • Hylesinus minor (Hartig, 1834)
  • Hylurgus minor (Hartig, 1834)
  • Myelophilus corsicus Eggers 1911
  • Myelophilus minor (Hartig, 1834)

International Common Names

  • English: minor pith borer; pine engraver, small; pith borer, minor; small pine engraver
  • French: blastophage mineur; hylesine mineur du pin
  • Portuguese: hilésina pequene

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: lille marvborer
  • Finland: vaakanävertäjä
  • Germany: Kaefer, Kleiner Kiefernmark-; Kleiner Waldgärtner; Waldgaertner, Kleiner; Waldgaertner, Rotbrauner
  • Italy: Mielofilo minore
  • Japan: Matu-no-ko-kikuimusi
  • Netherlands: Dennescheerder, kleine
  • Norway: den lille margboreren
  • Sweden: mindre märgborre

EPPO code

  • BLASMI (Tomicus minor)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The potential for invasiveness of T. minor is not known, but is probably lower than that of T. piniperda.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scolytidae
  •                             Genus: Tomicus
  •                                 Species: Tomicus minor

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-YunnanPresent, Widespread
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
TurkeyPresentOriginal citation: Yuksel et al., 2001

Europe

AustriaPresent
CroatiaPresentOriginal citation: Diminik et al., 1995
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresent
EstoniaPresent, Widespread
FinlandPresent, Widespread
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent, Widespread
GreecePresent
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresent
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent
NorwayPresent, Widespread
PolandPresent, Widespread
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
-Western SiberiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresentOriginal citation: Fernández et al. (1999)
SwedenPresent, Widespread
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent, Widespread
United KingdomPresent, Localized

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / internal feeding
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / visible frass
Whole plant / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Schebeck et al. (2016)
Corticeus longulus Predator Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae
Placusa depressa Predator Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Rhizophagus depressus Predator Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae
Thanasimus formicarius Predator Adults; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/nymphs; arthropods/pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Leaves

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Solid wood packing material with bark Pines No
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Agafonov AF; Kuklin LV, 1979. Stem pests on Scots pine on burns. Stvolovye vrediteli sosny na garyakh. Lesnoe-Khozyaistvo, No. 10, 55-57.

Annila E; Långström B; Varama M; Hiukka R; Niemelä P, 1999. Susceptibility of defoliated Scots pine to spontaneous and induced attack by Tomicus piniperda and Tomicus minor. Silva Fennica, 33(2):93-106; 55 ref.

Annila E; Petäistö RL, 1978. Insect attack on windthrown trees after the December 1975 storm in western Finland. Metsantutkimuslaitoksen Julkaisuja, 94(2).

Arefjew JF, 1999. Symptoms of climatic change - an example from Russia. AFZ/Der Wald, Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Waldwirtschaft und Umweltvorsorge, 54(11):558-560; 4 ref.

Bakke A, 1968. Ecological studies on bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) associated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Norway with particular reference to the influence of temperature. Meddelelser fra Det Norske Skogforsöksvesen, 21:441-602.

Balachowsky A, 1949. Coleoptera, Scolytides. Faune de France 50. Paris, France: P Lechevalier.

Bogdanova DA, 1988. Complexes of xylophagous insects in pine cultures contaminated by pine fungus. Izvestiya Sibirskogo Otdeleniya Akademii Nauk SSSR. Seriya Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 3:25-28

Borkowski A, 2001. Threats to pine stands by the pine shoot beetles Tomicus piniperda (L.) and Tomicus minor (Hart.) (Col., Scolytidae) around a sawmill in southern Poland. Journal of Applied Entomology, 125(9/10):489-492; 7 ref.

Borkowski A, 2006. Spatial distribution of losses in growth of trees caused by the feeding of pine shoot beetles Tomicus piniperda and T. minor (Col., Scolytidae) in Scots pine stands growing within range of the influence of a timber yard in southern Poland. Journal of Forest Science, 52(3):130-135. http://www.cazv.cz

Bright DE; Skidmore RE, 1997. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 1 (1990-1994). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 368 pp.

Browne FG, 1968. Pests and diseases of forest plantation trees: an annotated list of the principal species occurring in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Chen Peng, 2003. Is there a competition between Tomicus piniperda (L.) and T. minor (Hart.) (Col. Scolytidae) during shoot-feeding and breeding in China? MSc. thesis. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).

Diminic D; Glavas M; Hrasovec B, 1995. Fungal diseases and insect pests in Austrian pine plantations of Crikvenica-Vinodol area in 1993. S^hacek~umarski List, 119(7/8):245-252; 39 ref.

Drugescu C, 1980. Coenological studies on scolytids (Coleoptera) on black pine (Pinus nigra var. banatica) in the Cerna Valley. Studii si Cercetari de Biologie, Biologie Animala, 32(2):155-162

Escherich K, 1923. Die Forstinsekten Mitteleuropas II. Berlin, Germany: Paul Parey, 1-663.

Faccoli M, 2001. Tomicus spp. damage to pines. Sherwood - Foreste ed Alberi Oggi, 7(10):27-28; 6 ref.

Fernández Fernández MM; Pajares Alonso JA; Salgado Costas JM, 1999. Oviposition and development of the immature stages of Tomicus minor (Coleoptera, Scolytidae). Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 1(2):97-102.

Fernández Fernández MM; Pajares Alonso JA; Salgado Costas JM, 1999. Shoot feeding and overwintering in the lesser pine shoot beetle Tomicus minor (Col., Scolytidae) in north-west Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology, 123(6):321-327.

Fernandez-Fernandez MM; Salgado-Costas JM; Pajares-Alonso JA, 1999. The seasonal development of the gonads and fat content of Tomicus minor (Coleoptera Scolytidae). Belgian Journal of Entomology, 1-2:311-324.

Ferreira MC, 1985. Sobre a presença de Tomicus minor (Hartig) em Portugal continental (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) [About the presence of Tomicus minor (Hartig) in Portugal (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).]. II Congresso Ibérico de Entomologia. II Congresso Iberico de Entomologia. Suplemento no. 1 ao Boletim da Sociedade portuguesa de Entomologia, 281-283.

Francke-Grosmann H, 1952. Über die Ambrosiazucht der beiden Kieferborkenkäfer Myelophilus minor Htg. und Ips acuminatus Gyll. Medd. Statens Skogsforskn. Inst. 41:1-52.

Gaidiene E, 1976. The insect fauna of Scots pine cones in the Lithuanian SSR. Acta Entomologica Lituanica, 3:27-36

Georgevits RP, 1974. Phloem- and xylem-feeding insects of Aleppo pine in Attica (observations 1967-1971). Floiofaga-xylofaga entoma tes halepiou peuhes en Attike (paratereseis 1967-1971). Forest Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture. Athens Greece, 47 pp.

Gidaszewski A, 1974. Analaysis of the occurrence and vigour of Tomicus piniperda (L.) and T. minor (Hrtg.) in forest stands in the Wielkopolski National Park during the years 1969-1970. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 44(4):789-815

Greese NS, 1926. Zur frage über den Regenerationsfrass bei dem kleinem Waldgärtner (Blastophagus minor Hartig). Trudy po lisiviy dosivdniy spravi na ukraini, 3-25.

Gurando EV; Sonin MD, 1990. Ecofaunistic characterization of nematodes of the pine-shoot beetle. Helminths of insects. Translation of Gel'minty Nasekomykh. 2300 PA Leiden, Netherlands: EJ Brill, 53-58.

Gurando OV; Tsarichkova DB, 1974. Changes in the sex apparatus of females of the small pine bark-beetle caused by parasitic nematodes. Zakhist Roslin, No. 20:35-40, 3

Haritonova NS, 1970. Predatoren und Parasiten des kleinen Waldgäthers. Lesnoje Hostjaistwo, 23:59-60.

Hedqvist KJ, 1963. Die Feinde der Borkenkafer in Schweden I Erzwespe (Chalcidoidea)-Studia Forestalia Suecica, 11:1-176.

Hedqvist KJ, 1998. Bark beetle enemies in Sweden II. Braconidae (Hymenoptera) Scandinavian Entomology Ltd, Sandby, 52:3-85.

Hedqvist K-J, 2003. Katalog över svenska Chalcidoidea (Catalogue of Swedish Chalcidoidea). Ent. Tidskr. 124:73-133.

Hellqvist C, 1984. Production of Tomicus piniperda in pine stumps. Sveriges Skogsvardsforbunds Tidskrift, 82(1):37-47

Iljinsky A, 1928. Gesetzmässigkeiten in der Vermehrung des kleinen Waldgärtners (Blastophagus minor, hartig) und teoretische Begründungen der Massnahmen zu seiner Bekämfpung im Walde. Mitteilungen aus dem forstlichen Versuchswesen in der Ukraina, 9:54-91.

Jurc M, 2001. Harmful entomofauna (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera) on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) in Slovenia. In: Proceedings of the 5th Slovenian Conference on Plant Protection, Catez ob Savi, Slovenia, 276-283.

Kangas E; Perttunen V; Oksanen H, 1971. Physical and chemical stimuli affecting the behavior of Blastophagus piniperda L. and B. minor Hart. (Col., Scolytidae). Acta Entomol. Fenn., 28:120-126.

Kurashvili BE; Kakuliya GA; Devdariani TsG, 1981. Parasitic nematodes of bark-beetles in Georgia. Paraziticheskie nematody koroedov Gruzii. "Metsniereba" Tbilisi USSR, 169 pp.

Lanne BS; Schlyter F; Byers JA; Lofqvist J; Leufven A; Bergstrom G; Pers JNC van der; Unelius R; Bäckstrom P; Norin T, 1987. Differences in attraction to semiochemicals present in sympatric pine shoot beetles, Tomicus minor and T. piniperda. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 13(5):1045-1067

Lekander B, 1968. Scandinavian bark beetle larvae. Royal College of Forestry, Sweden, Research Notes, 4:1-186.

Lekander B, 1968. The number of larval instars in some bark beetle species. Entomol. Tidskr., 89(1-2):25-34.

Lekander B, 1974. Insektshärjningar vid förnyelseavverkning (Insect Damage at Clear Cuttings). Sveriges Skogsv. Förb. Tidskr., 72(1):34-59.

Lekander B; Bejer-Petersen B; Kangas E; Bakke A, 1977. The distribution of bark beetles in the Nordic countries. Acta Entomologica Fennica, No. 32:37 pp.

Lieutier F; Vouland G; Pettinetti M, 1997. Testing the preference of Scolytidae and other xylophagous insects for various Mediterranean pine species under natural conditions. Revue Forestie^grave~re Franc^cedilla~aise, 49(3):215-224; 19 ref.

Löyttyniemi K; Pekkala O; Uusvaara O, 1978. Deterioration of pine and spruce pulpwood stored during the growing season and its effects on sulphite pulping. Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, 92.6.

Långström B, 1980. Distribution of pine shoot beetle attacks within the crown of Scots pine. Studia Forestalia Suecica, No. 154:25 pp.

Långström B, 1983. Life cycles and shoot-feeding of the pine shoot beetles. Studia Forestalia Suecica, No. 163:29 pp.

Långström B, 1983. Within-tree development of Tomicus minor (Hart.) (Col., Scolytidae) in wind-thrown Scots pine. Acta Entomologica Fennica, 42:42-46

Långström B, 1984. Windthrown Scots pines as brood material for Tomicus piniperda and T. minor. Silva Fennica, 18(2):187-198

Långström B; Hellqvist C, 1985. Pinus contorta as a potential host for Tomicus piniperda L. and T. minor (Hart.) (Col., Scolytidae) in Sweden. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 99(2):174-181

Långström B; Hellqvist C, 1993. Induced and spontaneous attacks by pine shoot beetles on young Scots pine trees: tree mortality and beetle performance. Journal of Applied Entomology, 115(1):25-36

Långström B; Hellqvist C; Ehnström B, 1984. Fördelning och produktion av större märgborren i tallvältor. (Distribution and production of Tomicus piniperda in pine wood stacks). Sveriges Skogsvårds-förbunds Tidskrift, 82(1):23-35.

Långström B; Lisha L; Hongpin L; Peng C; Haoran L; Hellqvist C; Lieutier F, 2002. Shoot feeding ecology of Tomicus piniperda and T. minor (Col., Scolytidae) in southern Chin. J. Appl. Ent., 126:333-342.

Markalas S, 1997. Frequency and distribution of insect species on trunks in burnt pine forests of Greece. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 70(1/2):57-61; 15 ref.

Monsyavichyus VS; Yakaitis BYu, 1984. Thirteen species of staphylinid beetles new to the Lithuanian SSR, found in 19701983. Novye i redkie dlya Litovskoi SSR vidy nasekomykh. Soobshcheniya i opisaniya 1984 goda [edited by Ionaitis, V.] Vilnius, USSR; Institut Zoologii i Parazitologii Akademii Nauk Litovskoi SSR, 31-36

Mozolevskaya EG, 1983. Analysis of pith-borer populations. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Entomologicheskaya Obshchestva, 65:19-40

Õunap H, 2001. Insect predators and parasitoids of bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) in Estonia. Dissertationes Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Agriculturae Estoniae, 8:1-44, ISBN 9985-882-96-2.

Ozols G; Bicevskis M; Galvans U, 1973. Terpenes and their complexes as primary attractants for bark-beetles of conifer trees. In: Spalvins Z, ed. Spalvin'sh, Z. P. : Forest protection.: Zashchita lesa. Riga, Izdatel'stvo "Zinatne". Latvian SSR, 24-28

Pan, Y., Chen, P., Lu, J., Zhou, X. D., Ye, H., 2017. First report of blue-stain in Pinus yunnanensis caused by Ophiostoma tingens associated with Tomicus minor in China. Journal of Plant Pathology, 99(3), 805. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3931/2575

Pettersen H, 1976. Parasites (Hym., Chalcidoidea) associated with bark beetles in Norway. Norwegian Journal of Entomology, 23(1):75-77

Pfeffer A, 1994. Zentral- und Westpaläarktische Borken- und Kernkäfer. Entomologica Basiliensia, 17:1-310, ISBN-3-9520840-6-9.

Pishchik AA, 1980. An insect predator of Blastophagus [Tomicus] piniperda and B. [T.] minor. Lesnoe-Khozyaistvo, No. 11, 55-57.

Postner M, 1974. Scolytidae (= Ipidae), Borkenkäfer. In: Schwenke W, ed. Die Forstschadlinge Europas. Vol. 2. Hamburg, Berlin, Germany: Parey, 334-482.

Rigling A; Cherubini P, 1999. What is the cause of the high mortality rates of the Scots pines in the 'Telwald' near Visp (Switzerland)? A summary of previous studies and a dendroecological study. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Forstwesen, 150(4):113-131; 72 ref.

Ritchie W, 1917. The structuce, bionomics and forest importance of Myelophilus minor Hart. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb., 53:213-234.

Salonen K, 1973. On the life cycle, especially on the reproduction biology of Blastophagus piniperda L. (Col., Scolytidae). Acta For. Fenn., 127.

Salonen K; Pulliainen E; Koponen M, 1968. Sex ratios in Blastophagus piniperda L. (Col., Scolytidae) in Finland. Ann. Entomol. Fenn., 34:31-37.

Sarikaya O; Yildirim S, 2011. Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) species of the coniferous forests in Isparta-Aksu province. (Isparta-Aksu yöresi igne yaprakli ormanlariniin scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) türleri.) Bartin Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 13(20):38-50. http://bof.bartin.edu.tr/journal/1302-0943/2011/Cilt13/Sayi20/2011-05.pdf

Schebeck M; Wrzosek M; Clausi M; Tarasco E; Tkaczuk C; Wegensteiner R, 2016. First record of Beauveria bassiana on Tomicus minor in Sicily. Bulletin of Insectology, 69(2):311-317. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Schönherr J, 1970. Stridulation einheimischer Borkenkäfr. Zeitschr angew Ent., 65:309-312.

Solheim H; Krokene P; Långström B, 2001. Effects of growth and virulence of associated blue-stain fungi on host colonization behaviour of the pine shoot beetles Tomicus minor and T. piniperda. Plant Pathology, 50(1):111-116; 40 ref.

Song JiYing; Luo YouQing; Shi Juan; Yan XiaoSu; Chen WeiPing; Jiang Ping, 2005. Niche characteristics of boring insects within Pinus massoniana infected by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 27(6):108-111.

Spessivtseff P, 1922. Bestämingstabell över svenska barkborrar (Bestimmungstabelle der schwedischen Borkenkäfer). Medd Stat Skogsförsöksanstalt, 19(6):453-492.

Steyrer G; Cech TL; Krehan H; Perny B; Stagl WG; Tomiczek C, 2002. Forest damage monitoring in Austria - results 2000. Forstschutz Aktuell., No. 27:1-29.

Voolma K; Luik A, 2001. Outbreaks of Bupalus piniaria (L.) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) and Pissodes piniphilus (Herbst) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) in Estonia. Journal of Forest Science, 47(Special Issue 2):171-173; 17 ref.

Ye Hui; Ding Xuedong, 1999. Impacts of Tomicus minor on distribution and reproduction of Tomicus piniperda (Col., Scolytidae) on trunk of the living Pinus yunnanensis tree. J. Appl. Ent., 123:329-333.

Zhao Tao, 2003. Performance of the pine shoot beetles, Tomicus piniperda L. and T. minor (Hart.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) on their principal and secondary hosts, Pinus yunnanensis and Pinus armandii in Yunnan, China. MSc thesis. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).

Distribution References

Arefjew J F, 1999. Symptoms of climatic change - an example from Russia. (Symptome der Klimaänderung - ein Beispiel aus Russland.). AFZ/Der Wald, Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift für Waldwirtschaft und Umweltvorsorge. 54 (11), 558-560.

Bakke A, 1968. Ecological studies on bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) associated with Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Norway with particular reference to the influence of temperature. Meddelelser fra det Norske Skogsforsoksvesen. 21 (6), 441-602.

Bogdanova D A, 1988. Complexes of xylophagous insects in pine cultures contaminated by pine fungus. Izvestiya Sibirskogo Otdeleniya Akademii Nauk SSSR. Seriya Biologicheskikh Nauk. 25-28.

Borkowski A, 2001. Threats to pine stands by the pine shoot beetles Tomicus piniperda (L.) and Tomicus minor (Hart.) (Col., Scolytidae) around a sawmill in southern Poland. Journal of Applied Entomology. 125 (9/10), 489-492. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0418.2001.00580.x

Browne FG, 1968. Pests and diseases of forest plantation trees: an annotated list of the principal species occurring in the British Commonwealth., Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Čermák V, Vieira P, Gaar V, Čudejková M, Foit J, Zouhar M, Douda O, Mota M, 2013. On the genus Bursaphelenchus Fuchs, 1937 (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchinae) associated with wood and insects from declining forest trees in the Czech Republic. Forest Pathology. 43 (4), 306-316. DOI:10.1111/efp.12031

Drugescu C, 1980. Coenological studies on scolytids (Coleoptera) on black pine (Pinus nigra var. banatica) in the Cerna Valley. (Studii cenologice asupra scolitidelor (Coleoptera) de pe pinul negru (Pinus nigra var. banatica) din Valea Cernei.). Studii si Cercetari de Biologie, Biologie Animala. 32 (2), 155-162.

Faccoli M, 2001. Tomicus spp. damage to pines. (Il blastofago dei pini.). Sherwood - Foreste ed Alberi Oggi. 7 (10), 27-28.

Fernández Fernández M M, Pajares Alonso J A, Salgado Costas J M, 1999. Shoot feeding and overwintering in the lesser pine shoot beetle Tomicus minor (Col., Scolytidae) in north-west Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology. 123 (6), 321-327. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0418.1999.00082.x

Ferreira MC, 1985. About the presence of Tomicus minor (Hartig) in Portugal (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). (Sobre a presença de Tomicus minor (Hartig) em Portugal continental (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)). In: II Congresso Ibérico de Entomologia. II Congresso Iberico de Entomologia. Suplemento no. 1 ao Boletim da Sociedade portuguesa de Entomologia, 281-283.

Gaidiene E, 1976. The insect fauna of Scots pine cones in the Lithuanian SSR. Acta Entomologica Lituanica. 27-36.

Greese N S, 1926. [English title not available]. (Zur frage über den Regenerationsfrass bei dem kleinem Waldgärtner (Blastophagus minor Hartig).). In: Trudy po lisiviy dosivdniy spravi na ukraini, 3-25.

Jurc M, 2001. Harmful entomofauna (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera) on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) in Slovenia. [Proceedings of the 5th Slovenian Conference on Plant Protection], Catez ob Savi, Slovenia: 276-283.

Kurashvili B E, Kakuliya G A, Devdariani Ts G, 1981. Paraziticheskie nematody koroedov Gruzii. Tbilisi, USSR: "Metsniereba". 169 pp.

Lekander B, Bejer-Petersen B, Kangas E, Bakke A, 1977. The distribution of bark beetles in the Nordic countries. In: Acta Entomologica Fennica, 37 pp.

Markalas S, 1997. Frequency and distribution of insect species on trunks in burnt pine forests of Greece. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft. 70 (1/2), 57-61.

Mozolevskaya E G, 1983. Analysis of pith-borer populations. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Ėntomologicheskaya Obshchestva. 19-40.

Ozols G, Bicevskis M, Galvans U, 1973. Terpenes and their complexes as primary attractants for bark-beetles of conifer trees. In: Spalvin'sh, Z. P. : Forest protection.: Zashchita lesa. [ed. by Spalvins Z]. Riga, Izdatel'stvo "Zinatne". Latvian SSR: 24-28.

Pan Y, Chen P, Lu J, Zhou X D, Ye H, 2017. First report of blue-stain in Pinus yunnanensis caused by Ophiostoma tingens associated with Tomicus minor in China. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (3), 805. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3931/2575

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