Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ips confusus
(pinyon ips)

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Datasheet

Ips confusus (pinyon ips)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ips confusus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pinyon ips
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lateral view of adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionLateral view of adult.
CopyrightAnthony I. Cognato
Lateral view of adult.
AdultLateral view of adult. Anthony I. Cognato
Oblique view of elytral declivity.
TitleAdult
CaptionOblique view of elytral declivity.
CopyrightAnthony I. Cognato
Oblique view of elytral declivity.
AdultOblique view of elytral declivity.Anthony I. Cognato
Larvae and pupa.
TitleLarvae and pupa
CaptionLarvae and pupa.
CopyrightAnthony I. Cognato
Larvae and pupa.
Larvae and pupaLarvae and pupa.Anthony I. Cognato
Adult females constructing egg galleries.
TitleGallery construction
CaptionAdult females constructing egg galleries.
CopyrightAnthony I. Cognato
Adult females constructing egg galleries.
Gallery constructionAdult females constructing egg galleries.Anthony I. Cognato
Etched Pinus edulis sapwood: a likely I. confusus hibernation roost.
TitleHibernation roost
CaptionEtched Pinus edulis sapwood: a likely I. confusus hibernation roost.
CopyrightAnthony I. Cognato
Etched Pinus edulis sapwood: a likely I. confusus hibernation roost.
Hibernation roostEtched Pinus edulis sapwood: a likely I. confusus hibernation roost.Anthony I. Cognato
Pitch tubes caused by I. confusus boring into Pinus edulis.
TitlePitch tubes
CaptionPitch tubes caused by I. confusus boring into Pinus edulis.
CopyrightAnthony I. Cognato
Pitch tubes caused by I. confusus boring into Pinus edulis.
Pitch tubesPitch tubes caused by I. confusus boring into Pinus edulis.Anthony I. Cognato
Outbreak of I. confusus in Pinus edulis, Huerfano County, Colorado, USA.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionOutbreak of I. confusus in Pinus edulis, Huerfano County, Colorado, USA.
CopyrightAnthony I. Cognato
Outbreak of I. confusus in Pinus edulis, Huerfano County, Colorado, USA.
Damage symptomsOutbreak of I. confusus in Pinus edulis, Huerfano County, Colorado, USA.Anthony I. Cognato
Pinus edulis infested with I. confusus.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionPinus edulis infested with I. confusus.
CopyrightAnthony I. Cognato
Pinus edulis infested with I. confusus.
Damage symptomsPinus edulis infested with I. confusus.Anthony I. Cognato

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ips confusus (LeConte, 1876)

Preferred Common Name

  • pinyon ips

Other Scientific Names

  • Tomicus confusus LeConte, 1876

International Common Names

  • English: californian five-spined engraver; engraver, Californian five-spined; ips, California five-spined

Local Common Names

  • USA: pinyon pine beetle

EPPO code

  • IPSXCO (Ips confusus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scolytidae
  •                             Genus: Ips
  •                                 Species: Ips confusus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

MexicoRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Wood, 1982; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-ArizonaPresentNative Not invasive Wood, 1982; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentNative Not invasive Wood, 1982; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentNative Not invasive Wood, 1982; EPPO, 2014
-NevadaPresentNative Not invasive Wood, 1982; EPPO, 2014
-New MexicoPresentNative Not invasive Wood, 1982; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentEPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentNative Not invasive Wood, 1982; EPPO, 2014
-WyomingPresentNative Not invasive Wood, 1982; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / visible frass
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Digamasellus quadrisetus Parasite
Enoclerus lecontei Predator Adults/Larvae
Iponemus confusus confusus Predator Eggs
Rhopalicus pulchripennis Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Temnoscheila chlorodia Predator Adults/Larvae
Tomicobia tibialis Parasite Adults

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Cane JH; Stock MW; Wood DL; Gast SJ, 1990. Phylogenetic relationships of Ips bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): electrophoretic and morphometric analyses of the grandicollis group. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 18(5):359-368

Chansler JF, 1964. Overwintering habits of Ips lecontei Sw. and Ips confusus (Lec.) in Arizona and New Mexico. USDA Forest Service Research, Note RM-27.

Cognato AI, 2000. Phylogenetic analysis reveals new genus of Ipini bark beetle (Scolytidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 93(3):362-366; 21 ref.

Cognato AI; Harlin AD; Fisher ML, 2003. Genetic structure among pinyon pine beetle populations (Scolytinae: Ips confusus). Environmental Entomology, 5: in press.

Cognato AI; Rogers SO; Teale SA, 1995. Species diagnosis and phylogeny of the Ips grandicollis group (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) using random amplified polymorphic DNA. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 88(4):397-405

Cognato AI; Sperling FAH, 2000. Phylogeny of Ips DeGeer species (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I DNA sequence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 14(3):445-460; 64 ref.

Cognato AI; Vogler AP, 2001. Exploring data interaction and nucleotide alignment in a multiple gene analysis of Ips (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Systematic Biology, 50(6):758-780.

Dahlsten DL, 1982. Relationships between bark beetles and their natural enemies. In: Mitton JB, Sturgeon KB, ed. Bark beetles in North American conifers. A system for the study of evolutionary biology. (The Corrie Herring Hooks Series, No.6). Austin, USA: University of Texas Press, 140-182

EPPO, 1992. Quarantine pests for Europe. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 210-212.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Furniss ML; Carolin VM, 1977. Western Forest Insects. USDA Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication No. 1339.

Hopping GR, 1965. North American species in Group IX of Ips De Geer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Canadian Entomologist, 97:422-434.

LANIER GN, 1970. Biosystematics of North American Ips (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Hopping's group IX. Canadian Entomologist, 102(9):1139-1163 pp.

Lanier GN; Wood DL, 1975. Specificity of response to pheromones in the genus Ips (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 1(1):9-23

Lekander B, 1968. Scandinavian bark beetle larvae. Royal College of Forestry, Sweden, Research Notes, 4:1-186.

Lindgren BS, 1983. A multiple funnel trap for scolytid beetles (Coleoptera). Canadian Entomologist, 115(3):299-302

Lindquist EE, 1969. Review of holarctic tarsonemid mites (Acarina: Prostigmata) parasitizing eggs of Ipini bark beetles. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 60:1-111.

Page M; Nelson LJ; Blomquist GJ; Seybold SJ, 1997. Cuticular hydrocarbons as chemotaxonomic characters of pine engraver beetles (Ips spp.) in the grandicollis subgeneric group. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 23(4):1053-1099; 7 pp. of ref.

Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.

Stephen FM; Berisford CW; Dahlsten DL; Fenn P; Moser JC, 1993. Invertebrate and microbial associates. In: Schowalter TD, Flip GM, eds. Beetle-Pathogen Interactions in Conifer Forests. New York, USA: Academic Press, 129-153.

Tovar DC; Montiel JTM; Bolanos RC; Yates HO III; Lara JEF, 1995. Forest Insects of Mexico. Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Estado de Mexico, Mexico.

Wood SL, 1982. The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, No. 6:1359 pp.

Young JC; Silverstein RM; Birch MC, 1973. Aggregation pheromone of the beetle Ips confusus: isolation and identification. Journal of Insect Physiology, 19(11):2273-2277

Distribution Maps

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