Ips cembrae (large larch bark beetle)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Ips cembrae (Heer, 1836)
Preferred Common Name
- large larch bark beetle
Other Scientific Names
- Bostrichus cembrae Heer, 1836
- Ips cembrae var. engadinensis Fuchs, 1913
- Ips fallax Eggers, 1915
- Ips shinanoensis Yono, 1924
- Tomicus cembrae (Heer, 1836)
International Common Names
- English: scolytid, larger pine
- French: bostryche du meleze, grand; scolyte du cembrot
Local Common Names
- Germany: Borkenkaefer, Achtzaehniger Laerchen-; Borkenkaefer, Grosser Laerchen-; Grosser Lärchenborkenkäfer
- Italy: Bostrico del pino cembro
- Japan: matu-no-o-kikuimusi
- Norway: Lerkebarkbille
- IPSXCE (Ips cembrae)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Scolytidae
- Genus: Ips
- Species: Ips cembrae
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page In Russia and the Far East, a similar species Ips subelongatus occurs on Larix sibirica and other hosts. Many authors regard this as subsp. subelongatus of I. cembrae. With respect to the whole Eurasian region covered by EPPO, these two taxa are regarded as presenting distinct phytosanitary risks (whether considered as two distinct species, or as subspecies of a single species). With respect to other continents, they can be considered together. The molecular relationships of seven European Ips species, including I. cembrae, have been analysed by Stauffer et al. (1997).
DescriptionTop of page Adult beetles are blackish, 4-6 mm long. There are four spines on each side of the elytral declivity. The third is the largest and is strongly capitate (Balachowsky, 1949; Grüne, 1979). The larva has been described by Kalina (1969).
DistributionTop of page I. cembrae is distributed throughout the Larix forests of the Alps and Carpathians in central Europe. It has also spread to Larix plantations in the Netherlands (Luitjes, 1974), Scotland, UK, and other countries.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Liaoning||Present||Native||Zhang et al., 2000|
|Austria||Present||Native||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Croatia||Restricted distribution||Native||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Czech Republic||Widespread||Native||****||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Czechoslovakia (former)||Absent, invalid record||CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Denmark||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Finland||Absent, intercepted only||CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|France||Restricted distribution||Native||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|-France (mainland)||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Germany||Widespread||Native||****||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Greece||Absent, confirmed by survey||EPPO, 2014|
|Hungary||Restricted distribution||Native||****||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Ireland||Absent, confirmed by survey||EPPO, 2014|
|Italy||Restricted distribution||Native||****||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|-Italy (mainland)||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|Netherlands||Restricted distribution||Native||Not invasive||NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Poland||Restricted distribution||Native||****||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Portugal||Absent, confirmed by survey||EPPO, 2014|
|Romania||Present||Native||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Russian Federation||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|-Central Russia||Restricted distribution||Native||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; Mandel'shtam and Popovichev, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|-Northern Russia||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014|
|Serbia||Absent, unreliable record||Native||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; EPPO, 2014|
|Slovakia||Restricted distribution||Native||****||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Slovenia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Spain||Absent, confirmed by survey||EPPO, 2014|
|Sweden||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Switzerland||Restricted distribution||Native||****||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|UK||Restricted distribution||Native||195*||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|-England and Wales||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|-Northern Ireland||Absent, confirmed by survey||EPPO, 2014|
|-Scotland||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Ukraine||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
|Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)||Present||Native||Not invasive||EPPO/CABI and, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2007|
|New Zealand||Absent, intercepted only||CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page I. cembrae is regulated by the European Union (EU, 2000). A protected zone covering Greece, Ireland and parts of UK (Northern Ireland, Isle of Man) is designated. In the Irish/Northern Irish zone, no Ips species occur naturally, and many plantations of exotic conifers have been established, including Larix decidua and other Larix species. It is intended to maintain this zone free from other European and non-European bark beetles. Elsewhere in Europe, I. cembrae is an indigenous species presenting no particular risk.
I. cembrae may present a risk to other continents where Larix plantations are exploited, particularly North America and eastern Asia.
Appropriate phytosanitary measures would be to require treatment (debarking or kiln-drying) or "pest-free area" for wood, and treatment or "pest-free area" for bark. For plants for planting, which present little risk, only very large plants (above 3 m) might be considered ("pest-free place of production"). It may be appropriate to extend the requirement to other, less important hosts (Picea, Pinus).
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page Larix decidua is the main host. Exotic Larix species planted in Europe may also be affected (L. leptolepis). The beetle may also occasionally breed in species of the genera Pinus and Picea.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page Breeding occurs under the thick bark of Larix. Most commonly, three female galleries diverge longitudinally from the nuptial chamber, two in one direction and one in the opposite direction. Galleries with one, two or four female galleries are also found. Female galleries are rarely longer than 25 cm, usually 13-17 cm.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Stems / internal feeding|
Biology and EcologyTop of page Adults emerge from hibernation sites in May. Main flight takes place on warm days in late May/early June. Males initiate boring and release a pheromone consisting of ipsdienol, ipsenol and 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol (Stoakely et al., 1978; Rebenstorff and Francke, 1982). There may be one or two annual generations depending on the length of the summer season. The second generation may fly in August/September. There may also be a sister brood of the first generation, flying in June.
The new generation adults have a maturation feed in late summer, either in branches of younger trees or near to the brood gallery, if there is still fresh bark present. Adults aggregate in response to terpenoid pheromones (Kohnle et al., 1988). Adults hibernate in tunnels resulting from maturation feeding under thicker bark of trunks lying on the ground or, more commonly, in the forest litter (Schneider, 1977).
Natural enemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page Laboratory experiments have shown that adult Ips species can fly continuously for several hours. In the field, however, flight has only been observed to take place over limited distances and then usually downwind. Beetles have been found in the stomach of trout in lakes 35 km from the nearest spruce forest, probably carried by the wind (Nilssen, 1978). Dispersal over longer distances depends on transportation under the bark of logs. I. cembrae has been intercepted on wood from central Europe imported into Sweden. There is little risk of movement with plants for planting.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
ImpactTop of page This species is a secondary pest in native European Larix plantations, breeding in logs, wind-blown stems and dying trees. In Germany, timber from the April felling of larch is rapidly attacked and severely invaded (Elsner, 1997). Drought conditions on drier sites may promote attack on green trees. The introduced population in the UK is able to attack live trees suffering from drought stress (Bevan, 1987). The introduced population in the Netherlands developed on storm-damaged trees (Luitjes, 1974). As in the case of other conifer bark beetles, I. cembrae acts as a vector for a bluestain fungus (Ceratocystis laricicola) which also damages the tree (Redfern et al., 1987).
Detection and InspectionTop of page Pheromone trapping can be used to detect Ips cembrae in the field (Niemeyer, 1989; Pavlin, 1997).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page Control measures are not used against this species, except to protect logs (Stoakely, 1975). According to Watzek and Niemeyer (1996), larch harvested by modern harvesters is readily colonized by I. cembrae, so control is needed. When thinnings are left unbarked in the stand, infestations may become severe, so spatial or temporal gaps should be left between harvesting and thinning.
ReferencesTop of page
Balachowsky A, 1949. Coleoptera, Scolytides. Faune de France 50. Paris, France: P Lechevalier.
Elsner G, 1997. Relationships between cutting time in winter and breeding success of Ips cembrae (Col., Scolytidae) in larch timber. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fu^umlaut~r Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 11(1/6):653-657; 6 ref.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
EU, 2000. Council Directive 2000/29/EC of 8 July 2000 on protective measures against the introduction into the Member States of organisms harmful to plant or plant products. Official Journal of the European Communities, No L169, 1-112.
Grüne S, 1979. Handbuch zur bestimmung der Europäischen Borkenkäfer (Brief illustrated key to European bark beetles). Hannover, Germany: Verlag M & H Schapfer.
Kalina V, 1969. Larvae of European bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae). Studia Entomologica Forestalia, 1:13-22, 2:41-61.
Kohnle U; Vite JP; Erbacher C; Bartels J; Francke W, 1988. Aggregation response of European engraver beetles of the genus Ips mediated by terpenoid pheromones. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 49(1-2):43-53
Nilssen AC, 1978. Development of a bark fauna in plantation of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in North Norway. Astarte, 11:151-169.
Schneider HJ, 1977. Experience in the control of the large larch bark beetle in stands of low vitality. Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift, 32:1115-1116.
Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.
Stoakely JT, 1975. Control of larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae. Forestry Commission, UK, Research Information Note, No. 5.
Zhang QH; Birgersson G; Schlyter F; Chen GF, 2000. Pheromone components in the larch bark beetle Ips cembrae from China: quantitative variation among attack phases and individuals. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 26:841-858.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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