Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ips calligraphus
(six-spined ips)

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Datasheet

Ips calligraphus (six-spined ips)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ips calligraphus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • six-spined ips
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ips calligraphus is mainly a secondary pest of conifer forests and feeds mostly on Pinus species (Wood and Bright, 1991). It occurs throughout North and Central America and the Caribbean Islands (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ips calligraphus (six-spined ips); adult, lateral view.
TitleAdult
CaptionIps calligraphus (six-spined ips); adult, lateral view.
Copyright©Anthony I. Cognato
Ips calligraphus (six-spined ips); adult, lateral view.
AdultIps calligraphus (six-spined ips); adult, lateral view.©Anthony I. Cognato
Ips calligraphus (six-spined ips); adult, frons.
TitleFrons
CaptionIps calligraphus (six-spined ips); adult, frons.
Copyright©Anthony I. Cognato
Ips calligraphus (six-spined ips); adult, frons.
FronsIps calligraphus (six-spined ips); adult, frons.©Anthony I. Cognato
Ips calligraphus (six-spined ips); adult, oblique view of the elytral declivity.
TitleElytral declivity
CaptionIps calligraphus (six-spined ips); adult, oblique view of the elytral declivity.
Copyright©Anthony I. Cognato
Ips calligraphus (six-spined ips); adult, oblique view of the elytral declivity.
Elytral declivityIps calligraphus (six-spined ips); adult, oblique view of the elytral declivity.©Anthony I. Cognato

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ips calligraphus (Germar, 1824)

Preferred Common Name

  • six-spined ips

Other Scientific Names

  • Ips exesus (Say, 1826)
  • Ips interstitialis (Eichhoff, 1869)
  • Ips ponderosae Swaine, 1925
  • Ips praemorsus (Eichhoff, 1868)

International Common Names

  • English: coarse writing engraver; coarsewriting engraver; engraver, western six-spined; six-spined engraver beetle
  • French: calligraphe

Summary of Invasiveness

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Ips calligraphus is mainly a secondary pest of conifer forests and feeds mostly on Pinus species (Wood and Bright, 1991). It occurs throughout North and Central America and the Caribbean Islands (Lanier et al., 1991). Damage to wood products mostly results from the staining of wood by fungi, which are introduced by the adults. Outbreaks of this species can occur in stands of unhealthy trees. For example, in Central America and some Caribbean Islands, I. calligraphus has destroyed drought-stricken forests of several different pine species (Garraway, 1986; Haack et al., 1990). Loss of large areas of forests and high-value trees in suburbia are often the result of I. calligraphus infestations (Hayes et al., 1996). Unmanaged, overstocked, and/or environmentally stressed pine stands are mostly at risk for infestation. Thus, prevention of outbreaks is emphasized and silvicultural practices are the most effective for control of endemic Ips bark beetle populations (Furniss and Carolin, 1977).

All life stages may be transported between forests and urban areas through the movement of unprocessed timber (Haack, 2001). This species has been introduced to areas outside its native range. It is a pest of native pines in the Philippines (Lanier et al., 1991; Lapis and Valentin, 1979). However, introductions or interceptions have not been recorded since the early 1960s. Given its wide host breadth, the potential for this species to become an established exotic pest is high. However, this potential is thwarted with increased shipping regulations (FAO, 2002).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scolytidae
  •                             Genus: Ips
  •                                 Species: Ips calligraphus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 20 Sep 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

South AfricaAbsent, Intercepted only

Asia

China
-GuangdongPresent
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasive

North America

CanadaPresent, Localized
-Nova ScotiaAbsent, Formerly present
-OntarioPresentNative
-QuebecPresentNative
-SaskatchewanPresent
CubaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresent, WidespreadNative
HondurasPresent, WidespreadNative
JamaicaPresentNative
MexicoPresent, WidespreadNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresentNative
-ArizonaPresent
-ArkansasPresent, WidespreadNative
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Wood & Stark, 1992
-ColoradoPresentNative
-ConnecticutPresent, WidespreadNative
-DelawarePresent, WidespreadNative
-FloridaPresentNative
-GeorgiaPresentNative
-IllinoisPresentNative
-KentuckyPresent, WidespreadNative
-LouisianaPresentNative
-MainePresent, WidespreadNative
-MarylandPresentNative
-MassachusettsPresent, WidespreadNative
-MichiganPresent, WidespreadNative
-MinnesotaPresent, WidespreadNative
-MississippiPresent, WidespreadNative
-MissouriPresent, WidespreadNative
-MontanaPresentNative
-NebraskaPresentNative
-New HampshirePresent, WidespreadNative
-New JerseyPresentNative
-New MexicoPresentNative
-New YorkPresentNative
-North CarolinaPresentNative
-OhioPresent, WidespreadNative
-OklahomaPresentNative
-PennsylvaniaPresent, WidespreadNative
-Rhode IslandPresent, WidespreadNative
-South CarolinaPresent, WidespreadNative
-South DakotaPresentNative
-TennesseePresent, WidespreadNative
-TexasPresentNative
-UtahPresentNative
-VirginiaPresent, WidespreadNative
-West VirginiaPresent, WidespreadNative
-WisconsinPresent, WidespreadNative
-WyomingPresentNative

Growth Stages

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Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / visible frass
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Contortylenchus elongatus Parasite
Formica integra Predator
Lasconotus Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Monochamus titillator Predator
Plegaderus Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Roptrocerus xylophagorum Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Scoloposcelis flavicornis Predator
Temnoscheila virescens Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Thanasimus dubius Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Tomicobia tibialis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/nymphs; arthropods/pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/nymphs; arthropods/pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Solid wood packing material with bark Pinus No

References

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Billings RF, 1985. Southern pine bark beetles and associated insects. Effects of rapidly-released host volatiles on response to aggregation pheromones. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 99(5):483-491

Billings RF, Cameron RS, 1984. Kairomonal responses of Coleoptera, Monochamus titillator (Cerambycidae), Thanasimus dubius (Cleridae), and Temnochila virescens (Trogositidae), to behavioral chemicals of southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology, 13(6):1542-1548

Birch MC, Svihra P, Paine TD, Miller JC, 1980. Influence of chemically mediated behavior on host tree colonization by four cohabiting species of bark beetles. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 6(2):395-414

Bunce HWF, McLean JA, 1990. Hurricane Gilbert's impact on the natural forests and Pinus caribpa plantations of Jamaica. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 69(2):147-155

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2009. Ips calligraphus. [Distribution Map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 720.

Cameron RS, 1987. Southern pine bark beetles in the urban environment. Journal of Arboriculture, 13(6):145-151

Cane JH, Cox HE, Moar WJ, 1995. Susceptibility of Ips calligraphus (Germar) and Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to coleopteran-active Bacillus thuringiensis, a Bacillus metabolite, and avermectin B. Canadian Entomologist, 127(6):831-837; 30 ref.

Clark EW, 1973. Report to the government of Guatemala on infestations of Dendroctonus in pine stands in Guatemala based on the work of Edgar W. Clark. Rome, Italy: Organizaci=n de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentaci=n, Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo.

Cognato AI, 2000. Phylogenetic analysis reveals new genus of Ipini bark beetle (Scolytidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 93(3):362-366; 21 ref.

Cognato AI, Sperling FAH, 2000. Phylogeny of Ips DeGeer species (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I DNA sequence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 14(3):445-460; 64 ref.

Cognato AI, Vogler AP, 2001. Exploring data interaction and nucleotide alignment in a multiple gene analysis of Ips (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Systematic Biology, 50(6):758-780.

Connor MD, Wilkinson RC, 1983. Ips Bark Beetles in the South. Forest Insect & Disease Leaflet 129. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

Cook SP, Wagner TL, Flamm RO, Dickens JC, Coulson RN, 1983. Examination of sex ratios and mating habits of Ips avulsus and I. calligraphus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 76(1):56-60

Dahlsten DL, 1982. Relationships between bark beetles and their natural enemies. In: Mitton JB, Sturgeon KB, ed. Bark beetles in North American conifers. A system for the study of evolutionary biology. (The Corrie Herring Hooks Series, No.6). Austin, USA: University of Texas Press, 140-182

Dewey JE, Ciesla WM, Meyer HE, 1974. Insect defoliation as a predisposing agent to a bark beetle outbreak in eastern Montana. Environmental Entomology, 3(4):722

Flamm RO, Cook SP, Wagner TL, Pulley PE, Coulson RN, 1987. Reemergence and emergence of Ips avulsus and Ips calligraphus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology, 16(4):869-876

Flamm RO, Pulley PE, Coulson RN, 1993. Colonization of disturbed trees by the southern pine bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology, 22(1):62-70

Furniss ML, Carolin VM, 1977. Western Forest Insects. USDA Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication No. 1339.

Garraway E, 1986. The biology of Ips calligraphus and Ips grandicollis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Jamaica. Canadian Entomologist, 118(2):113-121

Haack RA, 1985. Voltinism and diurnal emergence-flight patterns of Ips calligraphus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 68(4):658-667

Haack RA, 2001. Intercepted Scolytidae (Coleoptera) at US ports of entry: 1985-200. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 6: 253-282.

Haack RA, Billings RF, Richter AM, 1990. Life history parameters of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) attacking West Indian pine in the Dominican Republic. Florida Entomologist, 73(4):591-603

Haack RA, Foltz JL, Wilkinson RC, 1984. Longevity and fecundity of Ips calligraphus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in relation to slash pine phloem thickness. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 77:657-662.

Haack RA, Paiz-Schwartz G, 1997. Bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) outbreak in pine forests of the Sierra de las Minas Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala. Entomological News, 108(1):67-76; 40 ref.

Haack RA, Wilkinson RC, Foltz JL, Corneil JA, 1987. Spatial attack pattern, reproduction, and brood development of Ips calligraphus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in relation to slash pine phloem thickness: a field study. Environmental Entomology, 16(2):428-436

Hayes JL, Meeker JR, Foltz JL, Strom BL, 1996. Suppression of bark beetles and protection of pines in the urban environment: a case study. Journal of Arboriculture, 22(2):67-74; 16 ref.

Hoffard WH, Coster JE, 1976. Endoparasitic nematodes of Ips bark beetles in eastern Texas. Environmental Entomology, 5(1):128-132

Hopping GR, 1965. The North American species in group X of Ips De Geer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Canadian Entomologist, 97:803-809.

Hunter PE, Rosario RMT, Moser JC, 1989. Two new species of Ereynetes (Acari: Prostigmata: Ereynetidae) associated with bark beetles. Journal of Entomological Science, 24(1):16-20

Jactel H, Gaillard J, 1991. A preliminary study of the dispersal potential of Ips sexdentatus (Boern) (Col., Scolytidae) with an automatically recording flight mill. Journal of Applied Entomology, 112(2):138-145

Kohnle U, Vite JP, Meyer H, Francke W, 1994. Response of four American engraver bark beetles, Ips spp. (Col., Scolytidae), to synthetic racemates of chiral pheromones. Journal of Applied Entomology, 117(5):451-456

Lanier GN, 1972. Biosystematics of the genus Ips (Coleoptera : Scolytidae) in North America. Hopping's groups IV and X. Canadian Entomologist, 104:361-388.

Lanier GN, Teale SA, Pajares JA, 1991. Biosystematics of the genus Ips (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America: review of the Ips calligraphus group. Canadian Entomologist, 123(5):1103-1124

Lapis EB, Valentin HOS, 1979. Field response of Ips (Ips calligraphus German) to synthetic aggregation pheromones and other attractants. Sylvatrop, 4:223-229.

Lekander B, 1968. Scandinavian bark beetle larvae. Royal College of Forestry, Sweden, Research Notes, 4:1-186.

Lewis EE, Cane JH, 1990. Stridulation as a primary anti-predator defence of a beetle. Animal Behaviour, 40(5):1003-1004

Lindgren BS, 1983. A multiple funnel trap for scolytid beetles (Coleoptera). Canadian Entomologist, 115(3):299-302

Lindquist EE, 1969. Review of holarctic tarsonemid mites (Acarina: Prostigmata) parasitizing eggs of Ipini bark beetles. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 60:1-111.

Lovelady CN, Pulley PE, Coulson RN, Flamm RO, 1991. Relation of lightning to herbivory by the southern pine bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology, 20(5):1279-1284

McCravy KW, Nowak JT, Douce GK, Berisford CW, 2000. Evaluation of multiple-funnel and slot traps for collection of southern pine bark beetles and predators. Journal of Entomological Science, 35(1):77-82; 20 ref.

Miller MC, 1984. Mortality contribution of insect natural enemies to successive generations of Ips calligraphus (Germar) (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) in loblolly pine. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 98(5):495-500

Miller MC, 1985. The effect of Monochamus titillator (F.) (Col., Cerambycidae) foraging on the emergence of Ips calligraphus (Germ.) (Col., Scolytidae) insect associates. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 100(2):189-197

Miller MC, 1986. Within-tree effects of bark beetle insect associates on the emergence of Ips calligraphus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology, 15(5):1104-1108

Nilssen AC, 1978. Development of a bark fauna in plantation of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in North Norway. Astarte, 11:151-169.

Paine TD, Birch MC, Svihra P, 1981. Niche breadth and resource partitioning by four sympatric species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Oecologia, 48(1):1-6

Pfeffer A, 1995. Zentral- und westpaläarktische Borken- und Kernkäfer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae, Platypodidae). Entomologica Basiliensia, 17(1994):5-310.

Riley MA, Goyer RA, 1988. Seasonal abundance of beneficial insects and Ips spp. engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in felled loblolly and slash pines in Louisiana. Journal of Entomological Science, 23(4):357-365

Rodriguez-Perez M, 1975. Some notes on Coleoptera observed attacking forest species in the province of Las Villas, Cuba. Baracoa, 5:27-35.

Rohlfs WM III, Hyche LL, 1984. Observations on activity and development of Lasconotus pusillus and L. referendarius (Coleoptera: Colydiidae) following arrival at Ips spp. infested southern pines. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 19(1):114-119

Smith MT, Salom SM, Payne TL, 1993. The southern pine bark beetle guild: an historical review of the research on the semiochemical-based communication system of the five principal species. Bulletin - Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Blacksburg, USA; Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, No. 93-94:106 pp.

Stark RW, 1982. Generalized ecology and life cycle of bark beetles. Mitton JB, Sturgeon KB, eds. Bark beetles in North American conifers: A system for the study of evolutionary biology. Austin, Texas, USA: University of Texas Press, 21-45.

Thomas JB, 1957. The use of larval anatomy in the study of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The Canadian Entomologist, Supplement Number 5, 3-45.

Tovar DC, Montiel JTM, Bolanos RC, Yates HO III, Lara JEF, 1995. Forest Insects of Mexico. Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Estado de Mexico, Mexico.

Vite JP, Ohloff G, Billings RF, 1978. Pheromonal chirality and integrity of aggregation response in southern species of the bark beetle Ips sp. Nature, UK, 272(5656):817-818

Wagner TL, Fargo WS, Flamm RO, Coulson RN, Pulley PE, 1987. Development and mortality of Ips calligraphus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) at constant temperatures. Environmental Entomology, 16(2):484-496

Wagner TL, Flamm RO, Coulson RN, 1986. A temperature-dependent model of reemergence of Ips calligraphus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Canadian Entomologist, 118(9):901-911

Wagner TL, Flamm RO, Wu HI, Fargo WS, Coulson RN, 1987. Temperature-dependent model of life cycle development of Ips calligraphus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology, 16(2):497-502

Wilkinson RC, 1962. Stridulating organs in three southeastern Ips bark beetles. The Florida Entomologist, 45:43-44.

Wilkinson RC, McClelland WT, Murillo RM, Ostmark EO, 1967. Stridulation and behavior in two southeastern Ips bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The Florida Entomologist, 50:185-196.

Wood DL, Stark RW, 1968. The life history of Ips calligraphus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) with notes on its biology in California. Canadian Entomologist, 100:145-151.

Wood SL, 1982. The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, No. 6:1359 pp.

Wood SL, Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic Index Volume A. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13:1-833.

Distribution References

Billings R F, 1985. Southern pine bark beetles and associated insects. Effects of rapidly-released host volatiles on response to aggregation pheromones. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie. 99 (5), 483-491.

CABI, EPPO, 2009. Ips calligraphus. [Distribution Map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 720. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20093167383

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Garraway E, 1986. The biology of Ips calligraphus and Ips grandicollis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Jamaica. Canadian Entomologist. 118 (2), 113-121.

Li You, Johnson A J, Gao Lei, Wu ChengXu, Hulcr JiRi, 2021. Two new invasive Ips bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in mainland China and their potential distribution in Asia. Pest Management Science. 77 (9), 4000-4008. DOI:10.1002/ps.6423

Wood D L, Stark R W, 1968. The life history of Ips calligraphus (Coleopters: Scolytidae) with notes on its biology in California. Canadian Entomologist. 100 (2), 145-151 pp.

Wood SL, Bright DE, 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic Index Volume A. In: Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13 1-833.

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