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Datasheet

Ipomoea cairica
(five-fingered morning glory)

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Datasheet

Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 March 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ipomoea cairica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • five-fingered morning glory
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ipomoea cairica is a vigorous, perennial climber that has been widely introduced as a garden ornamental across tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. It is a fast-growing vine that spreads easily by seed and stem fragments and once...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flowers and foliage. Kkozhikode, Kerala, India. December 2017.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flowers and foliage. Kkozhikode, Kerala, India. December 2017.
Copyright©Vineeth Vengolis (Vengolis)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flowers and foliage. Kkozhikode, Kerala, India. December 2017.
Flowers and foliageIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flowers and foliage. Kkozhikode, Kerala, India. December 2017.©Vineeth Vengolis (Vengolis)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flowering habit. India. September 2016.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flowering habit. India. September 2016.
Copyright©Vineeth Vengolis (Vengolis)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flowering habit. India. September 2016.
Flowering habitIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flowering habit. India. September 2016.©Vineeth Vengolis (Vengolis)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flower and foliage. Kkozhikode, Kerala, India. October 2017.
TitleFlower and foliage
CaptionIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flower and foliage. Kkozhikode, Kerala, India. October 2017.
Copyright©Vineeth Vengolis (Vengolis)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flower and foliage. Kkozhikode, Kerala, India. October 2017.
Flower and foliageIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flower and foliage. Kkozhikode, Kerala, India. October 2017.©Vineeth Vengolis (Vengolis)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flower and foliage. Kkozhikode, Kerala, India. December 2017.
TitleFlower and foliage
CaptionIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flower and foliage. Kkozhikode, Kerala, India. December 2017.
Copyright©Vineeth Vengolis (Vengolis)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flower and foliage. Kkozhikode, Kerala, India. December 2017.
Flower and foliageIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Flower and foliage. Kkozhikode, Kerala, India. December 2017.©Vineeth Vengolis (Vengolis)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
I. palmata flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionI. palmata flowers.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
I. palmata flowers.
FlowersI. palmata flowers.©A.R. Pittaway
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Seeds. ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, India.
TitleSeeds
CaptionIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Seeds. ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, India.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by USDA Agricultural Research Service (taken by Steve Hurst)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0 1.0
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Seeds. ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, India.
SeedsIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory); Seeds. ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, India.Public Domain - Released by USDA Agricultural Research Service (taken by Steve Hurst)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0 1.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet

Preferred Common Name

  • five-fingered morning glory

Other Scientific Names

  • Batatas cavanillesii (Roem. & Schult.) G. Don
  • Batatas senegalensis G. Don
  • Convolvulus cairicus L.
  • Convolvulus cavanillesii (Roem. & Schult.) Spreng.
  • Convolvulus limphaticus Vell.
  • Convolvulus tuberculatus Desr.
  • Ipomoea cavanillesii Roem. & Schult.
  • Ipomoea funaria Larrañaga
  • Ipomoea heptaphylla Griseb.
  • Ipomoea palmata Forssk.
  • Ipomoea pentaphylla Cav.
  • Ipomoea senegalensi Lam.
  • Ipomoea stipulacea Jacq.
  • Ipomoea tuberculata (Desr.) Roem. & Schult.
  • Ipomoea vesiculosa P. Beauv.

International Common Names

  • English: Cairo morning glory; coast morning glory ; coastal morning glory; five-leaf morning-glory; ivy-leaved morning glory; Messina creeper; mile-a-minute; mile-a-minute-vine; morning glory; railroad creeper; railway creeper
  • French: ipomée du Caire; liane de sept ans
  • Chinese: qian xi wu zhao jin long; wu zhao jin long

Local Common Names

  • Germany: kairoer Trichterwinde
  • Japan: momiji-hirugao
  • New Zealand: pouwhiwhi
  • Niue: sefifi sea
  • South Africa: ihlambe; ijalamu; intana; umaholwana
  • Spain: campanilla palmeada
  • USA/Hawaii: koali; koali ‘ai; koali ‘ai‘ai; koali lau manamana; kowali; pa'ali

EPPO code

  • IPOCA (Ipomoea cairica)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Ipomoea cairica is a vigorous, perennial climber that has been widely introduced as a garden ornamental across tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. It is a fast-growing vine that spreads easily by seed and stem fragments and once naturalized, has the potential to outcompete native plants, completely invading the space by climbing and shadowing other plant species. The trailing and climbing stems of I. cairica curl around neighbouring support plants smothering native shrubs and trees, impeding their growth and preventing their regeneration. Currently, this species is listed as a weed in Thailand, Vietnam, southern USA, Central and South America and as invasive and seriously harmful to the environment in southern China, Japan, Australia, Singapore, the Canary Islands, Cuba and on many islands in the Pacific region.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Convolvulaceae
  •                             Genus: Ipomoea
  •                                 Species: Ipomoea cairica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Convolvulaceae comprises about 59 genera and 1880 species. The genus Ipomoea is one of the largest within this family with more than 700 species mainly distributed in tropical and warm temperate regions of the world and known as ‘morning glories’. Most of the species within this genus are twining climbing plants and include annual and perennial herbs, lianas, shrubs and small trees (Stevens, 2020).

Description

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The following description is from Wagner et al. (1999):

Perennial vine; stems twining or sometimes prostrate, herbaceous but woody towards base, up to 5 m or more long, smooth or muricate, glabrous or rarely villous at nodes. Leaf blades chartaceous, ovate to orbicular in outline, 3-10 cm long and wide, palmately divided, usually to base into 5-7 lobes, the lobes lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, 3-5 cm long, apex acute or obtuse and mucronulate, outer lobes sometimes bifid, glabrous, petioles up to ca. 2/3 as long as blades, pseudostipules present. Flowers one to numerous in lax dichasia, peduncles 5-80 mm long, pedicels 12-30 mm long; sepals ovate, 4-6.5 mm long, outer ones slightly shorter, glabrous, more or less verrucose, margins scarious, apex obtuse to acute, mucronulate; corolla purple, bluish purple, or white with a purple centre, funnelform, (3-) 4.5-6 cm long. Capsules brown, subglobose, 1-1.2 cm long, glabrous. Seeds black to tan, subglobose to ovoid, 4-6 mm long, densely short-tomentose, sometimes with long silky hairs along the margins.

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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The native distribution range of I. cairica is still uncertain, but it is thought to be native to tropical Africa and Asia. Currently, this species can be found naturalized across Asia, northern Africa, Australia, North, Central and South America, the Caribbean and on many islands across the Indian and the Pacific Ocean (PIER, 2018; POWO, 2020; Staples, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNative
BotswanaPresentIntroducedInvasive
BurundiPresentNative
Cabo VerdePresentIntroduced
CameroonPresentNative
Congo, Republic of thePresentNative
EgyptPresentIntroduced
Equatorial GuineaPresentNative
EritreaPresentNative
EswatiniPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GabonPresentNative
GambiaPresentNative
GhanaPresentNative
GuineaPresentNative
Guinea-BissauPresentNative
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasive
LiberiaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentNative
MalawiPresentIntroducedInvasive
MauritiusPresentNative
MozambiquePresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
RéunionPresentNative
RwandaPresentIntroducedInvasive
SenegalPresentNative
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
Sierra LeonePresentNative
SomaliaPresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
TogoPresentNative
UgandaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
ZambiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedInvasive

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
BhutanPresentIntroduced2016
CambodiaPresentIntroduced
ChinaPresentReported as native and as an introduced invasive
-FujianPresentIntroducedInvasive
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedInvasive
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-HainanPresentIntroducedInvasive
-YunnanPresentIntroducedInvasive
Hong KongPresentIntroduced1911
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroducedKurnool district
-AssamPresentIntroduced
-KeralaPresentIntroducedAll districts
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedCoimbatore
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedJava and Maluku Islands
-JavaPresentIntroduced
-Maluku IslandsPresentIntroduced
IsraelPresentNative
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNative
JordanPresentNative
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedSabah and Sarawak
-SabahPresentIntroduced
-SarawakPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
PakistanPresentIntroduced
PalestinePresentNative
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentReported as native and as an introduced invasive
ThailandPresentWeed. Reported as both introduced and native
VietnamPresentListed as a weed. Reported as both introduced and native
YemenPresentNative

Europe

ItalyPresentIntroducedSicily
-SicilyPresentIntroduced
MaltaPresentIntroduced
NorwayPresentIntroduced1999
SpainPresentIntroducedCanary Islands
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveIntroduced from tropical and South Africa

North America

BarbadosPresentIntroduced
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedCultivated
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GrenadaPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroducedCultivated
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveAn early introduction or possibly indigenous
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Lord Howe IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KosraePresentIntroducedInvasive
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroduced
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasive
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced
BoliviaPresentIntroduced
BrazilPresentIntroducedInvasive
ChilePresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroduced
ParaguayPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroduced
UruguayPresentIntroducedInvasive
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of I. cairica is high. This species is widely cultivated and commercialized as an ornamental. It is adapted to grow in a wide range of habitats and soil types and can be easily dispersed by seed and stem fragments (Weber, 2003; Queensland Government, 2018; ISSG, 2019Maimela and Gumede, 2019).

Habitat

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Ipomoea cairica can be found growing in natural and disturbed forests, sunny meadows, sand dunes, open woodlands, coastal thickets, cliff faces, riparian forests, lake shores, swampy grasslands, stony grassy slopes, sunny mountainsides, forest edges, ruderal areas, roadsides, waste land, rubbish dumps, car yards, cultivated areas and abandoned farmlands at low to middle elevations. According to Wagner et al. (1999), I. cairica in Hawaii is a naturalized species in primarily open, dry, usually rocky, often disturbed areas, from near sea level to elevations of 670 m. Introduced in Fiji as a cultivated plant this species is now an often locally abundant weed near sea level in open places, along roadsides, on open slopes and in gardens (Smith, 1991). In New Caledonia, I. cairica is widely distributed in secondary thickets and forest edges (MacKee, 1994). It is often planted as an ornamental in gardens, fences and coastal regions (Queensland Government, 2018; Liu et al., 2016; ISSG, 2019Maimela and Gumede, 2019; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; NZPCN, 2020).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal dunes Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal dunes Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for I. cairica is 2n = 30 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020).

Reproductive Biology

Ipomoea cairica has bisexual flowers that are visited by bees [Apidae], flies [Diptera] and butterflies [Lepidoptera]. In China, carpenter bees (Xylocopa spp.) have been reported as the most effective pollinator. Controlled hand self-pollination studies by Jia et al. (2007) showed that I. cairica is self-incompatible as reflected by an absence of fruit set in the flowers, with fruits and viable seeds only being produced following cross-pollination. Fruit set failure following spontaneous self-pollination in I. cairica was also noted by Maimoni-Rodella et al. (1982).

Physiology and Phenology

Ipomoea cairica produces flowers all year round (Jia et al., 2007; Queensland Government, 2018). Wang et al. (2011) compared seed germination, growth rates and leachate phytotoxicity of I. cairica at 22, 26 and 30°C. Seed germination rates were 11.6%, 21.2% and 26.4%, respectively, while the phytotoxicity of aqueous leachates from fresh leaves varied depending on receptor plants with the strongest phytotoxic effects observed at the highest temperature (30°C).

Longevity

Ipomoea cairica is a perennial fast-growing vine. This species is adapted to grow in area with extreme seasonal fluctuations and because of its tuberous roots, it has been observed that the top part of the plant may die and later resprouts when environmental conditions are favourable (Weber, 2003; Maimela and Gumede, 2019).

Environmental Requirements

Ipomoea cairica prefers to grow in warm climates across tropical, subtropical and warmer temperate regions at elevations ranging from near sea level up to 2000 m. It may thrive in areas with full sunlight or even in light shade. It is adapted to a wide range of soil types including sandy loam, clay, salty or brackish soils and sand dunes (PIER, 2018; Queensland Government, 2018; Maimela and Gumede, 2019; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 35

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 8 30

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Brevipalpus phoenicis Herbivore Plants|Leaves Maia and Buzzi (2006)
Polyphagotarsonemus latus Herbivore Plants|Leaves Maia and Buzzi (2006)
Tetranychus urticae Herbivore Plants|Leaves Maia and Buzzi (2006)

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The first occurrence of three phytophagus mites (Brevipalpus phoenicis, Tetranychus urticae and Polyphagotarsonemus latus) on the leaves of I. cairica in Parana, Brazil, was reported by Maia and Buzzi (2006).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Ipomoea cairica spreads by seed and vegetatively by rooting along its stems. Seeds are dispersed by wind and water and stem fragments are often dispersed in dumped garden waste and can also be spread by water. In cultivation, it is propagated from seed and cuttings (Weber, 2003; PIER, 2018; Queensland Government, 2018; Maimela and Gumede, 2019).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceNaturalized along roadsides, open areas, ruderal areas Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from gardens, often naturalized Yes Yes Weber (2003)
Garden waste disposalSeeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
HorticultureGrown as a garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Intentional releaseGrown as a garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Internet salesSeeds for sale online Yes Yes
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Nursery tradeGrown as a garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Ornamental purposesGrown as a garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Seed tradeSeeds for sale online Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
MailSeeds for sale online Yes Yes
WaterSeeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Weber (2003)
WindSeeds Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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Ipomoea cairica is a problematic plant in gardens, parks, forests, plantations, orchards and tea and nursery gardens. It can grow rapidly and vigorously, overwhelming smaller gardens and other ornamental plants. Once established, I. cairica is expensive and difficult to eradicate (Santos-Guerra et al., 2014;Maimela and Gumede, 2019).

Environmental Impact

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Ipomoea cairica is currently listed as a noxious weed in Thailand, Vietnam, the southern USA, Central and South America and as invasive and seriously harmful to the environment in southern China, Japan, Australia, Singapore, the Canary Islands, Cuba and on many islands in the Pacific region. This fast-growing invasive vine has the potential to smother native vegetation, and alter and disrupt native ecosystems by reducing biodiversity and modifying successional processes. I. cairica spreads quickly either forming a dense mat along the ground or climbing over trees into the canopy with negative impacts for host trees and also for plant species in the understorey. Its trailing and climbing stems curl around neighbouring support plants smothering and killing native shrubs and trees and limiting the sunlight reaching plant species in the understorey; displacement of native animals can also occur due to habitat destruction (Weber, 2003Chong et al., 2009Oviedo Prieto and González-Oliva, 2015Liu et al., 2016PIER, 2018Queensland Government, 2018ISSG, 2019Maimela and Gumede, 2019USDA-NRCS, 2020).

Ipomoea cairica is also regarded a serious problem in coastal forests, sandy beachfronts and wetlands (Weber, 2003; Liu et al., 2016; PIER, 2018; Queensland Government, 2018; ISSG, 2019Maimela and Gumede, 2019).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Ipomoea cairica is grown as a garden ornamental. It is often used as a screening plant by allowing the vine to twist and climb along a trellis or fences and walls. It is also used as ground cover. The entire plant is used in traditional African and Asian medicine for treating external infections, body rashes and fever. It is also used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat rheumatism and inflammation (Ferreira et al., 2006). In Africa, most parts of the plant have been recorded as edible with the leaves eaten when still young and roots cooked before consumption. Fibres from the stems are made into sponges (Queensland Government, 2018; Maimela and Gumede, 2019; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020; Useful Tropical Plants, 2020).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Human food and beverage

  • Root crop
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Christmas tree
  • Cut flower
  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Ipomoea cairica is very similar to I. purpurea, I. indica and I. hederacea [I. nil]. These species can be distinguished by the following traits (Queensland Government, 2018):

  • I. cairica has hairless (glabrous) stems and 5- to 7-lobed leaves (palmately lobed). Flowers are 5-8 cm long; sepals are relatively short (4-7 mm long) and it often produces capsules containing four hairy seeds;
  • I. indica has hairy (pubescent) younger stems and heart-shaped (cordate) or three-lobed leaves. Flowers are 7-10 cm long and sepals are 14-22 mm long;
  • I. purpurea has hairy (pubescent) younger stems and heart-shaped (cordate) or three-lobed leaves. Flowers are 3-7 cm long; sepals are 10-15 mm long and it often produces capsules containing six hairless seeds;
  • I. hederacea [I. nil] has hairy (pubescent) younger stems and heart-shaped (cordate) or three-lobed leaves. Flowers are 3-5 cm long with strongly curved sepals about 20 mm long and it often produces capsules containing four to six hairless seeds.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Li et al. (2015) have proposed replacement control using valuable native species such as Pueraria lobata [Pueraria montana var. lobata] and Paederia scandens [Paederia foetida] as a potentially feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Small infestations can be removed manually using a brush hook or similar tool. However, all roots and all stems touching the ground must be removed. For larger infestations with many stems, cutting and subsequent applications of herbicides are required (Weber, 2003; Queensland Government, 2018).

Chemical Control

Herbicides such as 2,4-D amine, dicamba and glyphosate have been recommended for the control of areas invaded by I. cairica in Australia (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2018). Chemical control can be carried out by cutting vines at breast height, laying the lower portions on the ground and spraying them with herbicide. Regular monitoring of treated areas is necessary to control any new seedlings or regrowth (Weber, 2003; Queensland Government, 2018). Ethephon has been proposed as an alternative herbicide for the control of I. cairica (Sun et al., 2015).

References

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Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Ferreira, A. A., Amaral, F. A., Duarte, I. D. G., Oliveira, P. M., Alves, R. B., Silveira, D., Azevedo, A. O., Raslan, D. S., Castro, M. S. A., 2006. Antinociceptive effect from Ipomoea cairica extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 105(1/2), 148-153. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.10.012

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

ISSG, 2019. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) : Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Jia XiaoCheng, Li XinLiang, Dan Yang, Lu GuoHui, Wang YingQiang, 2007. Pollination biology of an invasive weed Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae) in Guangdong Province, China. Biodiversity Science, 15(6), 592-598. doi: 10.1360/biodiv.070156

Li WeiHua, Luo JianNing, Tian XingShan, Chow WahSoon, Sun ZhongYu, Zhang TaiJie, Peng Shaolin, Peng ChangLian, 2015. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them. Scientific Reports, 5(1), 11004. http://www.nature.com/articles/srep11004

Liu Gang, Gao Yang, Huang FangFang, Yuan MingYue, Peng ShaoLin, 2016. The invasion of coastal areas in South China by Ipomoea cairica may be accelerated by the ecotype being more locally adapted to salt stress. PLoS ONE, 11(2), e0149262. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149262

MacKee, H. S., 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.164 pp.

Maia, O. M. de A., Buzzi, Z. J., 2006. Occurrence of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari, Tenuipalpidae), Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari, Tetranychidae) and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari, Tarsonemidae) on leaves I. cairica (Linnaeus) Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae). (Ocorrência de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari, Tenuipalpidae), Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari, Tetranychidae) e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari, Tarsonemidae) sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica (Linnaeus) Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae)). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 23(3), 886-887. doi: 10.1590/S0101-81752006000300038

Maimela C, Gumede S, 2019. Ipomoea cairica var. cairica . In: PlantZAfrica.com . Pretoria, South Africa: South African National Biodiversity Institute.http://pza.sanbi.org/ipomoea-cairica-var-cairica

Maimoni-Rodella, R. C. S., Rodella, R. A., Amaral Júnior, A., Yanagizawa, Y., 1982. Pollination of Ipomoea cairica. (Polinização em Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet. (Convolvulaceae)). Naturalia, 7, 167-172.

NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2018. New South Wales weed control handbook: a guide to weed control in non-crop, aquatic and bushland situations, (7th edition) . Orange, New South Wales, Australia: Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales.116 pp. https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/biosecurity/weeds/weed-control/management-guides/noxious-enviro-weed-control

NZPCN, 2020. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. In: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network.http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/

Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

Queensland Government, 2018. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition , Australia: Queensland Government.http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

Santos-Guerra, A., Padrón Mederos, M. A., Mesa Coello, R., Ojeda Land, E., Reyes-Betancort, J. A., 2014. Establishment of introduced plants in the Canarian wild vascular flora. II (Dicots). (Establecimiento de plantas introducidas en la flora vascular silvestre Canaria. II (Dicotiledóneas)). Acta Botanica Malacitana, 39, 227-237. http://www.biolveg.uma.es/abm/Volumenes/vol39/39_Santos-Guerra_et_al.pdf

Smith, A. C., 1991. Flora vitiensis nova. A new flora of Fiji, Vol. 5, Lawaii, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.626 pp. doi:https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.44033

Staples, G, 2020. World checklist of Convolvulaceae. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://wcsp.science.kew.org/

Stevens, P. F., 2020. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Sun ZhongYu, Zhang TaiJie, Su JinQuan, Chow WahSoon, Liu JiaQin, Chen LiLing, Li WeiHua, Peng ShaoLin, Peng ChangLian, 2015. A novel role of ethephon in controlling the noxious weed Ipomoea cairica (Linn.) Sweet. Scientific Reports, 5(1), 11372. http://www.nature.com/articles/srep11372

USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2020. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Useful Tropical Plants, 2020. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., Sohmer, S. H., 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 and 2, (Edn 2) . Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i and Bishop Museum Press.xviii + 1919 pp.

Wang, R. L., Zeng, R. S., Peng, S. L., Chen, B. M., Liang, X. T., Xin, X. W., 2011. Elevated temperature may accelerate invasive expansion of the liana plant Ipomoea cairica. Weed Research (Oxford), 51(6), 574-580. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2011.00884.x

Weber, E., 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds, [ed. by Weber, E.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.viii + 548 pp.

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Brandes D, Fritzsch K, 2002. Alien plants of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands. (Plantas extranjeras de Fuerteventura, Islas Canarias). In: Arbeitsgruppe fur Vegetationsokologie und experimentelle Pflanzensoziologie Botanisches Institut und Botanischer Garten der TU Braunschweig, http://opus.tubs.de/opus/volltexte/2000/79/pdf/alien.pdf

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China, St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

Harada J, Shibayama H, Morita H, 1996. Weeds in the Tropics., Japan: Association for International Cooperation of Agriculture and Forestry.

Hong Kong Herbarium, 2012. Check List of Hong Kong Plants 2012. China: Hong Kong Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department. unpaginated. https://www.afcd.gov.hk/english//conservation/con_tech/con_tech.html

IABIN, 2008. (Red de Informacion sobre Especies Invasoras (I3N). Uruguay)., Red interamericana de Informacion sobre Biodiversidad.

Jepson Flora Project, 2020. Jepson eFlora. In: Jepson eFlora, Berkeley, California, USA: University of California. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/

Koo SK, Chin YW, Kwon YW, Cung HA, 2000. Common Weeds in Vietnam., Vietnam: Agriculture Publishing House.

Liu Gang, Gao Yang, Huang FangFang, Yuan MingYue, Peng ShaoLin, 2016. The invasion of coastal areas in South China by Ipomoea cairica may be accelerated by the ecotype being more locally adapted to salt stress. PLoS ONE. 11 (2), e0149262. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149262

Lorenzi H, 2000. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais)., Nova Odessa, Brazil: Plantarum Institute.

Martin R, Pol C, 2009. Weeds of upland crops in Cambodia. Australia: ACIAR. 81 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and new regulations for prevention of their adverse effects. In: Global Environmental Research, 8 (2) 171-191.

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

Queensland Government, 2018. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: Queensland Government. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

Rao KS, Swamy RK, Kumar D, Singh RA, Bhat JG, 2019. Flora of Peninsular India., http://peninsula.ces.iisc.ac.in/plants.php?name=Ipomoea cairica

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Smith A C, 1991. Flora vitiensis nova. A new flora of Fiji, Vol. 5. Lawaii, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 626 pp. DOI:https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.44033

Staples G, 2020. World checklist of Convolvulaceae. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew., London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://wcsp.science.kew.org/

Swapna Vijayan, Joy C M, 2016. Current distribution of invasive alien flora of Arookkutty Panchayath, Kerala, India. Indian Journal of Ecology. 43 (1), 305-307. http://indianecologicalsociety.com/society/indian-ecology-journals/

Tugume A K, Mukasa S B, Valkonen J P T, 2008. Natural wild hosts of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus show spatial differences in virus incidence and virus-like diseases in Uganda. Phytopathology. 98 (6), 640-652. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-98-6-0640

USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2020. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Witt A, Beale T, Wilgen B W van, 2018. An assessment of the distribution and potential ecological impacts of invasive alien plant species in eastern Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. 73 (3), 217-236. DOI:10.1080/0035919X.2018.1529003

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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03/05/2020 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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