Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa
(bush morning glory)

Rojas-Sandoval J and Shaltout K H, 2018. Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.28785.20203483128

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Datasheet

Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bush morning glory
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa is a species of morning glory that has been introduced worldwide as an ornamental and hedge (living fence) plant. The species has escaped from cultivation to become naturalized and invasive mostly...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning-glory); flowering habit. Chaco Province, Argentina. October, 2011.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning-glory); flowering habit. Chaco Province, Argentina. October, 2011.
CopyrightDr Pedro A. Zeinsteger-2011/School of Veterinary Science, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning-glory); flowering habit. Chaco Province, Argentina. October, 2011.
Flowering habitIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning-glory); flowering habit. Chaco Province, Argentina. October, 2011.Dr Pedro A. Zeinsteger-2011/School of Veterinary Science, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning-glory); flowering habit. Chaco Province, Argentina. October, 2011.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning-glory); flowering habit. Chaco Province, Argentina. October, 2011.
CopyrightDr Pedro A. Zeinsteger-2011/School of Veterinary Science, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning-glory); flowering habit. Chaco Province, Argentina. October, 2011.
Flowering habitIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning-glory); flowering habit. Chaco Province, Argentina. October, 2011.Dr Pedro A. Zeinsteger-2011/School of Veterinary Science, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); habit. Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); habit. Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); habit. Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
HabitIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); habit. Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); habit. Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); habit. Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); habit. Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
HabitIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); habit. Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); habit, showing f lowers and leaves. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); habit, showing f lowers and leaves. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); habit, showing f lowers and leaves. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
HabitIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); habit, showing f lowers and leaves. Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); flowers and leaves. Patquia, La Rioja, northern Argentina. May, 2013.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); flowers and leaves. Patquia, La Rioja, northern Argentina. May, 2013.
Copyright©Dick Culbert-2013/DixPix - CC BY 2.0
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); flowers and leaves. Patquia, La Rioja, northern Argentina. May, 2013.
Flowers and leavesIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); flowers and leaves. Patquia, La Rioja, northern Argentina. May, 2013.©Dick Culbert-2013/DixPix - CC BY 2.0
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); flowering habit.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); flowering habit.
CopyrightReleased into the Public Domain - Original image by Clarence A. Rechenthin/USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); flowering habit.
Flowering habitIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory); flowering habit.Released into the Public Domain - Original image by Clarence A. Rechenthin/USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning-glory); seeds.
TitleSeeds
CaptionIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning-glory); seeds.
CopyrightReleased into the Public Domain - Original image by Steve Hurst/USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning-glory); seeds.
SeedsIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning-glory); seeds.Released into the Public Domain - Original image by Steve Hurst/USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Jacq) (Mart. ex Choisy) D.F. Austin

Preferred Common Name

  • bush morning glory

Other Scientific Names

  • Batatas crassicaulis Benth.
  • Convolvulus batatilla Kunth
  • Ipomoea batatilla (Kunth) G. Don
  • Ipomoea crassicaulis (Benth.) B.L. Rob.
  • Ipomoea fistulosa Mart. ex Choisy

International Common Names

  • English: bush morning-glory; tree morning glory
  • Spanish: campana gallega; gloria de la mañana
  • Chinese: shu qian niu
  • Portuguese: algodão-bravo; algodão-do-campo; campainha-de-canudo; canudo-das-lagoas; ipoméia-arbórea; maniorana

Local Common Names

  • Bolivia: tararaqui
  • Brazil: algodão do Pantanal; canudo; canudo de lagoa; canudo-do-breja; capabode; capa-bode; manjorana; mata cabra
  • Cuba: aguinaldo color de carne
  • Dominican Republic: campana
  • Egypt: olleiq ek-kibeer
  • Germany: Dickstengelige; Trichterwinde
  • Haiti: clochette
  • India: behaya; besharam; pink morning glory; shrubby morning glory
  • Indonesia: kangkungan; klemut; ula
  • Lesser Antilles: ológi di anochi; petite campanule
  • Paraguay: mandiyura
  • South Africa: morning glory bush
  • Thailand: phak bung farang; phak bung rua
  • Zimbabwe: morning glory-bush

EPPO code

  • IPOFI (Ipomoea fistulosa)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa is a species of morning glory that has been introduced worldwide as an ornamental and hedge (living fence) plant. The species has escaped from cultivation to become naturalized and invasive mostly in disturbed sites, riparian areas and wetlands, and it behaves as a weed in cultivated fields, such as rice plantations. It is a strong competitor for resources (e.g. nutrients and water), with the potential to outcompete native plants. The species has been listed as a noxious weed in the USA and as invasive in India, Nepal, Egypt, South Africa, Swaziland, Cuba, and in many islands in the Pacific region. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Convolvulaceae
  •                             Genus: Ipomoea
  •                                 Species: Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Ipomoea is a large and complex genus of vines and shrubs within the Convolvulaceae (Stevens, 2012). The family comprises approximately 700 species grouped in 55-60 genera and is nearly cosmopolitan in distribution, although its members are primarily tropical plants (Stefanovic et al., 2003). The genus Ipomoea includes more than 600 species distributed worldwide, with approximately 500 species occurring in tropical and warm temperate regions of the Americas (Miller et al., 1999).

The taxonomy of many Ipomoea species, including Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa is still unclear and has been the subject of extended discussion. There are nomenclatural problems with what has been called I. fistulosa, I. carnea subsp. fistulosa and I. crassicaulis. These three names have been used extensively in the literature as distinct taxa, but also as synonyms and subspecies of I. carnea. Verdcourt (1963) noted a close relationship between I. fistulosa and I. carnea, while Austin (1977) listed I. fistulosa as a subspecies of I. carnea, although with a different geographical and altitudinal range. On the other hand, the name I. crassicaulis has been commonly synonymized with I. fistulosa. Authors have noted that the taxonomic confusion may be due to the morphological plasticity observed when these plants grow in wet and dry habitats and to their extensive cultivation as ornamentals (Verdcourt, 1963; Austin, 1977; Frey, 1995; Shaltout et al., 2006).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017):

Shrubs, 1-3 m; axial parts puberulent, later glabrescent; sap milky. Branches terete or angular, stout, becoming sparsely lenticellate with age. Petiole 2.5-15 cm; leaf blade ovate or ovate-oblong, 6-25 x 4-17 cm, densely puberulent or adaxially subglabrous, base cordate or truncate, margin entire, apex acuminate, mucronulate; midvein 2-glandular abaxially at base, lateral veins 7-9 pairs. Inflorescences few to several flowered; peduncle stout, 5-10 cm; bracts early deciduous, ovate. Pedicel 1-1.5 cm. Sepals ovate or nearly circular, broadly rounded, abaxially puberulent, equal or inner ones longer, 5-6 mm. Corolla lilac or pink, darker inside, funnel-form, 7-9 cm; tube and midpetaline bands mealy outside. Stamens included; filaments unequal; anthers linear, base sagittate. Pistil included; ovary puberulent. Style base puberulent; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule pale brown, ovoid, 1.5-2 cm, 4-valved, apiculate. Seeds black, 1 cm, brown sericeous-pubescent.  

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is native to tropical America, from Mexico to Argentina (USDA-ARS, 2017). It has been introduced in the Caribbean, USA, tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia, and in many islands in the Pacific Ocean (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; PIER, 2017; PROTA, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroduced
CameroonPresentIntroduced
ChadPresentIntroduced
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroduced
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced
EgyptPresentIntroducedInvasive
EritreaPresentIntroduced
EswatiniPresentIntroducedInvasive
KenyaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
MalawiPresentIntroduced
MozambiquePresentIntroduced
RwandaPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasive
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedNaturalizedVery common, naturalized

Asia

CambodiaPresentIntroduced
ChinaPresentIntroducedBased on regional distribution
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced
-HainanPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AssamPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ManipurPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MizoramPresentIntroducedInvasive
-NagalandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-SikkimPresentIntroducedInvasive
-TripuraPresentIntroducedInvasive
-UttarakhandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-West BengalPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-JavaPresentIntroduced
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
JapanPresentIntroduced
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentIntroduced
NepalPresentIntroducedInvasive
PakistanPresentIntroduced
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced
SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroduced
ThailandPresentIntroduced

North America

BarbadosPresentIntroduced
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-Sint EustatiusPresentIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedVirgin Gorda
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedSt. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas
United StatesPresentIntroducedBased on regional distribution
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedBased on regional distribution
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveAlso naturalized in Chuuk and present in Pohnpei
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroduced
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced
NauruPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced
NiuePresentIntroduced
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasive
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Timor-LestePresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentNativeBased on regional distribution
-AcrePresentNative
-AlagoasPresentNative
-AmapaPresentNative
-AmazonasPresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-CearaPresentNative
-Distrito FederalPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-GoiasPresentNative
-MaranhaoPresentNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParaPresentNative
-ParaibaPresentNative
-ParanaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNative
-PiauiPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNative
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative
-RoraimaPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
-SergipePresentNative
-TocantinsPresentNative
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentIntroducedBased on regional distribution
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCultivated
GuyanaPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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I. carnea subsp. fistulosa has been intentionally introduced worldwide as an ornamental and hedge plant, and has been repeatedly reported as escaped from cultivation (PIER, 2017; PROTA, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). By 1963, the species was reported as “cultivated and naturalized” in tropical East Africa (Verdcourt, 1963). In 2015, it was collected in Saudi Arabia, where it grows as a hedge plant around cultivated fields in the Jazan region (Al-Sodany, 2016). It was probably introduced by the Indian or Egyptian farmers working at these farms.  

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is high, because the species is still widely cultivated as an ornamental around the world. Seeds can be easily obtained online on horticulture websites (e.g. Dave’s Garden, 2017).  

Habitat

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I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is able to grow in a wide range of habitat types, from aquatic to xerophytic conditions (PROSEA, 2017). It grows as a weed in disturbed sites, forest margins, open woodlands, grasslands, gardens and fences, and it also grows along waterways, in riparian areas, irrigation channels, swamps and wetlands. It can sometimes grow on beaches (Frey, 1995; Henderson, 2015; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; PROSEA, 2017). 

Hosts/Species Affected

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I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is considered a serious weed in cultivated rice fields due to its strong competitive ability (Frey, 1995).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain

    Growth Stages

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    Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

    Biology and Ecology

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    Genetics

    The chromosome number reported for I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is 2n = 30 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017).

    Reproductive Biology

    I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is a perennial and fast-growing species, able to spread vegetatively from stem fragments and by seed (Henderson, 2015; PROSEA, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017). Stem fragments can set root within a few days, while decumbent branches root in the soil and grow upwards, becoming new ramets (Al-Sodany, 2016). Individual plants can thus easily expand, covering dozens of square metres. Reproduction by seed is also common. During winter, the dry fruit-wall splits and the hairy endospermic seeds are dispersed, although they do not germinate immediately due to their hard seed coat, which is impervious to water (Eid, 2002).

    Physiology and Phenology

    I. carnea subsp. fistulosa flowers throughout the year, except during cool periods. Pollinators include butterflies and bees from the families Hesperiidae and Apidae and the subfamily Xylocopinae (Frey, 1995; PROSEA, 2017).

    Environmental Requirements

    I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is well adapted to tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperate environments, where it grows at elevations from sea level up to 1000 m (PROSEA, 2017). The species can also grow in waterlogged sites, such as swamps and wetlands, up to 2 m deep in the water (Henderson, 2015). I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is not tolerant of shade (Frey, 1995).

    Climate

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    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
    As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
    Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
    Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

    Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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    Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
    40 45 0 1000

    Air Temperature

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    Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
    Mean annual temperature (ºC) 5 30

    Rainfall

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    ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
    Mean annual rainfall8002000mm; lower/upper limits

    Rainfall Regime

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    Bimodal
    Uniform

    Soil Tolerances

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    Soil drainage

    • free
    • seasonally waterlogged

    Soil reaction

    • acid
    • neutral

    Soil texture

    • light
    • medium

    Natural enemies

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    Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
    Albugo ipomoeae-panduratae Pathogen Plants|Leaves; Plants|Stems to genus
    Megacerus flabelliger Predator Plants|Seeds not specific
    Nattrassia mangiferae Pathogen

    Notes on Natural Enemies

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    In Bolivia, Lepidoptera larvae and Coleoptera parasitize the leaves, stems and seeds of this plant. The beetle Megacerus flabelliger (Bruchidae) feeds on the seeds of this species and has been suggested as a potential biological control agent in India (Frey, 1995). Also, the Ipomoea-specific oomycete plant pathogen Albugo ipomoeae-panduratae, white rust, attacks the apical leaves and stems of I. carnea subsp. fistulosa (Frey, 1995).

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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    Natural Dispersal

    I. carnea subsp. fistulosa spreads by seed and vegetatively from stem fragments (Henderson, 2015). Seeds are covered by a dense cottony, furry indumentum, consisting of slightly glossy and thick hairs that facilitate wind and water dispersal (Al-Sodany, 2016).

    Accidental Introduction

    During floods and other natural disasters, plants are swept off river beds and embankments and can become established in habitats downstream.

    Intentional Introduction

    The species has been widely introduced by humans across tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, primarily to be used as an ornamental and hedge plant (Henderson, 2015; PROSEA, 2017).

    Pathway Causes

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    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscapes from cultivation (gardens and fences) Yes Yes PIER (2017)
    Garden waste disposalOften used in gardens and fences Yes Yes Henderson (2015)
    Hedges and windbreaksOften used as a hedge plant in gardens Yes Yes
    HorticultureOften cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
    Intentional releaseOften cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
    Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROSEA (2017)
    Ornamental purposesCultivated as ornamental for its showy flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
    Seed tradeSeeds sold online Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2017)

    Pathway Vectors

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    VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Debris and waste associated with human activitiesOften used in gardens and fences Yes Yes Henderson (2015)
    MailSeeds sold online Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2017)
    WaterSeeds dispersed by water Yes Al-Sodany (2016)
    WindSeeds dispersed by wind Yes Al-Sodany (2016)

    Economic Impact

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    I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is considered a serious weed in rice fields and is listed as a weed in pastures (Frey, 1995; Oliveira Júnior et al., 2014). In aquatic habitats, it can form floating mats on the water surface, causing problems such as obstruction, difficulties in irrigation and navigation, and also causing problems for fisheries (Chaudhuri et al., 1994).

    Environmental Impact

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    I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is an environmental and agricultural weed. This invasive species has been reported displacing native vegetation in Nepal, Egypt, South Africa, Swaziland, Cuba, and on many islands in the Pacific region (Tiwari et al., 2005; Chandra Sekar, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Henderson, 2015; PIER, 2017). It has become a serious weed in Swaziland and South Africa, where it is also regarded as a serious threat to wetland habitats (Henderson, 2015; Swaziland National Trust Commission, 2017). In India, it is also invading riparian areas and irrigation channels (India Biodiversity Portal, 2017). In Egypt, it invades canal and drain banks, roadsides and field edges in the Nile Delta (Shaltout et al., 2006).

    Social Impact

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    I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is poisonous to livestock, goats and other mammals (Oliveira Júnior et al., 2014).

    Risk and Impact Factors

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    Invasiveness
    • Proved invasive outside its native range
    • Has a broad native range
    • Abundant in its native range
    • Highly adaptable to different environments
    • Is a habitat generalist
    • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
    • Pioneering in disturbed areas
    • Highly mobile locally
    • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
    • Long lived
    • Fast growing
    • Has high reproductive potential
    • Gregarious
    • Reproduces asexually
    Impact outcomes
    • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
    • Modification of successional patterns
    • Monoculture formation
    • Negatively impacts agriculture
    • Negatively impacts animal health
    • Reduced amenity values
    • Reduced native biodiversity
    • Threat to/ loss of native species
    Impact mechanisms
    • Competition - monopolizing resources
    • Competition - shading
    • Poisoning
    • Rapid growth
    • Rooting
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
    • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
    • Difficult/costly to control

    Uses

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    Economic Value

    In India, the plant is grown as a source of green manure. It also shows potential for biogas production due to the high cellulose and volatile solid content of its dried stem material. In some states in India, the species is used as a raw material for paper-bag production (Frey, 1995; PROSEA, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017).

    Social Benefit

    The species is used in traditional medicine, especially as an antirheumatic remedy and a topical antiseptic for lesions. The leaves are slightly purgative and eaten as a vegetable, although they are considered toxic to livestock.

    Environmental Services

    I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is cultivated as an ornamental plant for its attractive flowers, and as a hedge plant along irrigation banks and drainage canals (e.g. Eid, 2002).

    Uses List

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    Environmental

    • Amenity
    • Boundary, barrier or support
    • Windbreak

    Fuels

    • Biofuels

    Materials

    • Green manure

    Medicinal, pharmaceutical

    • Traditional/folklore

    Ornamental

    • garden plant

    Prevention and Control

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    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    Control

    Physical/mechanical control

    Although manual control of I. carnea subsp. fistulosa by stem cutting and digging is commonly undertaken, it is costly and often not very effective. Any stems and seeds remaining in the soil can easily and rapidly re-infest cleared areas. Nevertheless, a study has shown that in Brazil, where the species grows as a weed, I. carnea subsp. fistulosa was effectively controlled by mowing plants in the early dry season, when their production and capability to resprout are reduced (Haase, 1999).

    Biological control

    I. carnea subsp. fistulosa seeds are heavily infested by the beetle Megacerus flabelliger, which has been suggested as a biological control agent in areas where this plant is a troublesome weed (e.g. India). However, an uncontrolled release of the beetle could have devastating consequences for the crop Ipomoea batatas and its hundreds of associated economically important varieties (Frey, 1995).

    Chemical control

    The herbicide 2, 4-D (2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) is known to be effective against Ipomoea species, including I. carnea subsp. fistulosa. Doses of 1 to 3 kg in 0.05% aqueous solution usually provide over 90% control. Regeneration of about 10% of the original number of plants occurred in areas sprayed at doses of 1 to 2 kg, but not when higher application rates were used (Chaudhuri et al., 1994).

    Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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    The role of the beetle Megacerus flabelliger as a potential biological control agent for I. carnea subsp. fistulosa, as well as its potential effect on native species, should be further studied.

    References

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    Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1-1192. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.

    Al-Sodany YM, 2016. A new record to the Flora of Saudi Arabia: Ipomoea carnea Jacq., Convolvulaceae. World Journal of Research and Review, 3(4):25-30.

    Atlas of Living Australia, 2017. Atlas of Living Australia. Canberra, Australia: NCRIS, CSIRO and GBIF. http://www.ala.org.au/

    Austin, D. F., 1977. Ipomoea carnea Jacq. vs. Ipomoea fistulosa Mart. ex Choisy. Taxon, 26(1), 235-238. doi: 10.2307/1220558

    Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

    Chandra Sekar, K., 2012. Invasive alien plants of Indian Himalayan Region - diversity and implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3(2), 177-184. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=17533 doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.32021

    Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation

    Chaudhuri, H., Ramaprabhu, T., Ramachandran, V., 1994. Ipomoea carnea Jacq., a new aquatic weed problem in India. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 32, 37-38.

    Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp

    Dave’s Garden, 2017. Online resources. California, USA: Internet Brands. https://davesgarden.com/

    Eid E, 2002. Population ecology of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. in the Nile Delta region. MSc Thesis. Tanta, Egypt: Tanta University

    FLEPPC, 2007. List of Invasive Plant Species. Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA: Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council. http://www.fleppc.org/

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Flora of Zimbabwe, 2017. Flora of Zimbabwe. http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/

    Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

    Frey, R., 1995. Ipomoea carnea ssp. fistulosa (Martius ex Choisy) Austin: taxonomy, biology and ecology reviewed and inquired. Tropical Ecology, 36(1), 21-48.

    Haase, R., 1999. Seasonal growth of "algodão-bravo" (Ipomoea carnea spp. fistulosa). Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 34(2), 159-163. doi: 10.1590/S0100-204X1999000200002

    Henderson L, 2015. Morning-glory bush (Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa): a toxic invader of dams and rivers. SAPIA News, 37:2.

    Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, with local names and uses. Allertonia, 10:1-192

    India Biodiversity Portal, 2017. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

    Lejoly, J., Lisowski, S., 1992. The genera Merremia and Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the flora of Central Africa (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi).L. Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica, 37(1), 21-125.

    MacKee, H. S., 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.unpaginated.

    Miller, R. E., Rausher, M. D., Manos, P. S., 1999. Phylogenetic systematics of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) based on ITS and Waxy sequences. Systematic Botany, 24(2), 209-227. doi: 10.2307/2419549

    Oliveira Júnior, C. A., Riet-Correa, G., Tavares, C., Souza, E., Cerqueira, V. D., Pfister, J., Cook, D., Riet-Correa, F., 2014. Conditioned food aversion to control poisoning by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa in goats. Ciência Rural, 44(7), 1240-1245. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782014000701240&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en doi: 10.1590/0103-8478cr20131445

    Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantas del Jardin Botanico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

    PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    PROSEA, 2017. Plant Resources of South-East Asia.

    PROTA, 2017. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

    Shaltout KH, Al-Sodany YM, Eid EM, 2006. The biology of Egyptian woody perennials: 2. Ipomoea carnea Jacq. Assiut University Bulletin for Environmental Researches, 9:75-91

    Simão-Bianchini R, Ferreira PPA, 2015. Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa. Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/FichaPublicaTaxonUC/FichaPublicaTaxonUC.do?id=FB16996

    Smith, A. C., 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 5: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 170-186, Moncotyledones, Family 32, addenda et corrigenda, index. In: Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 5: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 170-186, Moncotyledones, Family 32, addenda et corrigenda, index : Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.iii + 626 pp.

    Space JC, Lorence DH, LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species. Hilo, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, 227 pp.

    Space, J. C., Waterhouse, B., Denslow, J. S., Nelson, D., Mazawa, T. R., 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia, USDA Forest Service.41 pp.

    Stefanovic S, Austin DF, Olmstead RG, 2003. Classification of Convolvulaceae: a phylogenetic approach. Systematic Botany, 28(4):791-806.

    Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

    Swaziland National Trust Commission, 2017. Swaziland's Flora Database. Mbabane, Swaziland: Swaziland National Trust Commission. http://www.sntc.org.sz/flora/index.asp

    Tiwari S, Siwakoti M, Adhikari B, Subedi K, 2005. An inventory and assessment of invasive alien plant species of Nepal. Kathamandu, Nepal: IUCN Nepal, 115 pp

    USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

    USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

    Verdcourt B, 1963. Convolvulaceae. In: Hubbard CE, Milne-Redhead E, eds. Flora of Tropical East Africa. London, UK: Whitefriars Press, 161 pp.

    Distribution References

    Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

    Al-Sodany YM, 2016. A new record to the Flora of Saudi Arabia: Ipomoea carnea Jacq., Convolvulaceae. In: World Journal of Research and Review, 3 (4) 25-30.

    Atlas of Living Australia, 2017. Atlas of Living Australia., Canberra, Australia: NCRIS, CSIRO and GBIF. http://www.ala.org.au/

    Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.htm

    CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos., Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

    Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

    Eid E, 2002. Population ecology of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. in the Nile Delta region. MSc Thesis., Tanta, Egypt: Tanta University.

    FLEPPC, 2007. List of Invasive Plant Species., Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA: Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council. http://www.fleppc.org/

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Flora of Zimbabwe, 2017. Flora of Zimbabwe., http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/

    Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française)., http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

    Frey R, 1995. Ipomoea carnea ssp. fistulosa (Martius ex Choisy) Austin: taxonomy, biology and ecology reviewed and inquired. Tropical Ecology. 36 (1), 21-48.

    Henderson L, 2015. Morning-glory bush (Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa): a toxic invader of dams and rivers. In: SAPIA News, 37 2.

    Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with local names and uses. In: Allertonia, 10 1-192.

    Lejoly J, Lisowski S, 1992. The genera Merremia and Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the flora of Central Africa (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi).L. (Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi).). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica. 37 (1), 21-125.

    MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

    Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

    PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    PROTA, 2017. PROTA4U web database., [ed. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

    Sekar K C, 2012. Invasive alien plants of Indian Himalayan Region - diversity and implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 3 (2), 177-184. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=17533 DOI:10.4236/ajps.2012.32021

    Shaltout KH, Al-Sodany YM, Eid EM, 2006. The biology of Egyptian woody perennials: 2. Ipomoea carnea Jacq. In: Assiut University Bulletin for Environmental Researches, 9 75-91.

    Simão-Bianchini R, Ferreira PPA, 2015. (Ipomoea carnea subsp. Fistulosa). In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/FichaPublicaTaxonUC/FichaPublicaTaxonUC.do?id=FB16996

    Smith A C, 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 5: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 170-186, Moncotyledones, Family 32, addenda et corrigenda, index. In: Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 5: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 170-186, Moncotyledones, Family 32, addenda et corrigenda, index. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. iii + 626 pp.

    Space J C, Waterhouse B, Denslow J S, Nelson D, Mazawa T R, 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. 41 pp.

    Space JC, Lorence DH, LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species., Hilo, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. 227 pp.

    Swaziland National Trust Commission, 2017. Swaziland's Flora Database., Mbabane, Swaziland: Swaziland National Trust Commission. http://www.sntc.org.sz/flora/index.asp

    Tiwari S, Siwakoti M, Adhikari B, Subedi K, 2005. An inventory and assessment of invasive alien plant species of Nepal., Kathamandu, Nepal: IUCN Nepal. 115 pp.

    USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

    USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

    Verdcourt B, 1963. Convolvulaceae. In: Flora of Tropical East Africa, [ed. by Hubbard CE, Milne-Redhead E]. London, UK: Whitefriars Press. 161 pp.

    Links to Websites

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    WebsiteURLComment
    Convolvulaceae Unlimitedhttp://convolvulaceae.myspecies.info/
    GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
    Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/pier/

    Organizations

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    Egypt: Kafr El-Sheikh University, www.kfs.edu.eg

    Egypt: Tanta University, www.tanta.edu.eg

    Contributors

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    04/03/17 Original text by:

    Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA

    Kamal Hussien Shaltout, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt

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